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STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Seventieth Annual Rep 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1936 




BALTIMORE, MD. 




STATE OF MARYLAND 



H^'^/-^/ STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 



TASKER G. LOWNDES, President Cumberland 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU Sharon 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY Baltimore 

CHARLES A. WEAGLY Hagerstown, R. F. D. 

WENDELL D. ALLEN Baltimore 

EDWARD H. SHARPS Frederick 



OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

2014 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

THOMAS G. PULLEN, Jr Asst. Supt. in Administration and Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS (Cumberland) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Director of Vocational Education and Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics 

H. F. COTTERMAN (College Park) Supervisor of Agriculture 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation and Special Education 

THOMAS D. BRAUN Rehabilitation Assistant 

♦THOMAS C. FERGUSON Supervisor of Physical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT, (Enoch Pratt Library, 400 Cathedral St.) ....Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY Stenographer 

ERNA OPITZ BENSON Stenographer 

CLARA McD. SIMERING Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Statistical Assistant 

DOROTHY HARRIS Statistical Assistant 

PRESIDENTS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

LID A LEE TALL State Teachers College Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Teachers College Frostburg 

J. D. BLACKWELL State Teachers College Salisbury 

LEONID AS S. JAMES, Principal Maryland Normal School (for Colored Students) Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

2004 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller and Chairman 

HOOPER S. MILES State Treasurer 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MILDRED MEDINGER Secretary 

MINNIE M. HAMILTON Stenographer 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



* Appointed July 1, 1937. 



m 1 7 1938 ' 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING 
AND HELPING TEACHERS 



1936-1937 



County Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt., S. T. 
Myrtle Eckhardt. S. T. 
Winifred Greene. S. T. 
L. Grace Shatzer, S. T. 

ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Vera Pickard, S. T. 
Julia Wetherington, S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhart, High School 
Supervisor 

BALTIMORE— Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
John T. Hershner, Asst. Supt. 
Viola K. Almony, S. T.i 
Emma A. Boettner, S. T.= 
Amy C. Crewe, S. T.^ 
M. Annie Grace, S. T.- 
Nellie Gray. S. T.* 
Jennie E. Jessop, S. T.^ 
M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Supervisor,' 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty, S. T. 

CAROLINE— Denton 
B. C. Willis, Supt. 
A. May Thompson, S. T. 

CARROLL— Westminster 

Raymond S. Hyson. Supt. 
Ruth DeVore, S. T. 
Charles Reck. S. T. 

CECIL— Elkton 

H. E. McBride, Supt. 
Olive Reynolds, S. T. 

CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie, S. T. 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
James B. Noble, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher, S. T. 
Evelyn Johnson, S. T. 

FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt. Supt. 
Hall Lee T. Ott, S. T. 
Helen Woodley, S. T. 
A. Drucilla Worthington, S. T. 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne. S. T.* 
Caroline Wilson. H. T. 



County Address 

HARFORD— Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Mary L. Grau. S. T.= 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 

Herbert C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick. S. T. 



KENT— Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison, S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Grace Alder, S. T. 
Margery Jane Barrows, S. T. 
Mary Gertrude Cross, S. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Fern D. Schneider, High School 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
Louise Colip. S. T. 
Maude A. Gibbs, S. T. 
Mary Kemp, S. T. 
Kathryn Reidy, H. T. 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron, S. T. 

3T. MARY'S— Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt, 
E. Violette Young, S. T. 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson, S. T. 

TALBOT— Easton 

Willard S. Davis, Supt. 
William R. Phipps, S. T. 

WASHINGTON— Hagers town 

B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford, S. T. 
Grace B. Downin, S. T. 
Katherine L. Healy, S. T. 
Anne Richardson, S. T. 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 

C. Nettie Holloway. S. T.f 
Hazel J. Hearne. H. T. 



WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy, S. T. 



1 Sparrows Point 

2 200 W. Saratoga St.. Baltimore 
* Catonsville 



3 203 Burke Ave., Towson 

4 Grantsville 

5 Havre de Grace 



S. T. — Supervising Teacher 
H. T.— Helping Teacher 
t Deceased 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Letter of Transmittal 5 

The State Public School Budget for 1937, 1938, and 1939 6 

1937 Legislation Affecting Education 9 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Decline in Birth 
Rate, Age of Admission to Grade 1, Length of Session, Atten- 
dance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 11 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions 24 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City.... 33 
Teacher Certification, Experience, Summer School Attendance, Res- 
ignations, Turnover 46 

Men Teaching, Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries 52 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay.... 57 

Size of Schools and Consolidation 75 

Supervision 79 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Attendance, Gradu- 
ates and Their Occupations 84 

Courses Taken; Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Failures, 

Withdrawals, Teachers; Standard Tests 101 

Teacher Certification, Experience, Summer School Attendance, Res- 
ignations, Turnover, Sex 122 

Number and Size of High Schools 131 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries 137 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, 

Health, Capitay Outlay 143 

Supervision 153 

Colored Schools : 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Decline in Birth Rate, 
Length of Session, 1937 Legislation, Attendance, Late Entrants, 

Withdrawals 156 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions, Tests 165 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore 172 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Experience, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 180 

Cost per Pupil, Transportation, Libraries, Capital Outlay, Value 

of School Property 193 

Size of Schools, No. of Approved High Schools, Physical Education, 

Health and Cleanliness Contests, P.-T.A.'s 200 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County Funds; Super- 
vision 208 

Bowie Normal School 210 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland 213 

Summer Schools, Evening Schools, Emergency Adult Education Pro- 
gram, Vocational Rehabilitation 220 

^Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil 230 

Financing the Vocational Education Program 246 

Emergency Federal Aid for School Buildings, Library Projects, 

Sanitation, and N.Y.A 249 

Transportation of Pupils 254 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Bond Issues, Value of School 

Property 261 

^County Residents Attending School Outside County 269 

- 1936-37 Countv Budgets; Per Cent of Levies Used for Schools; Assess- 
ments; Tax Rates 270 

Parent-Teacher Associations; Receipts and Expenditures from Other 

than County Funds— White Schools • 278 

County School Administration; Conference Programs; Certification of 

Teachers and Changes in Certificate Regulations 282 

The Maryland State Teachers Colleges — Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury.. 288 

The State Teachers' Retirement Svstem 299 

~~" Financial Statements; Statistical Tables 303 

Index 352 



Baltimore, Md., July 1, 1937. 



Honorable Harry W. Nice, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

Dear Governor Nice: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77, of the Laws of 
Maryland, the seventieth "annual report, covering all operations 
of the State Department of Education and the support, condition, 
progress, and needs of education throughout the State" for the 
school year ending in June, 1936, and considerable data for the 
current school year 1936-37 is herewith presented to you. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school pro- 
gram, its simple and efficient plan for organization, administra- 
tion, supervision, and financing, as well as the enthusiastic coop- 
eration received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance offi- 
cers, supervisors, and superintendents, who have in most cases 
been given the whole-hearted moral and financial support of their 
patrons, county boards of education and county commissioners 
have made possible the conditions shown in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary Treasurer. 

State Board of Education. 
Tasker G. Lowndes, President 
Wendell D. Allen 
Thomas H. Chambers 
J. M. T. Finney, M. D. 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Edward H. Sharpe 
Charles A. Weagly 



5 



THE STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGET FOR 1937, 1938, AND 1939 

The 1937 Appropriation 

The State Public School Budget for 1937 after allocations by 
the Board of Public Works from the 1937 Reserve Fund totals 
$5,531,178 from State funds, exclusive of $350,000 from the State 
Bond Issue for the Retirement System. The items which show 
slight increases over 1936 are the Retirement System, high school 
aid, part payment of salaries of county school officials, vocational 
education, the State Teachers Colleges, and Bowie Normal School. 
There are decreases in the amount available for physically handi- 
capped children, the Bureau of Measurements, and the State De- 
partment of Education. (See first column of Table 1.) 

The amount of $674,549 for the Maryland Teachers' Retirement 
System does not include the proceeds of a State bond issue of 
$350,000. Baltimore City's retirement system receives $517,265 
of the cash available as the State's share of what Baltimore City 
teachers would cost if they were a part of the State teachers' 
retirement system. 

The sum of $4,527,948 was appropriated for distribution to the 
counties and Baltimore City on the basis of school census, average 
enrollment, aggregate days of attendance, number of teachers, and 
other factors. The Equalization Fund includes sufficient to con- 
tinue restoration in 14 counties of 25 per cent of the 1933 cut in 
teachers' salaries as they existed in 1932-33. 

For the State Department of Education and allied activities, the 
State appropriation totals $105,580. This includes in addition to 
the salaries and expenses of the State administrative and super- 
visory staff, the appropriation to the Playground Athletic League 
for their work in the counties, purchase of tests used State-wide 
to check on work in elementary and high schools, blanks and bul- 
letins supplied to the counties by the State, medical examinations 
of teachers entering the teaching service in the counties for the 
first time and part of the expenses for training and appliances 
for physically handicapped individuals eligible for vocational re- 
habilitation. 

The total of $356,490 for the State Teachers Colleges and Bowie 
Normal School includes $133,389 estimated as the receipts from 
students' fees. (See column 1 in Table 1.) 



The State School Budgets for 1937, 1938 and 1939 



7 



TABLE 1 



State Public School Budget for 1937 
Compared with Appropriations for 1938 and 1939 



state Public 
School Budget 


State Public School Appropriations 


1937 


1938 


1939 


a$14D , Do4 
517,265 
11,200 


a$2,533 
b422.355 
*11,200 


a$16,623 
b443,383 
*1 1,200 


C$674,549 


*c$436,088 


*c$471,206 


536,000 
27,000 
157,153 
250,000 


560,829 
27,000 
*171,468 
250,000 


570,602 
27,000 
*171,836 
250,000 


1,800,000 
495 , 795 
1,250,000 
12,000 


1,800,000 
dl, 122, 141 
1,250,000 
15,000 


1,800,000 
dl, 214, 751 
1,250,000 
15,000 


C$4,527,948 


*cd$5,196,438 


*cd$5,299,189 


800 
8 , 500 
15,000 
9 , 000 
4,500 
1 , 500 
10,000 
750 
55,530 


800 
*9,000 
15,000 
*10,000 
4 , 500 
1^700 
15,000 
750 
*59,829 


800 
*9,000 
15,000 
no, 000 
4,500 
1.'700 
15,000 
750 
*59,829 


$105,580 


*$116,579 


*$116,579 


el80,367 
f71,552 
g61,643 
h42.928 


*e206,907 

*g68,766 
*h50,014 


*e206,707 
*f8 1 , 473 
*g68,766 
*h50,014 


k$356,490 


*k$408,210 


*k$406,960 


C$5,664,567 


*cdk$6, 157,315 


*cdk$6,293,934 


133,389 


158,080 


168,400 


C C0 1 1 'TO 

C$5, 5ol , 1 (a 


*cd$5,999,235 


*cd$6,125,534 


a$350,000 
c350,000 


a$500.000 
blOO.OOO 
c600,000 


a$500,000 
blOO.OOO 
c600,000 




d426,672 


d475.863 


e63,222 
f36.167 
g2 1,000 
h 13, 000 


e80 . 580 
f40 , 500 
g24 . 000 
hl3.000 


e87.740 
f43.660 
g24 . 000 
hl3.000 


k$133,389 


k$158,080 


k$168,400 



Purpose 



Amounts contributed to Retirement Sys- 
tem, Counties and Baltimore City: 
Retirement System: 

1. County Teachers 

2. Baltimore City Teachers 

3. Expense Fund 

Sub-Total 1-3 

4. High School Aid 

5. Colored Industrial Fund 

6. Part-Payment of Salaries 

7. Books and Materials 

8. Fund Distributed on Basis of Census 

and Attendance 

9. Equalization Fund 

10. Reduction of County Taxation 

11. Physically Handicapped Children 

Sub-Total 4-11 

12. State Board of Education 

13. Vocational Education 

14. Physical Education and Recreation. . . . 

15. Bureau of Educational Measurements . 

16. Publications and Printing 

17. Medical Examinations 

18. Vocational Rehabilitation 

19. Consultant Architect 

20. State Department of Education 

Sub-Total 12-20 

21. State Teachers College, Towson 

22. State Teachers College, Salisbury 

23. State Teachers College, Frostburg 

24. Bowie Normal School 

Sub-Total 21-24 

Grand Total 

Fees Teachers Colleges and Nor- 
mal School 

Total from State 



a Excludes bond issue for Retirement System 
b Excludes bond issue for Retirement System 
c Excludes bond issue for Retirement System 
d Includes "Miscellaneous Appropriations" 
for full restoration of 1933 salary cuts and 

increments for county teachers 

* Excludes amount required for full restora- 
tion of salary cuts for other than teachers. 

e, f, g,h and k includes receipts from fees from 
students. 

e Towson 

f Salisbury 

g Frostburg 

h Bowie 

k Teachers colleges and normal school 



8 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Appropriations for 1938 and 1939 

The appropriations from the State totalling $5,999,235 for 
1938 and $6,125,534 for 1939 exclude $600,000 to be made avail- 
able each year to the Retirement System from bond issues, and 
also amounts to be allocated by the Board of Public Works from 
the fund of $178,000 included in the budget to restore 50 per cent 
of the 1933 cuts in salaries of State employees. Items 3, 6, 13, 15, 
18, 20-24 inclusive, will be increased from this fund. The totals 
for the Equalization Fund include full restoration of the 1933 
cuts in teachers' minimum salaries together with increments 
which will make it possible to place teachers where they belong on 
the salary schedule inasmuch as increments due to experience 
have been withheld since 1932-33. Part of the increase in the 
Equalization Fund is explained by the fact that 19 counties, five 
additional, viz., Frederick, Howard, Prince George's, Talbot, and 
Washington, became eligible to share in this fund. 

The increase in high school aid is caused by the necessity for 
appointing teachers to take care of the increase in high school 
enrollment, which since 1931-32 in many counties has been given 
instruction in over-large classes, and also to provide instruction in 
vocational and special subjects for all pupils, but especially for 
those who are not academic-minded and do not intend to continue 
their education after leaving high school. 

The increase in part-payment of salaries includes 50 per cent 
restoration of the 1933 salary cuts in the State's share of salaries 
of county superintendents, supervisors, and attendance officers. 

The increase in the State fund for physically handicapped chil- 
dren will permit giving instruction to from 15 to 25 more children. 

The increase in the State Department of Education, Teachers 
Colleges, and Bowie Normal School includes provision for 50 per 
cent restoration of the salary cuts of 10 to 15 per cent which have 
been in effect since October, 1933. i 

An expected increase in enrollment at the State Teachers Col- i 
leges explains the increased amounts deducted for fees. For the 
first time in the fall of 1937, there will be classes in all four years i 
of the four-year course which was first established for county i 
students in the fall of 1934. 

The general bond issue provided for in Chapter 487 of the laws 
of 1937 includes $1,200,000 for the Teachers' Retirement System,! 
$600,000 to be made available in February, 1938, arid $600,000 in 
February, 1939. [ 



Appropriations for 1938 and 1939; 1937 Legislation 



9 



There is also allotted $162,000 for construction at the Bowie 
Normal School as follows : 

Sewerage system $4,200 

Water tank, fire preven- 
tion 4,800 

Girls' Dormitory 69,000 

$78,000 to be issued August, 1937. 

Dining Room, Kitchen, and 

Cafeteria $38,000 

Boys' Dormitory 10,000 

Academic wing, adminis- 
tration building 36,000 

$48,000 to be issued February, 1938. 

36,000 to be issued August, 1938. 

1937 LEGISLATION AFFECTING THE SCHOOLS PASSED AND 
SIGNED BY THE GOVERNOR 

Chapter 552 provides that colored schools shall be kept open not less than 
ISO days as of September 1, 1939. 

Chapter 377 provides for the participation of the faculty and staff of the 
University of Maryland in the Maryland Teachers' Retirement System, finan- 
o^!al provision to be made for such participation in the University of Mary- 
land budget. 

Chapter 68 requires the use of safety glass in school buses purchased 
aPter June 1, 1937. 

Chapter 506 provides for scholarships to make available educational facili- 
ties and opportunities for Negroes equal to those now provided for white 
persons, especially for the professions. These may be used outside the State 
if equal educational facilities are not available within the State. Only those 
who meet the entrance requirements and maintain the scholastic record re- 
quired at the University of Maryland shall be eligible to hold the scholar- 
ships 

Chapter 155 gives the County Commissioners and legislative bodies of 
incorporated cities or towns power and authority to establish and/or main- 
tain directly or by contract reasonable facilities for public recreation. 

Chapter 279 provides that the State Insurance Commissioner shall have 
authority to inspect school houses and compel school boards to provide suffi- 
cient fire escapes or other means of exit. 

Chapter 488 provides for a general reassessment in 1939, but Caroline, 
Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Washington, 
Wicomico, and Allegany, may make a general assessment at any time there- 
after.* 

Chapter 225 among other things reclassifies for the purpose of taxation, 
casualty, surety, guaranty, fidelity, title, fire, and marine insurance compan- 
ies so that they will be taxed as ordinary business corporations, which means 
■:hey will be taxed at the full county and state tax rate. 

Chapter 525 provides an amendment to the constitution authorizing the 
General Assembly to impose taxes on incomes and provides for submission 
of said amendment to the voters for adoption or rejection. 



* According to information received from the State Tax Commission in July, 1937, four 
co'Jnties, Allegany, Anne Arundel, Caroline, and Garrett, have begun a reassessment which 
will be used in 1938, while Kent, St. Mary's, and Wicomico are about to begin a reassessment. 



10 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Chapter 70 provides for establishment of Cheltenham School for Boys as 
a reformatory institution for the care and training of colored male minors, 
and for the levy of a per capita charge on the counties and City of Baltimore 
for colored male minors committed or transferred to Cheltenham. 

Chapter 481 provides that the Governor shall hereafter include in the 
budget bill all receipts from motor vehicle licenses and gasoline taxes and 
lines and penalties for violation of motor vehicle and gasoline tax laws for 
the purpose of enforcing these laws and for construction, reconstruction and 
maintenance of roads, highways, streets, and bridges, and for interest on and 
redemption of bonds issued for roads, highways, streets and bridges, but no 
part of said receipts shall be included in the Budget bill for any other pur- 
poses whatsoever. 

Chapter 58 provides that an employment agent engaged in the business of 
securing positions for teachers may charge each applicant a registration fee 
of not more than two dollars. 

Chapter 368 provides for an issue of $1,000,000 in bonds for a State office 
building to be erected in Annapolis. 

House Joint Resolution 23 provides for an unpaid commission of not more 
than 15 persons to be known as the Maryland Youth Commission which shall 
study the report of the National Youth Commission and recommend in a 
report to be submitted not later than December 31, 1938, plans to meet ex- 
isting needs. 

School Legislation Other Than Authorizations for Bond Issues Afifecting 

Individual Counties 

Anne Arundel — Chapter 228 provides that all funds made available in 
the budget of the Board of Education of Anne Arundel County because of 
ihe restoration of the State minimum scale of teachers' salaries shall be ap- 
plied to further increase such salaries over and above the State minimum 
salary scale. 

Baltimore County — Chapter 185 provides $15,000 from funds not derived 
from the tax rate for transportation of children who attend schools in Balti- 
more County which do not receive State aid. 

Chapter 193 provides for stopping of vehicles behind school buses on which 
the stop signal is set in Carroll, Charles, Howard, Washington, and Wi- 
comico Counties. 

Montgomery — Chapter 480 requires referenda on certain school loans after 
1939 in Montgomery County and provides for surveys and reports on school 
needs by the County Board of Education. 

Prince George's — Chapter 532 provides for incorporation of town of Green 
Belt in Prince George's County. 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



DECREASE IN ENROLLMENT 



The county white pubhc elementary schools enrolled 110,938 
pupils in 1936, a decrease of 758 pupils under 1935. For the third 
consecutive year the enrollment for the 23 counties as a group 
showed a decrease, the total decrease from 1933 being 1,571. 
Compared with the 1923 enrollment, the 1936 county public ele- 
mentary enrollment is larger by 4,869 pupils. (See Table 2.) 



TABLE 2 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Elementary Schools, for Years Ending 
June, 1923, 1935 and 1936 



Number Enrolled in 




Number Enrolled in 


White Elementary Schools 


County 


White Elementary Schools 


1923 


1935 


1936 




1923 


1935 


1936 


*106,069 


nil, 696 


*110,938 


Dorchester. . . . 


3,432 


3,107 


3,003 


Somerset 


3,059 


2,280 


2,257 


13,333 


17,549 


17,374 




3,025 


2,201 


2,182 


11,107 


12,922 


12,694 




2,984 


2,262 


2,180 


10,859 


11,425 


11,348 




2,241 


2,140 


2,171 


6,421 


8,642 


8,937 1 


Talbot 


2,105 


1,757 


1,713 


4,524 


8,166 


8,620 


Queen Anne's. . 


2,101 


1,614 


1,610 


8,505 


7,575 


7,361 




1,803 


1,535 


1,517 


4,947 


6,472 


6,308 


Kent 


1,748 


1,487 


1,416 


5,902 


5,055 


4,999 


St. Mary's 


2,117 


1,058 


1,082 


4,290 


4,395 


4,266 


Calvert 


1,060 


809 


789 


5,373 


4,175 


4,118 










3,986 


3,710 


3,652 


Balto. City 


t*79,124 


t* 76,158 


t*76,863 


3,405 


3,370 


3,307 










Total State 


t*185,193 


t*187,854 


t*187,801 



* Excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment 
in vocational schools. 

For enrollment in counties, arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 308. 



The counties are arranged in Table 2 according to size of white 
public school elementary enrollment in 1936. With the exception 
of four counties, Prince George's, Montgomery, Howard, and St. 
Mary's, which together had 804 more pupils, all of the remaining 
counties had a smaller number of public elementary school pupils 
in 1936 than in 1935. (See Table 2.) 

Comparison of the 1936 enrollment with that for 1923 indicates 
a decrease for all of the counties, except Baltimore, Allegany, 
Washington, Prince George's, Montgomery, and Anne Arundel. 
(See Table 2.) 

Baltimore City from 1935 to 1936 showed the first annual in- 
crease since 1930 in the white enrollment in grades 1-8 of public 
elementary, junior high, and vocational schools. With an enroll- 
ment of 76,863 in these schools in 1936, there were 705 more pupils 
than in 1935. It will be noted that the Baltimore City public 

11 



12 193G Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



school enrollment in these grades of these schools (76,863) com- 
pared with a corresponding county public school enrollment of 
110,938, or an excess for the counties of 34,075. (See Table 2.) 

White elementary enrollment in the Catholic parish and private 
schools and institutions for the school year 1935-36 was 9,798 in 
the counties and 30,171 in Baltimore City. When comparison is 
made with preceding years, it will be noted that after increasing 
continuously until 1934, these enrollments show decreases in 1935 
and 1936, although in the counties part of the 1935 decrease was 
regained in 1936. (See columns 5 and 6 in Table 3.) 

TABLE 3 

Comparison of White Elementary Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City 
in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1936 

















*Non-Catholic 




*Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 


Year 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


114,096 


105,526 


107,200 


78,979 


6,536 


25,942 


*360 


*605 


1928 


116,018 


107,440 


107,563 


79,247 


8,000 


27,285 


*455 


*908 


1929 


116,827 


107,984 


107,909 


78,398 


8,351 


28,274 


*567 


*1,312 


1930 


118,708 


109,864 


108,737 


78,838 


8,722 


29,111 


1,249 


1,915 


1931 


119,741 


109,634 


109,406 


78,202 


9,079 


29,560 


1,256 


1,872 


1932 


122.002 


109,843 


111,370 


78,069 


9,414 


30,051 


1,218 


1,723 


1933 


123,200 


109,459 


112,509 


77,639 


9,636 


30,304 


1,055 


1,516 


1934 


122,848 


109,132 


111,907 


76,560 


9,876 


31,096 


1,065 


1,476 


1935 


122,531 


108,532 


111,696 


76,158 


9,622 


30,828 


1,213 


1,546 


1936 


121,957 


108,777 


110,938 


76,863 


9,798 


30,171 


1,221 


1,743 



* Data for non-Catholic non-public schools become increasingly complete each succeeding 
year as more of these schools send in returns. See Table III, page 309. 



Enrollment in the non-Catholic non-public schools, which dropt 
during the depression years, showed tendencies to grow again 
in 1934-35 and 1935-36. While they have not reached the high 
points which appear for 1929-30 and 1930-31, the first years for 
which our data are at all comprehensive, the 1935-36 enroll- 
ments of 1,221 in the counties and 1,743 in Baltimore City are al- 
most the same as those for the year 1931-32. (See columns 7 and 
8 in Table 3.) 

When the elementary enrollments in all types of schools are 
summarized, it appears that in the counties there was a gradual 
increase in each year until they reached a total of 123,200 in 
1932-33, since which time there has been a slight decrease each 
year, leaving the grand total 121,957 in 1935-36. For Baltimore 
City, the peaks in enrollment occurred in 1929-30 and 1931-32 
with close to 109,850, since which time there have been slight de- 
creases annually until 1934-35 after which 1935-36 shows a slight 
increase to 108,777. (See columns 1 and 2 in Table 3.) 

The excess of 13,180 in white elementary enrollment in all 
types of schools in the counties over that in Baltimore City in 
1935-36 is due to the smaller white population in Baltimore City 
resulting partly from a smaller number of children per family. 



White 



Elementary Enrollment in Public and 
Schools; Birth Rates 



NoN-: 



Public 



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14 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

This excess is not as great as it appears for the public schools be- 
cause the enrollment in Catholic schools is so much larger in the 
City than it is in the counties. (See Table 3.) 

The phenomenon of declining elementary school enrollment 
throughout the country is generally explained by a fall in the 
birth rate. Children born in 1929 and 1930 were entrants to 
school in the school year 1935-36. In most counties the birth 
rates were lower in 1929 and 1930 than they were in the preceding 
years. (See Table 4.) 

The Bureau of Vital Statistics of the State Department of 
Health from 1920 to 1935 has recorded births within the borders 
of the county in which they occurred. For 1935, however, births 
were reclassified according to the residences of the mothers. Prob- 
ably because the children of many mothers from the counties are 
born in hospitals located in Baltimore City, Washington, D. C, 
and counties other than their residences, the revised birth rates 
for all of the counties except seven"^ are higher and those for Bal- 
timore City are lower according to residence of mother than ac- 
cording to county in which the birth occurred. Compare last two 
rows of figures in Table 4. 

REGULATIONS REGARDING AGE PERMITTING ADMISSION OF 
COUNTY CHILDREN TO FIRST GRADE 

The regulations regarding admission of children to the first 
grade show considerable variation among the counties. If a 
child will be six years old by December 1, he may be admitted to 
the first grade in September in Carroll and Frederick. Eleven 
counties permit a child who will be six on or before January 1 to 
enter Grade 1 the preceding September. Nine counties allow 
children a month younger to enter, admitting in September those 
who will be six years old on or before February 1. Baltimore 
County alone permits admission in September of a child who will 
be six on or before March 1. (See Table 5.) 



TABLE 5 

County Regulations Regarding Admission of Children to Grade 1 in Septem- 
ber Who Will Become Six Years of Age in Succeeding Months 



Date on or before Which 


Number 




Child Must Become 6 


of 


Names of Counties 


before Admission 


Counties 




Preceding September 






December 1 


2 


Carroll, Frederick. 




11 


Allegany, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Dorchester, 




Garrett, Howard, Prince George's, Somerset, Talbot. 


February 1 


9 


Charles, Harford. Kent, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, St. 




Mary's, Washington, Wicomico, Worcester. 




1 


Baltimore. 



* Allegany, Dorchester, Frederick, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico. 



Birth Rates; Admission to First Grade; Length of Session 15 



LENGTH OF SESSION INCREASES SLIGHTLY 

The county white elementary schools were open on the average 
186.1 days in 1935-36, an increase of half a day over 1934-35. The 
session ranged from less than 182 days in Charles, Wicomico, Wor- 
cester, Somerset, and Calvert to over 189 days in Allegany, Balti- 
more, Harford, and Howard Counties. In Baltimore City the 
schools were open 190 days. (See Table 6.) 



TABLE 6 

Length of Session in White Elementary Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



County 



County Average 

Howard 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Washington 

Dorchester 

Talbot 

Prince George's 

Caroline 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . . 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



186.1 

192.6 
191.9 
189.8 
189.5 
188.6 
186.0 
185.1 
185.0 
184.8 
184.7 
184.7 
184.4 



School Year 
1935-36 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/4 

9/4 

9/9 

9/9 

9/4 

9/3 

9/9 

9/5 

9/10 

9/4 

9/4 

9/16 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/19 

6/18 

6/19 

6/19 

6/12 

6/9 

6/12 

6/12 

6/19 

6/12 

6/12 

6/17 



County 



Anne Arundel 

Carroll 

Frederick .... 
Queen Anne's 
St. Mary's. . . 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Somerset .... 
Worcester. . . 
Wicomico . . . 
Charles 

Balto. City. . 

Total State . . 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



184.1 
183.1 
183.1 
182.6 
182.6 
182.5 
181.9 
181.8 
181.7 
181.3 
180.9 

190.0 

187.7 



School Year 
1935-36 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/9 
9/5 
9/4 
9/4 
9/9 
9/4 
9/4 
9/3 
9/3 
9/3 
9/9 

9/5 



TABLE 7 

Number of County White Elementary Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 
bays, Year Ending June 30, 1936 





For All Counties by Year 




For 1936 by County 


Year 








County 














Having 








Having 






Having 


More 






Having 


More 




Total 


One 


Than One 




Total 


One 


Than One 




No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 




No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


1926 


124 
83 
33 
62 
28 
12 
9 
5 
8 
34 
33 


109 
68 
25 
45 
22 
7 
8 
2 
6 
18 
21 


15 
15 
8 
17 
6 
5 
1 
3 
2 
16 
12 


Carroll 


1* 
It 
It 
It 
It 
7§ 
10.x 
Ux 


i 

1 
1 

10 
8 


1 
1 
1 

6 
3 


1927 


Charles 


1928 

1929 

1930 


Montgomery .... 
Prince George's . 


1931 


Frederick 


1932 




1933 


Garrett 


1934 

1935 

1936 





* 174 days, t 177 days. $ 179 days. 

§ From 175 to 179 days because of blocking of roads after snowstorms. 
X From 167 to 179 days because of blocking of roads after snowstorms. 



16 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The opening dates in September, 1935, ranged from the third 
in Washington, Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester to the tenth 
in Prince George's and the sixteenth in Montgomery. The clos- 
ing dates in June, 1936, covered the period from the second and 
third in Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester to the nineteenth in 
Howard, Baltimore, Allegany, Prince George's, and Anne Arundel. 
(See Table 6.) 

There were 33 schools in seven counties open from 1 to 13 days 
fewer than 180, the number required by law. Of these schools, 
21 had one teacher and 12 were larger schools. Frederick, Wash- 
ington, and Garrett were the only counties in which more than 
one school had fewer days than the number required, chiefly due 
to the blocking of roads after the unusual snowstorms early in 
1936. (See Table 7.) 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE 

The attendance in white county elementary schools, 90.7 per 
cent in 1935-36, was .2 lower than for the year preceding. The 
per cent of attendance ranged between 87.7 and 93. The greatest 
improvement in attendance appeared in Calvert which increased 
from 85 per cent in 1935 to 88.5 in 1936. This increase probably 
resulted in part from the employment of an attendance officer 
half time. In Baltimore City the per cent of attendance was 90.6 
in 1935-36, an increase of .2 over the year before (See Table 8.) 



TABLE 8 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years End- 
ing in June, 1923, 1934, 1935 and 1936 



County 


1923 


1934 


1935 


1936 


County Average . . 


84 


2 


90 


5 


90.9 


90 


7 


Allegany 


89 





*92 


5 


*92.2 


*93 





Prince George's. . . 


84 


9 


t91 


1 


t92.3 


t92 


1 


Frederick 


83 


6 


190 


9 


t91.1 


t91 


7 


St. Mary's 


74 


5 


90 


2 


90.9 


91 


7 


Anne Arundel 


84 


5 


90 


7 


91.5 


91 


6 


Talbot 


85 


8 


92 





92.0 


91 


3 


Carroll 


79 


4 


89 


5 


90.4 


90 


9 




84 





t89 


8 


t90.5 


t90 


7 


Washington 


84 


9 


*91 


5 


^90.9 


*90 


5 




81 


9 


*88 


7 


*89.7 


*90 


4 




86 


5 


t92 


1 


t92.4 


90 


4 




79 


5 


88 


9 


88.0 


90 






County 

Cecil 

Wicomico .... 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Worcester 

Harford 

Calvert 

Dorchester . . . , 
Queen Anne's. 

Howard 

Kent 

Baltimore City 

Entire State . . , 



1923 


1934 


1935 


1936 


84.8 


89.6 


90 


1 


89.3 


86.5 


90.6 


91 


5 


89.1 


83.3 


90.4 


91 


3 


88.9 


83.9 


91.1 


89 


1 


88.9 


83.5 


88.2 


90 


8 


88.8 


84.5 


88.5 


89 


5 


88.7 


79.9 


80.9 


85 





88.5 


81.2 


t90.7 


- 91 


2 


88.2 


85.4 


91.3 


91 


5 


88.2 


84.0 


88.6 


90 





88.1 


86.7 


91.4 


90 


6 


87.7 


89.8 


*89.7 


*90 


4 


*90.6 


86.7 


90. 1 


90 


7 


90.6 



* Includes Junior High School, grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High School, grade 7. 



On the average in the counties in 1936 the attendance was low- 
est in the one-teacher schools, 87.6 per cent, and highest in the 
graded schools, 91 per cent. The one-teacher schools showed 
the greatest decrease in attendance, the per cent for 1936 being 



Length of Session; Per Cent of Attendance 



17 



1.3 lower than for 1935, the two-teacher schools showed a slight 
gain, and the graded schools a slight decrease in attendance. The 
greatest improvement in attendance from 1935 to 1936 appeared 
in Calvert one-teacher, Charles two-teacher, and Calvert graded 
schools. (See Table 9.) 

TABLE 9 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June, 1924, 1935 and 1936, 
by Types of White Elementary Schools 



Schools Having Schools Having 





One Teacher 




Two Teachers 




Graded Schools 


Countyt 


1924 1935 


1936 


County 


1924 


1935 


1936 


County 


1924 


1935 


1936 


County Aver. .80 


9 


88 


9 


87 


6 


County Aver. , 


.83 


9 


89 


9 


90 





County Aver. . 


.88 


3 


91 


2 


91.0 


Talbot 


87 


3 


93 


8 


92 


7 


Allegany 


88 


9 


91 


7 


94 


3 


St. Mary's. . . . 






92 


5 


93.6 


Pr. George's. 


83 


3 


90 





91 


8 


Anne Arundel 


.81 


8 


92 


9 


93 


9 




92 


4 


*92 


5 


*93.2 


St. Mary's. . . 


79 


3 


92 


4 


91 


5 


Cecil 


86 


5 


91 


9 


91 


9 


Pr. George's. . 


.89 





t92 


4 


t92.2 


Anne Arundel 


.77 


6 


92 


8 


90 


9 


Pr. George's. . 


.85 


8 


91 


9 


91 


8 


Frederick 


86 


4 


t91 


4 


t92.2 


Charles 


77 


3 


86 


6 


90 





Calvert 


81 


7 


87 


5 


91 


4 


Anne Arundel 


.87 


9 


91 


5 


91.4 


Queen Anne's 


82 


9 


89 


7 


89 


3 


St. Mary's 


81 


4 


89 


7 


91 


1 


Talbot 


88 


5 


91 


7 


91.4 




88 


3 


92 


5 


88 


9 




87 


7 


90 


7 


90 


8 


Washington . . 


.88 


8 


*91 


6 


*91.4 


Somerset .... 


81 


7 


91 





88 


9 




87 


9 


92 


3 


90 


7 




84 


3 


90 


5 


91.2 




82 


9 


87 


4 


88 


8 


Baltimore . . . . 


82 


5 


89 


4 


90 


5 


Baltimore . . . . 


.86 


2 


t90 


6 


t90.7 


Carroll 


78 


2 


89 


8 


88 


3 




84 


3 


82 


3 


90 


4 


Caroline 


89 


9 


t92 


4 


90.6 


Cecil 


81 


7 


89 


8 


88 


2 


Carroll 


81 


4 


89 


7 


90 


4 


Montgomery . 


.86 


3 


*90 


3 


*90.5 


Montgomery. 


.78 


1 


84 




87 


7 


Montgomery. 


.80 


5 


88 





90 





Garrett 


89 


9 


89 


5 


90.2 


Frederick 


79 


6 


88 


9 


87 


5 




81 


9 


88 


9 


90 







88 


4 


88 


8 


89.9 


Harford 


82 


7 


87 


7 


87 


5 




80 


3 


90 





89 







89 


3 


91 


5 


89.7 


Worcester. . . 


77 





87 


7 


87 







83 


3 


92 


8 


88 


8 




89 


3 


91 


6 


89.3 


Kent 


84 


8 


92 


4 


86 


9 


Dorchester. . . 


.86 


7 


88 


4 


88 


7 


Harford 


88 


9 


90 


4 


89.2 




81 


2 


88 


1 


86 


9 


Queen Anne's. 


.86 


5 


90 


7 


88 


3 


Cecil 


87 


3 


89 


8 


89.1 


Wicomico. . . 


83 


9 


90 


6 


86 


7 




86 


3 


93 


1 


88 





Dorchester. . . 


.89 


5 


92 


4 


89.0 


Howard 


82 


5 


89 


2 


86 


5 


Harford 


85 


6 


87 


7 


87 


9 




86 


7 


91 


1 


89.0 


Washington . 


80 


1 


88 


1 


86 





Washington . . 


.80 


6 


88 


7 


87 


6 


Kent 


88 


3 


90 


7 


88.2 


Calvert 


77 


2 


80 


9 


85 





Kent 


85 


8 


88 


8 


86 


5 




85 


8 


90 


5 


88.2 


Dorchester. . 


81 


3 


88 


4 


84 


9 




82 


6 


86 


8 


85 


9 


Queen Anne's. 


.88 


3 


91 


8 


88.1 
















Talbot 


86 


7 


95 


1 


85 


8 


Calvert 






84 


2 


87.4 



* Includes Junior High School, grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High School, grade 7. 

t Baltimore County, which had no one-teacher schools for the year ending in June, 1936, 
had 82.3 and 89.1 per cent of attendance for 1924 and 1935, respectively. 

For one-teacher schools the county at the bottom had 84.9 per 
cent attendance and at the top 92.7 per cent. Among the two- 
teacher schools attendance varied from 85.8 in the county having 
poorest attendance to 94.3 in the county with the highest at- 
tendance. The variation in the county with the lowest per cent 
of attendance (87.4) and highest per cent of attendance (93.6) 
was least for the graded schools. (See Table 9.) 

Monthly Attendance 

The enrollment in county white elementary schools reached its 
maximum in November, 1935, after which it decreased each suc- 
ceeding month through June, 1936. This pattern appeared in all 
types of schools, except that in the two-teacher schools there was 
a larger enrollment in February than in January. (See Table 10.) 



18 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The per cent of attendance was at its peak in all types of schools 
in September, 1935, after which it decreased each succeeding 
month until it was at its lowest point during the stormy weather 
of February, 1936. Thereafter attendance improved each suc- 
ceeding month through June when it was slightly under the maxi- 
mum per cent found in the September preceding. The per cent 
of attendance was better than it was the year preceding in every 
month, except February and March. (See Table 10.) 



TABLE 10 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1936 





AVERAGE NUMBER 




PER CENT OF 








BELONGING 






ATTENDANCE 




Month 




















All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 




All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 






mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


September 


104,772 


8,585 


9,715 


86,472 


96.2 


94.5 


95.7 


96.4 


October 


107,219 


8,934 


10,120 


88,165 


94.5 


92.9 


94.0 


94.8 


November 


107,370 


8,947 


10,163 


88,260 


92.9 


91.4 


92.6 


93.1 




107,156 


8,892 


10,154 


88,110 


91.8 


90.7 


92.5 


91.8 


January 


106,873 


8,835 


10,071 


87,967 


84.7 


76.5 


83.8 


85.6 


February 


106,359 


8,723 


10,088 


87,548 


82.0 


74.8 


80.4 


82.9 


March 


105,871 


8.668 


9,915 


87,288 


88.6 


86.0 


87.9 


89.0 


April 


105,366 


8,621 


9,852 


86,893 


90.9 


89.1 


90.0 


91.? 


May 


104,794 


8,598 


9,838 


86,358 


92.3 


90.6 


91.6 


92.5 


June 


*102,224 


*8,245 


*9,520 


*84.459 


94.9 


93.8 


94.2 


95.1 


Average for Yr. 


106,083 


8,718 


9,942 


87,423 


90.7 


87.6 


90.0 


91.0 



* Somerset County did not report attendance for June. 



Attendance Under 100 and 140 Days 

The per cent of pupils attending one- and two-teacher schools 
under 100 days and one-teacher schools under 140 days was higher 
in 1936 than for several years preceding. The condition of the 
roads and the epidemics prevalent in many parts of the State 
probably explain the long absences which these shortened at- 
tendance periods reflect. (See Table 11.) 

For all county elementary schools 4.8 per cent of the pupils at- 
tended fewer than 100 days and only in 1933 was a lower percent- 
age reported. There were 12.4 per cent of the county white ele- 
mentary pupils who attended school under 140 days which means 
that they missed at least two months of school. (See Table 11.) 

Queen Anne's had only one-tenth of one per cent of the white 
elementary pupils present under 100 days while this was the 
case for 8.8 per cent in Montgomery County. Prince George's 
and Allegany had under 8 per cent present under 140 days while 
Calvert had nearly 21 per cent. A large percentage of the pupils 



Monthly Attendance; Pupils Attending Under 100 and 140 Days 19 

in the one-teacher schools of Calvert and Washington Counties 
were present under 100 and 140 days. In the two-teacher schools, 
Washington, Montgomery, Worcester, and Talbot Counties had 
the largest percentage present under 100 and 140 days and Cal- 
vert had over 24 per cent of the children in graded schools in at- 
tendance under 140 days. (See Table 11.) 

TABLE 11 

Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 
and 140 Days for Ten Years Past and by County for 1935-36 



PER CENT OF COUNTY WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING 



Year 


Elementary 




One-Teacher 




Two-Teacher 






Graded 


County 




Schools 






Schools 






Schools 






Schools 




Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 




Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


1926 


11 


3 


24 


9 


17 


8 


38 


1 


11 


9 


26 


9 


8 


6 


19.1 


1927 


10.1 


21 


9 


16 


1 


33 


7 


10 


9 


24 


8 


7 


8 


17.1 


1928 


8 


2 


18 


2 


13 


3 


28 


3 


8 


7 


19 


7 


6 


6 


14.7 


1929 


8 


4 


19 


3 


13 


3 


29 


4 


9 


6 


22 


5 


6 


8 


16.0 


1930 


6 


6 


15 


2 


9 


3 


23 


2 


7 


4 


17 


2 


5 


8 


13.1 


1931 


5 


5 


12 


9 


7 


7 


18 


3 


5.8 


13 


8 


5 





11.7 


1932 


5 


3 


12 


3 


6 


8 


16 


6 


5 


7 


13 


4 


5 





11.4 


1933 


4 


6 


11 





6 


4 


15 


7 


4 


8 


12 





4 


4 


10.3 


1934 


4 


9 


12 


8 


6 


2 


17 


1 


5 





14 





4 


7 


12.2 


1935 


4 


9 


12 


4 


G 


9 


18 





5 





14 


5 


4 


6 


11.5 


1936 


4 


8 


12 


4 


7 


3 


19 


6 


5 


2 


13 


9 


4 


5 


11.5 


ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY COUNTY, 1935-36 


Total Number 


5,105 


13,270 


645 


1,731 


524 


1,397 


3,936 


10,142 


Pr. George's. . 


2 


3 


7 


4 


2 





11 


5 


4 





11 





2 


1 


6.8 


Allegany 


3 


3 


7 


8 


5 


3 


15 


3 


1 


5 


5 


5 


3 


3 


7.5 


Baltimore .... 


3 


9 


9 


6 










3 


7 


10 


9 


4 





9.5 


Queen Anne's. 




1 


10 


3 






10 


5 




9 


8 


9 






10.5 


Frederick 


3 





10 


4 


6 


6 


19 


1 


4 


2 


16 


3 


2 


7 


9.3 


Carroll 


3 


3 


10 


9 


5 





17 


9 


3 


6 


12 


3 


3 


1 


10.2 




3 


4 


11 


3 


8 


5 


18 


5 


2 


8 


13 


1 


2 


9 


10.5 




4 





11 


5 


6 





14 


7 


3 


9 


12 


8 


3 


6 


10.5 


St. Mary's 


4 





11 


6 


3 





10 


7 


3 


9 


11 


8 


5 


8 


12.6 


Anne Arundel . 


6 





12 


9 






9 


5 


3 


6 


10 


4 


6 


1 


13.0 


Cecil 


6 


4 


14 


4 


10 





18 


5 


2 


7 


7 


8 


5 


9 


14.3 


Kent 


2 


7 


15 


1 


2 


5 


16 





3 


1 


18 


1 


2 


7 


13.8 


Howard 


6 


3 


15 


2 


6 





17 


2 


8 


9 


13 


2 


5 


8 


15.0 


Dorchester . . . 


5 


1 


15 


3 


7 


5 


23 


5 


7 


3 


16 





4 


2 


13.1 


Washington . . 


7 





15 


4 


17 


6 


30 


2 


10 


5 


22 


6 


5 


2 


12.8 


Worcester .... 


5 


2 


16 





8 


3 


19 





10 


6 


24 


5 


4 


2 


14.6 


Talbot 


6 





16 


5 


6 


1 


14 




10 


5 


19 


7 


5 


7 


16.7 


Montgomery . 


8 


8 


16 


9 


11 


5 


21 


8 


12 


6 


21 


7 


8 


5 


16.4 


Charles 


6 


6 


17 


1 


3 


3 


20 





6 




12 


2 


6 


7 


17.7 


Garrett 


4 


2 


17 


3 


4 


2 


21 


4 


3 


7 


13 


1 


4 


4 


15.1 


Somerset 


6 


7 


17 


5 


6 





17 


8 


6 


6 


16 


2 


6 


9 


17.7 


Wicomico .... 


6 


7 


17 


7 


6 





19 


9 




2 


17 


4 


6 


7 


17.4 


Calvert 


6 


5 


20 


8 


19 





38 


1 


3 


3 


11 


2 


7 


3 


24.1 



FEWER LATE ENTRANTS 

In only one year, 1934, were there fewer late entrants in white 
elementary schools for indifference or neglect and employment 
than were reported for 1936, 1035. The number represented 
nine-tenths of one per cent of the enrollment. Among the counties 



20 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



late entrance for these causes included less than five-tenths of one 
per cent of the white elementary pupils in Prince George's and 
Montgomery, and 2.5 per cent of those in Calvert. (See Table 12.) 



TABLE 12 

Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference, or 
Neglect, for Ten Years Past and by County for 1935-36 







Per Cent Entering Late by Cause 


Rank 


Year 
County 


Total 
Number 
Entering 

Late 


Total 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


*14 Yrs. 
or More, 
Employed 


*Under 
14 Years, 

Illegally 
Employed 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 years. 
Illegally 
Employed 



Late Entrants by Year 



1926 


5,840 


5 


1 


1 


6 


2 


7 


1927 


4,720 


4 


1 


1 


4 


2 


2 


1928 


3,703 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


7 


1929 


3,525 


3 





1 





1 


6 


1930 


2,744 


2 


3 




9 


1 


2 


1931 


1,843 


1 


6 




7 




8 


1932 


1,456 


1 


2 




6 




4 


1933 


1,168 


1 







6 




3 


1934 


1,008 




9 




5 




3 


1935 


1,045 




9 




6 




2 


1936 


1,035 




9 




6 




2 



Late Entrants by County, 1936 



Pr. George's. . 


29 




3 




.3 






5 


3 


7 


Montgomery . 


39 




4 




.3 


!i 




6 


9 


5 


Cecil 


17 




5 




5 






13 


1 


1 


Baltimore .... 


87 




5 




4 


.i 




11 


6 


6 


Garrett 


22 




5 




.1 


.4 




2 


18 


1 


Wicomico .... 


24 




6 




3 


.3 




9 


13 


1 


Worcester .... 


17 




8 




2 


.4 


.2 


3 


16 


13 


Talbot 


14 




8 




2 


.6 




4 


21 


1 


Anne Arundel . 


54 




8 




6 


.1 


A 


15 


7 


11 


Frederick 


68 




9 




5 


.2 


.2 


12 


11 


15 


Dorchester . . . 


31 


1 







4 


.4 


.2 


10 


17 


17 


Caroline 


23 


1 







3 


.4 


.3 


7 


15 


19 


Harford 


48 


1 











.3 


17 


4 


18 


Howard 


24 


1 


1 




9 


.'i 


.1 


18 


8 


9 


Allegany 


140 


1 


1 


1 





.1 




20 


5 


8 


St. Mary's 


13 


1 


2 




7 


.3 


.2 


16 


12 


14 


Charles 


18 


1 


2 




9 


.2 


.1 


19 


10 


10 




19 


1 


3 




1 




.5 


1 


23 


23 


Carroll 


72 


1 


4 




6 


'.5 


.3 


14 


20 


20 


Queen Anne's. 


23 


1 


4 




3 


.6 


. 5 


8 


22 


21 


Washington . . 


191 


1 


6 


1 





.4 


.2 


21 


19 


12 


Somerset 


42 


1 


8 


1 


2 


.4 


.2 


22 


14 


16 




20 


2 


5 


2 







.5 


23 


1 


22 



* 13 years, 1925-1931, inclusive. 



Indifference or neglect was the chief cause of late entrance and 
this was given as the cause of late entrance for one per cent of 
the Allegany, Washington, and Somerset County pupils and for 
2 per cent of the Calvert pupils. A vigorous advertising campaign 
prior to the opening of schools appealing to the families who show 
this tendency might reduce these late entrants. Kent, Queen 



Late Entrants to and Withdrawals from White Elementary 

Schools 



21 



Anne's, Talbot, and Carroll had from five- to seven-tenths of one 
per cent of their pupils who entered late because of employment, 
legal because pupils were 14 years or older, while five-tenths of 
one per cent of the Kent, Queen Anne's, and Calvert pupils entered 
late who were illegally employed, being under 14 years of age. 
(See Table 12.) 

WITHDRAWALS FROM WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

TABLE 13 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools by 
Year, 1926 to 1936, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1936 



year 

COUNTY 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment, 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per Cent 



PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 



Mental 

and 
Phvsical 

Inca- 
pacity 





Over and 






Under 






Compul- 




Employ- 


sory At- 


Poverty 


ment 


tendance 






Age 





other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Years 



1926 


12.092 


10.6 


6,431 


6.3 


1.4 


3.1 


.8 




.3 


1927 


12,570 


10.9 


6,017 


5.9 


1.4 


2.8 


.7 


.6 


.4 


1928 


12.416 


10.8 


5,473 


4.7 


1.3 


2.2 


.6 


.4 


.2 


1929 


12,276 


10.6 


4,937 


4.3 


1.2 


2.0 


.5 


.4 


.2 


1930 


12.718 


10.9 


4,105 


3.5 


1.0 


1.7 


.4 


.2 


.2 


1931 


11 , 479 


9.8 


3,642 


3.1 


1.1 


1.3 


.3 


.3 


.1 


1932 


12.008 


10.1 


2,966 


2.5 


1.1 


.8 


.3 


.2 


.1 


1933 


12.008 


10.0 


2 , 932 


2.4 


.8 


.9 


.3 


.3 


.1 


1934 


11.447 


9.6 


2,897 


2.4 


1.0 


.8 


.3 


.2 


.1 


1935 


11 .295 


9.5 


3,036 


2.5 


1.0 


.8 


.4 


.2 


.1 


1936 


11,046 


9.4 


3,037 


2.6 


.9 


.9 


.5 


.2 


.1 


Withdrawals by County. 1935-36 


Queen Anne's. 


173 


10.5 


17 


1.0 


.6 


.3 




.1 




Harford 


579 


12.6 


71 


1.5 


.7 


.4 


.3 


.1 




Carroll 


426 


8.2 


83 


1.6 


.5 


.8 


.2 




.i 


Cecil 


412 


11.7 


59 


1.7 


.6 


.6 


.3 


.'l 


.1 


Pr. George's . 


978 


10.5 


168 


1.8 


1.0 


.4 


.4 






Allegany 


998 


7.6 


261 


2.0 


.6 


.4 


.8 


.2 




Baltimore ... 


1,638 


9.1 


367 


2.0 


.8 


.7 


.5 






St. Mary's .... 


96 


8.5 


24 


2.1 


.6 


1.0 


.4 


'.i 




Garrett 


425 


9.8 


94 


2.2 


.9 


.5 


.6 


.1 




Howard 


206 


9.3 


49 


2.2 


.7 


.4 


1.0 


.1 




Anne Arundel . 


649 


10.0 


152 


2.3 


1.0 


.6 


.5 


.1 


A 




81 


5.2 


39 


2.5 


1.1 


.8 


.2 


.3 


.1 


Dorchester . 


237 


7.6 


86 


2.7 


1.2 


.9 


.3 


.3 




Worcester. . . . 


166 


7.3 


63 


2.8 


.6 


1.6 


.2 


.3 


!i 


Talbot 


136 


7.6 


53 


3.0 


1.1 


.8 


.8 


.3 




Caroline .... 


242 


10.6 


71 


3.1 


1.0 


1.7 


.2 


.2 




Washington . . 


1,151 


9.5 


404 


3.3 


.7 


1.7 




.2 




Frederick 


644 


8.3 


265 


3.4 


1.0 


1.8 


^1 


.5 




Montgomery . . 


954 


10.6 


314 


3.5 


1.9 


.8 


.5 


.3 




Calvert 


31 


3.9 


30 


3.8 


1.6 


.9 


.1 


1.2 




Wicomico .... 


527 


13.4 


169 


4.3 


1.5 


1.7 


.3 


.8 




Somerset 


151 


6.6 


115 


5.0 


2.1 


1.2 


.2 


1.4 


'i 


Kent 


146 


9.8 


83 


5.6 


2.0 


1.0 


.1 


.1 


2.4 



22 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In 1935-36 there were a smaller number and per cent of with- 
drawals from white elementary schools for removal, transfer, 
commitment, and death than for any year preceding. There were 
11,046 withdrawals for these causes, 9.4 per cent of the total en- 
rollment. Counties in which 10 or more per cent of the enroll- 
ment withdrew for these reasons were Wicomico, Harford, Cecil, 
Caroline, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, Prince George's, and Anne 
Arundel. The smallest percentage of withdrawals for these rea- 
sons occurred in Calvert and Charles Counties. (See Table 13.) 

There were 3,037 white elementary pupils, 2.6 per cent, who 
withdrew because of mental or physical incapacity, employment, 
age over or under compulsory school attendance requirements, 
poverty, etc. The number and per cent in 1936 were higher than 
they had been for four years preceding. (See Table 13.) 

Less than 2 per cent of Queen Anne's, Harford, Carroll, Cecil, 
.and Prince George's pupils withdrew for the reasons stated in 
the preceding paragraph, while this was the case for over 4 per 
cent of those in Wicomico, Somerset, and Kent. In Somerset and 
Kent, 2 per cent of the pupils withdrew because of mental or 
physical incapacity. Special classes for the mentally handicapped 
and additional home instruction for the physically handicapped 
may be necessary in the counties. Employment caused the with- 
drawal of 1.6 to 1.8 per cent of the pupils in Worcester, Caroline, 
Washington, Wicomico, and Frederick. In Howard 1 per cent 
withdrew because they were beyond requirements of compulsory 
school attendance. Somerset and Calvert were the only counties 
in which over 1 per cent of the pupils withdrew because of poverty. 
Kent reported the withdrawal of 2.4 per cent of its pupils for 
''other" reasons. Since the withdrawals attributed to ''other" 
reasons are larger than the per cent attributed to specified causes, 
it would probably be desirable to investigate what "other" causes 
in Kent include . (See Table 13.) 

Early in 1935 the State Supervisor of Attendance sent to the 
counties for their information copies of withdrawal certificates 
prepared by one of the counties for use in excusing pupils who 
are 14 years or over for work at home or on the farm (W5), and 
for mental or physical incapacity (W9, WIO) ; also a copy of a 
form letter for use by a principal when the request for such with- 
drawal originates in the school. Study of these forms was re- 
quested with the suggestion that similar ones be drawn up for 
use in each county. Although requests had been received for 
uniform blanks to be issued by the State Department of Educa- 
tion, use of these blanks is considered entirely a county responsi- 
bility. Since there is an advantage in having a certain amount of 
uniformity in the blanks used by the different counties, the forms 
in use in a county which finds them desirable have been made 
available. 



Withdrawals and Index of Attendance, White Elementary Pupils 23 

Under the Maryland law parents are required to keep their chil- 
dren in school up to the age of 16, except in case of mental or physi- 
cal incapacity or regular and lawful employment between the ages 
of 14 and 16 years. In every such exceptional case, the parent or 
guardian should request permission to withdraw a child for handi- 
cap or employment. After investigation which reveals the au- 
thenticity of the reason for requesting permission to withdraw, 
the parent or guardian should be given a withdrawal certificate 
which is evidence that the child is legally excused from school 
attendance. 

The emphasis now being placed on giving certificates for with- 
drawal to those only w^ho have a legal right to them will undoubt- 
edly be helpful to the general attendance program. 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

TABLE 14 



An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools 
for School Year Ending June 30, 1936 





PER CENT OF 


RANK IN PER CENT 
OF 


COUNTY 
















Atten- 


*Late 


tWith- 


Atten- 


*Late 


tWith- 




dance 


Entrants 


drawals 


dance 


Entrants 


drawals 


County Average 


90.7 


.9 


2.6 








Prince George's 


92.1 


.3 


1.8 


2 


1 


5 


Baltimore 


90.7 


.5 


2.0 


8 


4 


7 


Cecil 


89.3 


.5 


1.7 


13 


3 


4 


Allegany 


93.0 


1.1 


2.0 


1 


15 


6 


Anne Arundel 


91 .6 


.8 


2.3 


5 


9 


11 


St. Mary's 


91.7 


1.2 


2.1 


4 


16 


8 


Carroll 


90.9 


1.4 


1.6 


7 


19 


3 


Talbot 


91.3 


.8 


3.0 


6 


8 


15 


Garrett 


88.9 


. 5 


2.2 


16 


5 


9 


Frederick 


91.7 


.9 


3.4 


3 


10 


18 


Montgomery 


90.4 


.4 


3.5 


10 


2 


19 


Harford 


88.7 


1.0 


1.5 


18 


13 


2 


Worcester 


88.8 


.8 


2.8 


17 


7 


14 


Caroline 


90.4 


1.0 


3.1 


11 


12 


16 


Charles 


90.0 


1.2 


2.5 


12 


17 


12 


Wicomico 


89.1 


.6 


4.3 


14 


6 


21 


Queen Anne's 


88.2 


1.4 


1.0 


21 


20 


1 


Dorchester 


88.2 


1.0 


2.7 


20 


11 


13 


Howard 


88.1 


1.1 


2.2. 


22 


14 


10 


Washington 


90.5 


1.6 


3.3 


9 


21 


17 


Somerset 


88.9 


1.8 


5.0 


15 


22 


22 


Calvert 


88.5 


2.5 


3.8 


19 


23 


20 


Kent 


87.7 


1.3 


5.6 


23 


18 


23 



* Late entrance for employment, negligence, and indifference. The county having the 
smallest percentage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or 
death. The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



24 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance, and 
withdrawals for preventable cause, the 23 counties have been ar- 
ranged in order according to their average rank in these three 
items for public white elementary schools. That county is con- 
sidered highest which has a high percentage of attendance accom- 
panying a low percentage of late entrance and withdrawal. A 
county which makes little effort to get its children to school when 
they open and permits them to withdraw before the close of the 
year may keep them in regular attendance while they are enrolled, 
but it is undoubtedly helping all of its pupils to secure an educa- 
tion less well than a county which brings all of its children into 
school at the beginning of the year, discourages withdrawals, and 
still keeps a high percentage of attendance. (See Table 14.) 

Using this index as a basis for judging attendance, the counties 
making the best record are Prince George's, Baltimore, Cecil, Al- 
legany, Anne Arundel, and St. Mary's. Those making the poorest 
record are Kent, Calvert, Somerset, Washington, Howard, and 
Dorchester. (See Table 14.) 

GRADE ENROLLMENT IN WHITE SCHOOLS 

The enrollment of county white pupils in the first grade, 16,198, 
Was larger than that for any other grade. Through the last year 
in high school in which 5,653 were enrolled, there was a smaller 
number in each succeeding grade, except for grade 4, which ranked 
next to the first grade in number of pupils enrolled, and also grade 
8 which had a small enrollment since it w^as found in only three 
counties. The boys showed these same tendencies. For girls the 
enrollment in grades 3, 4, and 5 was larger than it was in grade 2. 
(See Chart 1.) 

The enrollment of boys exceeded that of girls in all of the grades 
from 1 to 6, inclusive, and in the first year of high school. In 
grade 7 and the last three years of high school, the girls exceeded 
the boys in number. (See Chart 1.) 

Enrollment in all elementary grades, except 6 and 8, in 1935-36 
was smaller than in the preceding year, while in the high school 
years it was larger. Data for boys and girls did not follow the 
tendencies of the entire group. Boys in the odd-numbered ele- 
mentary grades had a smaller enrollment in 1935-36 than in 1934- 
35, while for girls the elementary enrollment was smaller in all 
grades except 3, 6, and 7. (See Chart 1.) 

Upon examining the distribution of enrollment by grade in each 
county, it appears that thirteen counties had a larger enrollment 
in the first grade than in any other. In Worcester, however, the 
second, fifth, and sixth grade enrollment was larger than the 
first; in Charles, Dorchester, and St. Mary's the fourth grade 
showed the largest enrollment; in Cecil the fifth grade had a larger 



Index of School Attendance; Grade Enrollment 
CHART 1 



25 



Grade 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENR0LLFD+ BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY miTE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1956 



' Year 


Total 


Kgn. 


461 


1 


16,198 


2 


14,987 


? 


14,875 


4 


15 ,096 


c 






b 


1 A AlO 


7 


13.099 


8 


3,05? 


I 


11,267 


II 


8,749 


III 


6,927 


IV 


♦5,653 



Boys 



D Girls 



I 



226 
235 




|3,200 



i" Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death. 
Also excludt's 194 boys and 5H girls in special classes. 
* Includes 49 boys and 78 Kirls, post-Kraduates. 



md commitment to institutions. 



number than was found in any other grade, while in Somerset 
the sixth grade had the largest enrollment. In Howard grades 
6, 4, 5, and 3; in Wicomico grades 4, 3, 5, and 2; and in Carroll 
grades 5, 2, and 4 enrolled more pupils than grade 1. It will be 
noted that it is some of the Eastern Shore and Southern Mary- 
land counties together with Carroll and Howard, which had larger 
enrollments in grades above the first than they had in the first 
grade. (See Table 15.) 



26 



1936 



Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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White Enrollment by Grades; White Elementary Graduates 27 



ELEMENTARY GRADUATES DECREASE 

Although the number of white boys and girls who graduated 
from the county elementary schools decreased in 1936 under 1935, 
the per cent of elementary boys and girls who graduated showed 
a slight increase. There were 5,160 boys and 5,699 girls who 
graduated. They included 9.3 per cent of the boys and 11.1 per 
cent of the girls enrolled in the white county elementary schools. 
The percentage of boys graduated was the same in 1932 and 1934 
as in 1936, but the percentage of girls graduated in 1936 was high- 
er than it has ever been. (See Table 16.) 



TABLE 16 



County White Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


3,200 


4,136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3,705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


*4,290 


*5,059 


*9,349 


*8.1 


no. 2 


*9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


*9,358 


*8.1 


no.i 


*9.1 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


*9,928 


*8.8 


no. 4 


*9.6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5,283 


no, 140 


*9.0 


no. 5 


*9.7 


1931 


♦4,757 


*5,156 


*9,913 


*8.7 


no. 2 


*9.4 


1932 


*5,183 


*5,642 


no, 825 


*9.3 


no. 9 


no.i 


1933 


*5,121 


*5,653 


no, 774 


*9.1 


no. 9 


*9.9 


1934 


*5,227 


*5,618 


no, 845 


*9.3 


no. 8 


no.o 


1935 


*5,190 


*5,719 


no, 909 


*9.2 


ni.o 


no.i 


1936 


*5,160 


*5,699 


no, 859 


*9.3 


ni.i 


no.i 



* Includes seventh or eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 



In the counties having seven grades in the elementary course, 
the per cent of boys graduated varied from 8.1 to 12.4. For girls 
the range in percentage of graduates to elementary enrollment 
was from 9.7 to 15.3. Enrollment in the counties having the 6-3-3 
or 8-4 plan — Washington, Allegany, and Montgomery — is includ- 
ed for the first eight grades in contrast with the remaining coun- 
ties which have the 7-4 or 6-5 plan of organization w^hich have en- 
rollment for the first seven grades represented before percentages 
are computed. This would tend to lower percentages for counties 
on the 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan. (See Chart 2.) 



28 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 2 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN 1936 COUNTY MITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT* 



Coun-ty 



Number 
Boys Girls 

Total and 5,160 
Co. Average 



Garrett 

Harford 
Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Cecil 

Kent 

Frederick 

Q . Anne ' s 

Talbot 

Caroline 
Charles 

Somerset 

Pr. George's 

V.'orcester 

Anne Arundel 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Montgomery* 

Baltimore 

V.'icomico* 

Allegany* 

Washington* 



256 
237 

36 

60 
173 

73 
395 

84 

98 
104 

78 
102 
435 
117 
284 
255 
141 

89 
361 
750 
144 
510 
398 



5,699 



I Per Cent Boys 



Per Cent Girls 



257 on 



267 114.0 



58 115:3 



65 1 14 



199 UTT 



87 1140 



443 nr 



92 111:5 
123 H 



82 



130 \Tz3 



459 m 



106 rToT 
328 Hi 




t Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, and commitment to institutions. 
* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization, 
t Includes mid-year graduates. 



Graduates and Non-Promotions in White Elementary Schools 29 



NON-PROMOTIONS SHOW SMALL GAIN 

Non-promotions of 9,283 white county boys included 16.7 per 
cent of the boys enrolled in the first seven or eight grades of coun- 
ty elementary schools. The corresponding numbers were lower 
in 1930, 1929, and 1931, and percentages in 1935 and 1930. 
With 5,507 girls not promoted, the 1936 number was higher than 
the corresponding number reported as failures in 1931, 1930, and 
1935, and the 1936 percentage, 10.7 per cent, was higher than 
it was in 1931 and 1935. (See Table 17.) 



TABLE 17 



Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary 

Schools 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


1926 


10,392 


6,140 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


1927 


9,954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


1929 


9,147 


5,609 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


1930 


8,962 


5,371 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


1931 


9,231 


5,293 


14,524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11.0 


14.2 


1933 


10,503 


6,244 


16,747 


18.6 


12.0 


15.4 


1934 


11,037 


6,809 


17,846 


19.7 


13.1 


16.5 


1935 


9,283 


5,447 


14,730 


16.5 


10.5 


13.6 


1936 


9,283 


5,507 


14,790 


16.7 


10.7 


13.8 



It will be noted that the number and per cent of boys not pro- 
moted continue to exceed the corresponding figures for girls. The 
reasons for this situation need careful study by teachers and 
supervisors. 

Among the counties non-promotions of boys were as low as 7.9 
per cent and as high as 22.1 per cent of the enrollment, while for 
girls the corresponding extremes were 5.1 per cent and 15.9 per 
cent. Are there differences in ability of pupils, educational philos- 
ophy, administrative and supervisory procedure and practice, 
and instruction, which would account for the greater success of 
pupils in Montgomery as indicated by few non-promotions, over 
the lower chances for success in Wicomico, Baltimore, Dorchester, 
and Kent which have the highest percentages of failures? (See 
Charts.) 



30 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 3 



ITOMBER AND PER CENT OF COONTY WHITE ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS 
THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED ,* 1956 
Number 

Boys Girls HIH Per Cent Boys IZZZZ3 Per Cent Girls 



County 



Total and 
Co. Average 


*9,?83 


*5,607 


Montgomery 


329 


200 


Cecil 


IBS 


92 


Talbot* 


114 


51 


Garrett 


254 


157 


Calvert 


54 


28 


Frederick* 


461 


321 


Worcester 


162 




Queen Anne's 


120 


60 


Harford 


532 


161 


Caroline 


179 


81 


Allegany* 


1,053 


532 


Pr. George's* 


709 


397 


St. Mary's 


91 


58 


Carroll 


464 


241 


Anne Arundel 


553 


323 


Somerset 


215 


110 


Washington 


1,042 


675 


Howard* 


215 


109 


Charles 


161 


81 


Kent 


149 


83 


Dorchester 


329 


183 


Baltimore 


1,727 


1,243 


T/icomico 


389 


237 





8 5 ^////////////A 



m 



V//////X 



mm 



I 



'//////////7X 



11.7 V//////////////////A 



110 1 10-9 y/////// //////////A 




* Excludes non-promotions in special classes. 

Non-Promotions by Grades 

Non-promotions were highest in the first grade and lowest for 
girls in grade 6 and for boys in grade 5. Over one-fourth of the 



Non-Promotions in White Elementary Schools 



31 



first grade boys were considered by their teachers as not ready 
to undertake the work of the second grade while this was the case 
for 17.6 per cent of the first grade girls. It will be noted in Table 
5, page 14, that the counties vary in the age at which they permit 
a pupil to enter the first grade. Some of the counties may have 
a larger percentage than others of pupils too immature to do first 
grade work. Between 17 and 18 per cent of the boys in grades 
8, 7, and 2 were considered not ready for the grade above, while 
over 11 per cent of the seventh grade girls were considered by 
their teachers ineligible for promotion. (See Chart 4.) 

CHART 4 



NON-PROMOTIONS* BY OUDES IN COUNTY V^ITE ELEMENTARY AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR ENDING IN 
JUNE, 1936 

Grade ^^^^^ 

Boys Girls IHPer Cent Boys PTZ^Per Cent Girls 



1 2,?m 

2 1,361 

3 1,053 

4 1,088 



1,337 1 17(> y//////////////// ///////////Z^ 



644 I 9.0 ////////////M 

678 n^^^^^^^ 



5 



989 




6 1.10? 

7 1,151 



673 I 9.4 



589 



269 



752 IU.4 y////////////////^ 
127 ^^^^^^H*"* 



* Excludes non-promotions in kindergartens and most special classes. 

Non-Promotions by Cause 

Teachers attributed over one-third of the non-promotions to 
unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest, 4.9 per cent of 
the white elementary pupils failing for these reasons. Mental 
incapacity as a cause of failure was reported by teachers as affect- 
ing 2.3 per cent of the pupils. Illness of pupils involving physical 
incapacity caused non-promotion of 1.7 per cent of the pupils. 
Irregular attendance not due to sickness affected the promotion of 
1.4 per cent of the pupils. (See Table 18.) 

Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest were reported 
as causes of failure for less than 2 per cent of the Talbot white 



32 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



elementary pupils in contrast with from 6 to 8 per cent of the 
Wicomico, Baltimore, St. Mary's, Charles, and Anne Arundel 
white elementary pupils. Prince George's, Dorchester, and Carroll 
reported the highest per cent of mental incapacity as a cause for 
non-promotion, while Montgomery, Baltimore, and Harford 
showed the lowest per cent of mental incapacity. 



TABLE 18 

Causes for Non-Promotion of County White Elementary Pupils Not Pro- 
moted for Year Ending June 30, 1936, and for Preceding Ten Years 



year and 
county 



Per Cent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 



01 +j 

ill 



6-S 



BY YEAR 



1926 


16,532 


16.3 


4 




2 


9 


2 





2 


7 


1 


7 


.8 


.7 


1.4 


1927 


16,076 


15.6 


3 


9 


3 





1 


9 


2 


2 


1 


5 


.8 


.8 


1.5 


1928 


16,428 


16.0 


5 





3 





1 


9 


2 





1 


3 


.8 


.5 


1.5 


1929 


14,756 


14.3 


4 


3 


2 


5 


1 


9 


2 





1 


1 


.8 


.4 


1.3 


1930 


14,333 


13.7 


4 


5 


2 


7 


1 


7 


1 


4 


1 





.8 


.3 


1.3 


1931 


14,524 


13.7 


4 


8 


2 


7 


1 


6 


1 


2 




8 


.8 


.3 


1.5 


1932 


15,272 


14.2 


5 


4 


2 


6 


1 


8 


1 


2 




7 


.8 


.3 


1.4 


1933 


16,747 


15.4 


5 


8 


3 





1 


5 


1 


3 




7 


.8 


.2 


2.1 


1934 


17,846 


16.5 


5 


8 


3 


3 


2 


3 


1 


5 




6 


.9 


.2 


1.9 


1935 


14,730 


13.6 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


9 


1 


3 




7 


. 7 


.1 


1.7 


1936 


14,790 


13.8 


4 


9 


2 


3 


1 


7 


1 


4 




8 


.7 


.1 


1.9 



BY COUNTY. 1936 





529 


6 


5 


2 


2 




1 


1 


5 




6 




7 




4 


.2 


.8 


Cecil 


273 


8 


7 


3 


7 


1 


1 


1 







8 




8 




5 




.8 


Talbot 


165 


10 





1 


8 


1 


9 


3 


5 




9 


1 


6 




1 




.2 


Garrett 


411 


10 


4 


3 





2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


5 




3 




2 


.'4 


.6 


Calvert 


82 


10 


7 


4 


1 


1 


4 


1 


2 


2 


1 




5 




1 


.1 


1.2 


Frederick 


782 


10 


9 


3 


4 


3 





1 





1 





1 


2 




6 


.2 


.5 


Worcester 


246 


11 


7 


4 


7 


1 


3 


1 


8 


1 





1 


6 




4 


.2 


.7 


Queen Anne's 


180 


12 


2 


4 


5 


2 


7 


1 


8 




9 




1 




8 




1.4 


Harford 


493 


12 


3 


5 


3 




5 


1 


4 


2 







5 


1 


3 


!i 


1.2 




260 


12 


7 


5 


5 


1 


7 


1 


8 




6 




8 




8 




1.5 


Allegany 


1,585 


12 


9 


4 







8 


1 





1 


7 




5 




3 


!i 


1.5 


Prince George's 


1,106 


13 


3 


3 


7 


4 


6 


1 


4 




8 




4 


1 


4 


.2 


.8 


St. Mary's 


149 


14 


5 


6 


5 




9 


1 





2 







9 




.7 


.2 


2.3 


Carroll 


705 


14 


8 


5 


5 


4 


2 




8 


1 


6 




6 




4 


.1 


1.6 


Anne Arundel 


876 


15 





6 


1 


2 


7 


1 


5 




9 


1 







.7 


.2 


1.9 


Somerset 


325 


15 


1 


5 


6 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


8 




7 




7 




.8 




1,717 


15 


6 


5 


4 


2 


3 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 


4 




8 


!2 


2.0 




324 


16 





5 


5 


3 


7 


1 


5 


1 


9 




7 




7 


.1 


1.9 


Charles 


242 


16 


6 


6 


1 


3 


6 


1 


9 


1 


7 




8 




8 


.1 


1.6 


Kent 


232 


17 


1 


5 


2 


1 





5 


6 




7 




5 


1 


2 


.1 


2.8 


Dorchester 


512 


17 


6 


5 


4 


4 


3 


1 


6 


3 


1 


1 


2 




6 




1.4 




2.970 


18 


2 


6 


9 




3 


2 


3 


1 


4 




8 


1 


2 


.1 


5.2 




626 


18 


4 


8 





3 


4 


3 


2 






1 


7 




7 




1.4 



* 13 years, 1925-1931, inclusive. 



Non-Promotions and Testing in White Elementary Schools 33 



In Kent over five per cent of the children were not promoted 
because of personal illness and Talbot and Wicomico had over 
3 per cent failing for this reason. On the other hand one per cent 
or less failed of promotion because of personal illness in Carroll, 
Cecil, Frederick, Allegany, and St. Mary's. 

Irregular attendance not due to sickness caused the failure of 
over 3 per cent of the Dorchester pupils and of no pupils in 
Wicomico. 

Employment caused the failure of over 1.5 per cent of the Wi- 
comico, Worcester, and Talbot pupils. In Baltimore County over 
5 per cent of the pupils failed for ''other" reasons. (See Table 18.) 



TESTING IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

State- Wide Testing 

The Unit Scales of Attainment, Form B, which consist of eleven 
tests, were given in November, 1935, to over 57,000 county white 
pupils in the following grades : 

Pupils 

Grades Tested 

4 14,312 

5 13,937 

6 13,695 

7 12,442 

8 2,928 

Total 57,314 



Since in most of the counties large numbers of teachers gave 
the tests and they may not have been given and scored under uni- 
form conditions, the results were not reported by counties. Dif- 
ferences in the results attained may also have been affected by 
other elements beyond the control of teachers and superivsors. 
Supervisors and teachers were urged to carefully analyze the 
reasons for unsatisfactory results and to adopt appropriate re- 
medial procedures if poor teaching was responsible. 

The per cent of all county children tested making each score 
in each grade in each of the eleven tests is included so that any 
county may check the distribution of its own scores against the 
county average. (See Table 19.) 

The counties on the average were well above standard in all of 
of the tests, except in arithmetic fundamentals and literature in 
Grades 5 and 6. While the test excluded questions covering many 
objectives in our course of study in arithmetic for grades 5, 6, 
and 7, it included examples of a type for which no instruction had 
been given. 



34 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Distribution of Scores in Unit Scales of Attainment 



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36 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The results in Reading were particularly gratifying. 

In Arithmetic Problems nearly 75 per cent of the children were 
at standard or above and in only one county did fewer than 50 
per cent of the pupils reach the standard score. 

In Spelling there were a number of counties in which 50 per 
cent of the children in Grades 5 and 6 did not reach the standard. 
In Spelling and English Usage there were 15 and 17 counties, re- 
spectively, in which the per cent reaching standard in Grade 6 was 
lower than the per cent reaching standard in Grade 5, indicating 
that normal growth between these two grades had not taken 
place. 

Most of the questions ' in the Science tests seemed to measure 
general information from observation and experience rather than 
the type of science instruction which is being promoted with the 
new science courses of study. The test results indicate that Mary- 
land county children have more than the expected information 
about natural things in the world about them. 

The American History test, the same for Grades 4, 5, and 6, 
was largely a reflection of general information rather than of 
specific history instruction in these particular grades. 

In many counties 50 per cent of the pupils did not reach stand- 
ard in Literature in Grades 5, 6, and 7. 

County Testing Programs 

Many counties found it desirable to supplement the State- 
wide testing program with standardized achievement and intelli- 
gence tests. Data regarding the following tests given were 
found in the reports made by the county supervisors of elemen- 
tary schools to the State Superintendent. 

In the spring the primary form of the Unit Scales of Attain- 
ment was given to Grades 1-3 in Howard and Montgomery, and 
to Grade 3 only in Prince George's and St. Mary's. For Grades 
2 and 3, Dorchester chose the Metropolitan Achievement Test 
and Washington County the New Stanford Achievement Test, 
FormZ. 

In the spring the Traxler Silent Reading Test was given to the 
seventh grade and first year high school pupils in Anne Arundel 
and Talbot, and the Garvey Primary Reading Test was given to 
grades 1 and 2 in Prince George's. 

Continuing their policy of preceding years, Howard and Anne 
Arundel gave the Standard Graduation Examination to seventh 
grade pupils. 

Anne Arundel and Frederick gave the Brueckner Monthly 
Curriculum Tests in Arithmetic to Grades 5 and 6 from October 
to June. 

Kent in October and Anne Arundel later in the year gave the 
Terman Intelligence Test to the seventh grade. Anne Arundel 
gave the National Intelligence Test to the fifth grade in June and 



Elementary School Testing; Education of Handicapped Children 37 

Carroll gave it to Grades 4 and 7 in October. Prince George's 
and Kent gave the Detroit Intelligence Test to Grade 4 early in 
the year and Kent used the First Grade Intelligence Test in Oc- 
tober. 

SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR HANDICAPPED 

CHILDREN! 

Special services were rendered to 170 physically handicapped 
and 423 mentally retarded children in the counties of Maryland 
under the supervision of the State Department of Education dur- 
ing the school year 1935-36. In addition, 12 crippled children in 
Baltimore City were transported to senior high schools at State 
expense and 31 hard of hearing children in Montgomery County 
were given instruction in lip reading by a teacher who was paid 
from local funds. The entire State appropriation of $15,000 for 
special education was used in providing services for 182 physi- 
cally handicapped children at an average cost of $82.90 per physi- 
cally handicapped child. Aid distributed to each county for home 

TABLE 20 



State Aid for Physically Handicapped Pupils, 1935-36 



County 


Teachers 
Instructing 
Pupils in Their 
Homes 


Physio- 
therapists 


Transpor- 
tation of 
Pupils to 
Regular 

Classes 


Special Class 


Total 


Salaries 


Travel 


Salaries 


*0ther 
Expense 


Salary of 
Teacher 


JOther 
Expenses 


Total Counties . 


$2,851.15 


$1,508 


85 


$4 , 800 


$885.89 


$600.28 


$2,487.64 


$1,104.65 


$14,238.46 


Allegany 


317.00 


117 


98 


1,200 


14.46 




1,259.14 


553.47 


3 , 462 . 05 


Anne Arundel . . 


309.00 


190 


27 






60 '. 66 




559.27 


Baltimore 


738.00 


669 


87 












1.407.87 


Calvert 


42.15 
















42.15 


Caroline 


83.00 


34 


86 












117.86 


Carroll 












35^00 






35.00 


Cecil 


134!6o 


21 


07 












155.07 


Frederick 








i;266 


328^36 


118.60 






1,646.36 


Garrett 


2o!6o 


7 


00 


600 


250.00 


123.53 






1.000.53 


Harford 


76.00 


53 


20 


600 


250.00 








979.20 


Kent 


150.00 


83 


74 












233.74 


Montgomery . . . 


167.00 


19 


19 












186.19 


Prince George's 


79.00 


2 


73 












81.73 


Queen Anne's. . 


54.00 


7 


56 












61.56 




56.00 


20 


25 












76.25 


Washington .... 


152.00 


50 


16 


l!26o 


43! 07 


156!00 


1,228! 50 


551! 18 


3,374.91 


Wicomico 


367.00 


119 


76 






113.75 






600.51 


Worcester 


107.00 


111 


21 












218.21 


Baltimore City . 












761.54 






761 . 54 


Entire State . . . 


$2,851.15 


$1,508 


85 


$4,800 


$885.89 


$1,361.82 


$2,487.64 


$1,104.65 


$15,000.00 



t Prepared by R. C. Thompson, State Supervisor of Special Education. 

* Includes special supplies and e(iuipment, and travel expense of physiothompisl. 

% Includes transportation, special supplies. 



38 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



instruction, for physiotherapy, for transportation of handicapped 
children to regular classes and for special classes for physically 
handicapped children is shown in Table 20. 

The State Program for Physically Handicapped Children 

Special classes for crippled children were conducted in Cumber- 
land and Hagerstown with a total enrollment of 25 pupils; 47 
county children were given instruction in their homes ; 12 in Bal- 
timore City, and 12 in the counties were provided special trans- 
portation to regular schools ; and physiotherapy was made avail- 
able to 110* children in five counties. Three full time teachers, 
five physiotherapists, and 26 part-time teachers were employed in 
the program. (See Table 21.) 

TABLE 21 



Provision for Physically Handicapped Children Financed by State Aid in 

1935-36 



County 


Number of Pupils 


Number of 
Teachers 

and 
Physio- 
therapists 


Taught 
at Home 


Having 
Physio- 
therapy 


Transported 
to Regular 
Classes 


in 
Special 
Class 


TotaU 


Total Counties 


47 


110 


12 


25 


170 


a34 


Allegany 


5 


31 




15 


36 


t4 


Anne Arundel 


5 




1 




6 


4 




10 








10 




Calvert 


1 








1 


1 


Caroline 


1 








1 


1 


Carroll 










1 




Cecil 


"2 








2 


'2 


Frederick 




28 






28 


tl 


Garrett 


i 


18 






22 


t2 


Harford 


1 


8 






8 


t2 


Kent 


3 








3 


1 


Montgomery 


4 








4 


4 


Prince George's 


2 








2 


2 




1 








1 


1 


Somerset 


1 








1 


1 


Washington 


2 


25 


'2 




35 


t4 


Wicomico 


6 




1 




7 


2 


Worcester 


2 








2 


1 


Baltimore City 






12 




12 




Entire State 


47 


110 


24 


25 


182 


34 


Fall of 1936 


55 




24 


26 


105 


36 



+ Excluding duplicates. 

t Includes a physiotherapist. 

a Includes 2 teachers of special classes, 3 full-time and 2 part-time physiotherapists and 27 
teachers who taught pupils in their homes. 



In the fall of 1936, as a result of the Federal social security 
program, the physiotherapy was transferred to the Crippled Chil- 
dren's Services of the Board of State Aid and Charities, thus re- 
ducing the number of children served by the appropriation for 



* This number includes 24 who were also given other services such as instruction in a 
special class or special transportation to regular schools. 



State Provision for Handicapped Children; 39 
Lip Reading in Montgomery 

handicapped children through the State Pubhc School Budget. 
Home teaching was being given to 55 children, while 26 pupils 
were enrolled in the two special classes at Cumberland and Hagers- 
town, and 13 city children and 11 county children were being given 
special transportation to regular schools. The greatest expansion 
of the program occurred in home instruction in Baltimore County, 
where two full-time and two part-time home teachers were em- 
ployed. This extension of service was made possible by the in- 
crease of the State appropriation in the Public School Budget 
resulting from the transfer of the physiotherapy service to the 
Board of State Aid and Charities. 



Instruction in Lip Reading in Montgomery County 

In the annual report of last year mention was made of the audi- 
ometer testing program carried on in 1935 as an F. E. R. A. proj- 
ect in Montgomery County. Of 2,971 children given the audiom- 
eter test, 336 showed a loss of 9 or more sensation units in one 
or both ears. The parents of these 336 children were advised to 
consult their family physicians about the advisability of securing 
the services of specialists. 

Montgomery County appointed a special teacher of lip reading 
in October, 1935, who arranged for the examination by a Balti- 
more City otologist (ear specialist) of 16 children who, according 
to the test, seemed to need special attention. It was recommended 
that 7 of these children be placed in lip reading classes and to 
this number were added 24 children selected by the special teacher 
on the basis of school record, ability, and general behavior. The 
consent of parents was secured to permit their children attending 
seven different schools to have special instruction in lip reading 
at least twice a week during 20- to 45-minute periods. 

On October 15, 1936, an ear clinic was opened in Rockville under 
the direction of Dr. M. L. Breitstein, instructor of otology at 
Johns Hopkins Medical School. Children who had previously fall- 
en below 9 sensation units' loss on the 4A audiometer were selected 
for the clinic. Parents were notified and were requestd to bring 
the children in for further examination. Only about one-half of 
these parents responded up to March 1, 1937, but those who 
brought their children received valuable diagnosis and advice 
from Dr. Breitstein. Cases requiring medical treatment are re- 
ferred to private physicians if the parents are able to pay : other- 
wise the cases are turned over to the Social Service Exchange 
in order that they may secure the necessary treatment at some 
hospital or general clinic. School principals are advised concern- 
ing special recommendations for children enrolled in their schools. 

A new 4A audiometer testing program was started in October, 
1936, and 1,359 pupils in ten different schools have been examined 



40 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



during the year 1936-37. The testing was done under the super- 
vision of the teacher of lip reading classes, who is being assisted 
by a worker paid from funds donated by the Silver Spring Red 
Cross. 

During the school year 1936-37, 26 children are being taught 
in lip reading classes. The special teacher is supervising the test- 
ing program and assisting Dr. Breitstein with his clinic work in 
addition to giving instruction to these hard-of-hearing pupils. 
Both State and county school officials are well pleased with the 
progress being made and hope that the success of the program 
in Montgomery County will lead other counties to initiate simi- 
lar work. 

Mentally Retarded 

During 1935-36, nineteen classes for mentally retarded children 
were conducted by eight different counties for an enrollment of 
423 pupils. (See Table 22.) 

TABLE 22 



Special Classes for Retarded Children in Maryland Counties, 1935-36 



county 


Number of 
Classes 


Enrollment 


Average 
Enrollment 
per Class 


Total 


19 


463 


25 






9 


210 


23 


Carroll 




1 


38 


38* 


Frederick 




3 


69 


23 


Kent 




1 


26 


26 


Montgomery 




1 


45 


45* 


Prince George's 




1 


20 


20 


Talbot 




1 


20 


20 


Washington 




2 


35 


17 



* Additional slow children placed in class with retarded group to make a regular sized class. 



The Supervisor of Special Education prepared and presented to 
the county superintendents the following 'Tentative Standards 
for Special Classes for Retarded Children" which were approved 
by the State Board of Education, May 27, 1936. 

STANDARDS FOR SPECIAL CLASSES FOR RETARDED CHILDREN 

I. Selection of Pupils 

a. Each teacher to report cases of all maladjusted children, — non- 

readers, behavior problems, emotionally unstable, etc. 

b. All children who are two years or more retarded in school grade. 

c. All children two years or more below their age norm on standard 

achievement tests. 

d. Any other children who, in the opinion of the teacher, are in need 

of special education. 



Lip Reading Instruction; Classes for Mentally Retarded Pupils 41 



Group intelligence tests should be given to all of these children and if the 
result corroborates the teacher's judgment and the achievement test result, 
an individual Binet test should then be given. (Binet testing is now avail- 
able to the County schools through the mental hygiene clinics being con- 
ducted by the Mental Hygiene Society in cooperation with the State De- 
partment of Health.) 

Each child selected according to the above standard should be given a 
careful health examination in order to determine whether some physical 
disability is a contributing factor to school failure, — these examinations are 
available through county health offices. 

Parental consent should be secured before any child is assigned to a 
special class. 

II. Organization of the Sj^ecial Classes 

a. Enrollment: Minimum 15; maximum 25, if of homogeneous age, 

20 it of wide age range. 

b. Children of at least five years mental age, with I.Q.'s not less than 

50 nor more than about 80. 

c. Chronological age: 8 to 13 years for elementary classes; 14 and 

over for occupational classes. 

III. Housing 

Classroom to be selected which shall have ventilation, light, and other 
facilities at least equal to those provided for regular classes. If 
possible, a second classroom should be available for manual ac- 
tivities. 

IV. Curriculum and Equipment 

To be developed according to generally accepted principles of curri- 
culum making for mentally handicapped children, combining 
academic, industrial, and social training to meet local community 
needs. 

V. Teaching Staff 

a. Qualifications equivalent to those required for appointment as ele- 

mentary teachers. 

b. At least two years of approved successful teaching experience. 

c. Adaptability for the special type of work required. 

d. Interest in and understanding of the problem of handicapped chil- 

dren. 

e. Teachers with "special education" training preferred. 

VI. Training of Teachers 

Summer school courses in special education at the University of 
Maryland, Johns Hopkins, and other recognized schools. 



Note: It is urged that every precaution be taken to organize classes in as inconspicuous a 
manner as possible. To this end, principal and teachers may be called in conference before 
any steps are taken to establish the class. They should fully understand its nature and pur- 
pose and should be impressed with the importance of maintaining a mutually cooperative and 
happy relationship between the children of the special class and other children of the school. 



42 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Teacher Training 



^ Both the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity in 1936 continued their summer school program in special 
education by offering courses for teachers of handicapped chil- 
dren. The number of county teachers enrolled in special educa- 
tion courses increased from 20 in the summer of 1935 to 58 in 
1936. 

The usual practice of extending to the county teachers an in- 
vitation to visit special classes in Baltimore during the State 
Teachers' Meeting in the fall was continued, although the number 
of visitors taking advantage of this opportunity in 1936 was not 
as large as in previous years. 



During 1935-36 the program of Child Guidance Clinics held 
by psychiatrists who volunteered their services was continued in 
18 of the 23 counties. Officials of the State Department of Edu- 
cation and the local school boards cooperated by recommending 128 
children for examination and securing data for case histories for 
the psychiatrists holding the clinics. (See also pages 73-74.) 

The department continued to cooperate with the Maryland 
League for Crippled Children in conducting orthopedic clinics in 
16 counties of the State. 



The Program for Handicapped Children in Baltimore Cityf 

Responsibility for special education of handicapped children 
has been carried by the school authorities of Baltimore City over 
a long period. As a result of its progressive development, Balti- 
more City ranks high among comparable cities in the percentage 
of enrollment in special classes. The year during which various 
types of service were first established in the City is shown below : 



Clinical Study of Children 



1936 



Year First 



No. of 

Classes 



Enroll- 
ment 



Established Type of Service 



1902 Ungraded for most troublesome 

1909 Opportunity and special centers 

1913 Crippled and open-air classes 

1917 Classes for the deaf 

1923 Speech correction . 

1926 Sight conservation 

1928 Home teaching 

1930 Conservation of hearing 

1932 Shop centers 

1935 Experimental class, pre-kindergarten deaf . . . . 



167 
30 
3 



2 
46 
2 



9 



4,885 



1,498 
25* 



1,134 



883 
40 



175 
81 
44 



* Included 10 handicapped and 15 normal children. 

t Data obtained from 1936 Report of Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore City. 



The Baltimore City Program for Handicapped Children 43 



There was little change in the number of special classes for 
physically handicapped children in Baltimore City in 1935-36. 
Two segregated open-air classes in the Canton Platoon School 
were discontinued and instead pupils in these classes were re- 
turned to the regular grades. Malnourished boys and girls in 
this school, however, were scheduled for hot lunches and rest 
periods in the open-air rooms during the various periods of each 
day. (See Table 23.) 

TABLE 23 



Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1936 















Promoted Once or 














Twice or Making 








Returned 




Per Cent 


Satisfactory Im- 


Kind of Class 


No. of 


Total 


to 


Average 


of 


provement 




Classes 


Admitted 


Regular 


Net 


Atten- 












Classes 


Roll 


dance 


















No. 


tPer Cent 



White Pupils 

Physically Handicapped and Atypical: 



Total 


37 


1,014 


68 


805 


89 


4 


629 


77 


8 




15 


439 


48 


342 


88 


6 


265 


77 


7 


Orthopedic 


11 


342 


19 


262 


91 


1 


173 


66 


2 


Conservation of Sight. . . . 


4 


66 


1 


59 


88 


8 


60 


93 


5 




2 


44 




38 


89 


5 


30 


78 


9 


Deaf 


2 


31 




28 


89 


3 


27 


93 


1 


Mixed* 


3 


92 




76 


88 


2 


74 


98 


7 


Mentally Handicapped: 


Total 


160 


4,853 


8 


3,754 


83 





3,041 


82 


2 


Opportunity 


118 


3,591 


8 


2,853 


84 


9 


2,347 


83 





Special Center 

Shop Center 


10 


195 




170 


81 


4 


135 


81 


8 


32 


1,067 




731 


76 


5 


559 


80 


2 



Colored Pupils 

Physically Handicapped: 



Total 


10 


220 




172 


85 


5 


134 


74.4 


Sight Conservation 


5 


109 




79 


82 


3 


61 


73.5 


Orthopedic 


3 


71 




66 


87 


8 


50 


76.9 


Open Air 


1 


31 




19 


73 




17 


70.8 


Deaf 


1 


9 




8 


88 


9 


6 


75.0 


Mentally Handicapped: 


Total 


53 


1,530 


4 


1,293 


76 


3 


868 


68.7 


Opportunity 


31 


902 


4 


767 


78 


2 


539 


69.5 


Special Center 


8 


197 




174 


79 


9 


106 


63.8 


Shop Center 


14 


431 




352 


70 


5 


223 


69.2 



* For junior high school pupils. 

t Per cent of net roll, i.e., numbed admitted exclusive of pupils rcturnc<l to retjular classes 
or withdrawn in other ways. 



44 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The Baltimore City Division of Special Education has developed 
a diagnostic service for the identification, correction, and preven- 
tion of non-readers. It was found that there were in the Balti- 
more public schools over 400 children retarded three years or more 
on an age-grade basis. One or more of the following conditions 
exists in the case of each non-reader according to the Baltimore 
City report : 

"(1) physical defect of sight, hearing, speech, or malnourishment not 
corrected 

"(2) socially inefficient or undesirable personality traits 
"(3) mental immaturity 

"(4) unusually inefficient initial learning habits" 

"The typical non-reader is normal or better in intelligence, does 
not know all the letters of the alphabet, has practically no knowl- 
edge of phonics, does not know how to divide a word into sylla- 
bles, has persistent reversals both of letters and of words, has 
a meager vocabulary, and is particularly poor in oral reading.'** 

Speech training was given to 793 white children in 36 schools 
and 341 colored in 12 schools. Each itinerant teacher of speech 
devoted her time to six elementary schools, being in four schools 
twice a week and two schools for one-half a day each week. About 
60 per cent of the children enrolled in speech classes were suffering 
with two and often three types of defects, bringing on psycho- 
pathic disturbances as a result of the constant embarrassment 
and humiliation accompanying stammering. One-fourth of the 
children given speech training made 100 per cent improvement, 
another third from 75 to 90 per cent improvement, another fourth 
from 50 to 74 per cent improvement, leaving only 15 per cent who 
showed less than 50 per cent improvement. 

The Psycho-Educational Clinic studied 3,756 problem children 
referred by school principals and other agencies. All available 
information was secured regarding mental ability, physical con- 
dition, developmental history, and home environment. The in- 
telligence quotients of these children obtained from individual 
examinations are given in Table 24. 

Dr. Harry F. Latshaw, Director of the Division of Special Edu- 
cation of the Baltimore Public Schools, made an interesting calcu- 
lation based on 1930 Maryland mortality statistics furnished by 
Dr. Lowell J. Reed, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public 
Health, and Dr. A. W. Hedrich, Director, Bureau of Vital Statis- 
tics, Maryland State Department of Health. He concludes that if 
a sampling of 10,000 children born in the same year is taken, there 
will be 1,049 who will have died before reaching age 5. From this 
he estimates that of the original 10,000 there will be 8,951 left 



* See pages 63-64 in 1936 Report of Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore. 



Provision for Handicapped Children in Baltimore City 45 



TABLE 24 



Intelligence Quotients of Children Studied by Baltimore City Psycho- 
Educational Clinic, 1935-36 





School 
















Problem 


Special 


Hospital 


Juvenile 


Labor 






Intelligence 


Children 


Problem 


Clinic 


Court 


Bureau 


Total 


Per 


Quotient 


(Routine 


Cases 


Cases 


Cases 


Cases 




Cent 


Cases) 















120-129 . 


1 


1 


1 


2 




5 


.1 


110-119. . 


3 


7 


9 


2 


1 


22 


.6 


100-109 . 


36 


22 


14 


1 


1 


74 


2.0 


90- 99 . . 


225 


66 


28 


11 


5 


335 


38.9 


80- 89. . 


838 


100 


61 


24 


30 


1,053 


28.0 


70- 79 . 


899 


171 


63 


26 


86 


1,245 


33.2 


60- 69 . 


445 


129 


38 


18 


77 


707 


18.8 


50- 59 . 


114 


57 


28 


10 


27 


236 


6.3 


40- 49. . 


14 


18 


8 


2 


4 


46 


1.2 


30- 39. 


4 


12 


5 




2 


23 


.6 


20- 29 . 


1 


9 








10 


.3 


Total . . 


. 2,580 


592 


255 


96 


233 


3,756 


100.0 



requiring some sort of educational program of whom 80 will die 
before they reach age 10, 145 before they reach age 15, and 274 
before they reach age 20, leaving 8,677 to carry on after age 20.* 

According to a theoretical distribution of 8,677 persons esti- 
mated as surviving to 20 years of age out of 10,000 born the 
same year, it is assumed that 75 per cent will probably be of nor- 
mal or better than normal intelligence, 14 per cent will be dull, 5 



TABLE 25 

Theoretical Distribution of 8,677 Persons Surviving to 20 Years of Age 
Out of 10,000 Born the Same Year 



Type 


Number 


Per Cent 




34 




.4 




15 




.2 


Blind 


5 




.1 




17 




.2 




86 


1 







260 
86 


3 


.0 


Emotionally unstable, delinquent (supervision needed) 


1 


.0 


Mentally defective, dependent, delinquent (institutionalization needed) . 


8 




1 


Mentally defective, dependent (special class needed, grades 1 and 2) . . . . 


78 




.9 


Mentally handicapped (opportunity class needed, grades 3 and 4; voca- 










347 


4 





Dull normal (occupational class needed, grades 5 and 6; vocational level, 










1.214 


14 





Normal (regular grades; vocational level, skilled trades and small business) 


5,206 


60 





Bright (college education usually desirable; vocational level, larger busi- 










1,301 


15 





Gifted (professional and research education highly desirable) 


20 




2 


Total 


8,677 


100. 





* See page 170 of the 1936 Report of the Board of School Commissioners. 



46 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

per cent will be mentally handicapped, 1 per cent emotionally un- 
stable, and nearly 5 per cent physically handicapped. It is inter- 
esting to note that the largest group of physically handicapped, 
3 per cent, includes the speech defectives. The table indicates the 
type of educational set-up similar to that available in Baltimore 
City needed for these different groups.f (See Table 25.) 

CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

There has been an increase in the number of county white ele- 
mentary teachers holding elementary principals' certificates. 
Bachelor of Science and advanced first grade certificates, accom- 
panying a corresponding reduction in the number holding first 
grade certificates. With 225 elementary school principals in 
service in October, 1936, there was an increase of 14 over the 
number in October, 1935. The number of white elementary teach- 
ers holding either Bachelor of Science or high school certificates 
in October, 1936, was an increase of 66 over the number the year 
before. There were 800 teachers holding advanced first grade 
certificates indicating three years of normal school or college 
work or the equivalent, 134 more than in October, 1935. With 
but 1,554 teachers holding first grade certificates, there was a 
reduction of 206 under the corresponding number in October, 
1935. There was little change in the number holding second and 
third grade certificates, 34, and 14, respectively, but the number 
of substitutes (18) was 10 more than the number the vear before. 
(See Table X, page 317.) 

The one-teacher schools continued to have the lowest per cent 
of teachers holding first grade certificates or better and the high- 
est per cent of teachers with second and third grade certificates. 
The number and per cent of teachers holding various types of cer- 
tificates in one-teacher and two-teacher white elementary schools 
are shown in Table XI, page 318. 

EXPERIENCE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

The median years of experience of 2,752 county white elemen- 
tary teachers and principals in service in October, 1936, was 10.1 
years. The corresponding experience two years before was 8.9 
years. Among the counties the median experience ranged be- 
tween 8 years and 17 years. All of the counties having the high- 
est median experience, Wicomico, Kent, Queen Anne's, and Som- 
erset, were on the Eastern Shore. At the opposite extreme, teach- 
ers in Howard, Calvert, Prince George's, and Charles had a medi- 
an experience of 8 years. Prince George's teachers are the only 
ones who had a lower median experience in October, 1936, than 
they had in October, 1934. (See Table 26.) 

There were 140 inexperienced white elementary teachers em- 
ployed in the counties in October, 1936, a smaller number than 
the number in service on the same date who had had experience 



t See pages 170 and 171 of the 1936 Report of the Board of School Commissioners. 



Certification and Experience of White Elementary Teachers 



OOTUIOOt^ 



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03 --((N-^ rooji-i ■ <N ca "3 -"S* N 



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pjOJJBH 



•iMC-eocooo«ocot-o?D;oiCia5^co 



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ico'^i-iiococooo'^eooo«oo505T}i;o 



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o(Ncgo-^oooo«DTj<a5ica5CDooa5 
-^cgcoost-ioint-t-iccocg^^ioio 



irtCTiCO- 

::::::::::: :7V^+ 

o— i(Mco-*i.o;r)c-ooa50.-H(Mi;co'?' 

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48 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



of from 5 to 9 years, inclusive. There were from 150 to 178 
teachers in these latter experience groups which, of course, were 
originally much larger before teachers withdrew from the service. 
This means that the number of teachers appointed in each of the 
past five years is below the number appointed annually prior to 
October, 1932. These decreases are explained partly by school 
consolidation, partly by the lessened need for additional elemen- 
tary teachers as a result of the declining birth rate, and partly 
by the tendency to increase the size of classes in counties which 
were increasing in population because of the curtailment of school 
funds during the depression. (See Table 26.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF WHITE 
ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

TABLE 27 

County White Elementary School Teachers in Service in October, 1936, 
Reported by County Superintendents and/or Colleges as Summer 
School Attendants in 1936 



County 



Total and Average 

Prince George's . . . 

Montgomery 

Carroll 

Allegany 

St. Mary's 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Charles 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Howard 

Talbot 

Washington 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 



Teachers Employed 
October, 1936, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1936 



Number 



af661 

*ttn3 

f**61 
*tt38 
*76 
*10 
*t26 
15 
15 
10 
*89 
*30 
*21 
14 
*tl3 

tio 

*t56 
*17 
37 
*t26 
*20 
2 
1 
1 



Per Cent 



24.0 

32.7 
31.0 
29.7 
28.7 
28.6 
28.3 
27.8 
26.3 
25.6 
25.4 
24.0 
23.1 
22.6 
22.4 
20.4 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Western Maryland College 

University of Delaware 

Columbia University 

Duke University 

Pennsylvania State College 

Harrisonburg State Teachers College 

University of Virginia 

University of Colorado 

Temple University 

Shepherd State Teachers College . . . . 

George Washington University 

University of West Virginia 

Hyannis 

Other 



Number 
of 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 
School 
Teachers 



bf686 

c313H 
dl70 
d64 
35 
e29 
17 
14 
11 
5 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 

IIJ^ 



* Each asterisk represents one attendance officer excluded, 
t Each dagger represents one supervisor excluded, 
a Excludes 15 attendance officers and 10 supervisors, 
b Includes 15 attendance officers and 10 supervisors, 
c Includes 15 attendance officers and 3 supervisors. 



d Includes 1 supervisor. 

e Includes 5 supervisors. 

f A statistical clerk who re- 
ports on attendance is 
included as an atten- 
dance officer. 



There were 661 county v^hite elementary teachers of the 2,752 
in service in October, 1936, who attended summer school in 1936. 
This included 24 per cent of the group. The renewal of certifi- 



Experience, Summer School Attendance, Resignations of Teachers 49 



cates for periods of six years instead of four as a result of the ac- 
tion of the State Board of Education in postponing the require- 
ment of summer school attendance because of salary cuts in effect 
since September, 1933, has reduced summer school attendance. 
However, teachers in many counties who have had only two years 
of professional training beyond high school desire to meet the 
recent requirements for new appointees of three and four years 
of training beyond high school. This is reflected in the increase 
in the number of teachers who hold advanced first and bachelor 
of science certificates. (See Table 27.) 

Ten counties had more than a fourth, while six counties had 
less than a fifth of their white elementary staffs in summer school 
in 1936. (See Table 27.) 

Of the 686 summer school attendants in 1936 including atten- 
dance officers and elementary supervisors in service in county 
white elementary schools in October, 1936, the University of 
Maryland instructed 314, or 46 per cent of the total number. 
Johns Hopkins University gave instruction to 170 or a fourth, 
while Western Maryland College taught 64 or 9 per cent. Nearly 
80 per cent of those who attended summer school in 1936 went to 
these three Maryland institutions. The University of Delaware, 
Teachers' College, Columbia, Duke University, Penn State, and 
Harrisonburg were the only other schools which enrolled more 
than 10 county w^hite elementary teachers in the summer of 1936. 
(See right half of Table 27.) 

FEWER RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY WHITE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Between October, 1934, and October, 1935, there were 143 res- 
ignations of teachers from county white elementary schools, a 
smaller number than for any one year preceding since these fig- 
ures have been compiled. The number who resigned because of 
marriage, 71, was fewer than for the year preceding. There w^ere 
20 teachers on leave of absence, an increase over the number of 
three years preceding. (See Table 28.) 



50 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 28 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Mary- 
land County White Elementary Schools* Between October of 
One Year and October of the Following Year 



Cause of Resignation 



Oct. 

TO 

Oct. 


Marriage 


Retirement 


Work Other Than 
Teaching 


Inefficiency 


Illness 


Teaching in Another 
State or in Private 
School 


Teaching in Baltimore 
City, in State Teachers 
College or Acting as 
Supervisor or Atten- 
dance Officer 


Death 


Provisional Certificate 
or Failure to Attend 
Summer School 


Moved Away 


Position Abolished 


Rejected by Medical 
Board 


Other and Unknown 


Total 


Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Another 
County 


Transfer to Other Type 
of School Within County 


1927-28 


148 


14 


43 


31 


24 


25 


30 


10 


37 


10 






27 


399 


44 


53 


3 


1928-29 


164 


27 


35 


27 


14 


48 


23 


8 


12 


8 






18 


384 


31 


46 


9 


1929-30 


136 


27 


36 


23 


15 


34 


9 


7 


15 


8 






20 


330 


23 


47 


12 


1930-31 


122 


19 


10 


37 


9 


15 


11 


6 


12 


14 






21 


276 


22 


19 


34 


1931-32 


83 


24 


2 


23 


9 


2 


1 


7 


9 


9 


5 


3 


24 


201 


15 


10 


6 


1932-33 


81 


28 


3 


12 


4 


2 




7 


1 


1 


7 




12 


158 


11 


3 


16 


1933-34 


93 


26 


12 


6 


7 


5 


3 


3 


2 


3 


3 




5 


168 


13 


7 


8 


1934-35 


71 


24 


12 


9 


6 


5 


3 


2 


2 


1 


1 




7 


143 


20 


10 


7 



* Teachers withdrawing from grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior or junior-senior high 
schools are excluded from this table. They are included in Table 77, page 127. 



TURNOVER OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 
SIX PER CENT 

There were 166 teachers, 6 per cent, new to the county white 
elementary school staff in the school year 1935-36. Only in one 
preceding year, 1932-33, with 149, was the turnover lower. The 
number of teaching positions was 7 lower than the year preceding, 
but the reduction in positions was less than for any year preced- 
ing since 1930-31. 

Of those new to the county staffs, 115 were inexperienced, 33 
were teachers who had formerly taught in the counties, but were 
not in service in 1934-35, 7 came to the counties after experience 
in other states, 3 were from high schools, and 8 were substitutes. 
(See Table 29.) 

In Queen Anne's, Somerset, and Talbot not a single new teacher 
was added to the staffs, while in Wicomico, Cecil, Kent, St. Mary's 
and Calvert only 1 new teacher was appointed, and in Dorchester 
and Charles 2 were given positions. At the opposite extreme. 
Prince George's appointed 36 teachers new to its staff in 1935-36, 
Baltimore County, 23, Montgomery, 22, and Washington County, 
20. (See Table 29.) 



Resignations and Turnover of County White Elementary Teachers 51 

TABLE 29 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the Ele- 
mentary Schools of Each Individual County During the School Year 
1935-1936, With Comparisons for Preceding Years 



County 


New to 
County 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 


Number New to County Elementary 
Schools* Who Were 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


In 
County, 
but Not 
Teaching 
Year 
Before 


Jijxperie 

From 
An- 
other 
County 


need 

But 
New 

to 
State 


From 
Junior, 
Junior- 
Senior, 

or 
Regular 

High 
School 


Substi- 
tutes 


*County Total and 




















Average: 




















1930-31 


°343 


11.8 


—24 


238 


56 


44 


29 


5 


15 


1931-32 


°275 


9.5 


—61 


210 


32 


19 


17 


5 


11 


1932-33 


°149 


5.3 


—81 


102 


29 


10 


2 


6 


10 


1933-34 


°174 


6.2 


—29 


115 


30 


3 


12 


5 


12 


1934-35 


°195 


7.0 


—13 


155 


21 


7 


10 


3 


6 


1935-36 


°166 


6.0 


—7 


115 


33 


10 


7 


3 


8 




























— i 














Talbot 






—2 














Wicomico 


i 


i!i 






i 










Cecil 


1 


1.1 




i 












Kent 


1 


2.3 


















2 


2 . 4 




1 












St. Mary's 


1 


2.9 


— i 




i 










Carroll 


4 


3.0 


—3 


2 


2 










Allegany 


12 


4.5 




6 


2 










Frederick 


9 


4.6 


—3 


4 


5 










Charles 


2 


5.0 




2 














3 


5.0 






2 










Anne Arundel 


8 


5.1 


—5 


'4 


4 










Calvert 


1 


5.3 


—1 


1 












Baltimore 


23 


6.5 


+ 1 


21 












Harford 


9 


7.0 


+ 3 


9 












Howard 


4 


7.0 


—1 


2 


'2 










Washington 


20 


7.3 


—1 


18 


2 










Garrett 


10 


8.6 




4 


2 


i 








Montgomery 


22 


11.5 


+ 4 


11 


3 


2 


6 






Caroline 


7 


12.5 


—1 


5 


2 










Prince George's 


36 


16.1 


+ 4 


24 


5 


'4 


i 




'2 


Baltimore City: 




















Elementary 


111 


7.4 


+ 17 


97 


6 


1 


7 






Voc. and Prevoc. . . . 


14 


8.4 


+ 10 


12 


1 




1 







* Teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junioi- or junior-senior high schools are excluded 
from this table. They are included in Table 78, page 128. 

° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 



Turnover in Baltimore City white elementary and occupational 
schools in 1935-36 totalled 116, of whom 100 were inexperienced 
teachers. Data on turnover in the Baltimore City schools since 
1929-30 are included in Table 30. 



52 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 30 



Turnover of White Elementary and Occupational Teachers in Baltimore City 









Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 




Total 
















Number 
















New to 








Who Were Experienced 




Baltimore 


Change in 












Year 


'^iiy w nue 


Number 














Elementary 


oi 


Inex- 




But Not 










and Occu- 


Teaching 


per- 


From 


in 


In 


In Other 






pational 


Positions 


ienced 


Other 


Service 


County 


Type of 


Other 




Schools 






States 


Preced- 


Preced- 


Baltimore 














ing 


ing 


City 














Year 


Year 


School 




1929-30. . . . 


160 


+ 12 


138 


6 


9 


3 


3 


1 


1930-31. . . . 


185 


+ 44 


160 


2 


7 


8 


6 


2 


1931-32. . . . 


115 


—69 


69 


17 


10 


4 


14 




1932-33 


67 


—221 


12 


6 






48 




1933-34 


84 


—6 


60 


1 


' is 








1934-35 


155 


+ 43 


132 


3 


11 


5 






1935-36. . . . 


116 


+ 16 


100 


7 


7 


1 







MORE MEN TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 246 men teaching in county white elementary 
schools in 1935-36, 19 more than the year preceding, continuing 
the trend evident since 1929-30 for the proportion of men to in- 
crease. The men represented 8.4 per cent of the county white 
elementary staff in 1935-36. Only in two years since 1922-23 
has there been a larger number of men and only in one year a 
higher percentage than in 1935-36. (See Table IX, page 316.) 

Six counties, Calvert, Caroline, Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, 
and Wicomico had no men teaching in elementary grades and three 
counties, Howard, Somerset, and Talbot, each had one man. Bal- 
timore County had 51, Washington 47, Allegany 31, Frederick 
28, Carroll 23, and Montgomery County 20. As the number of 
large consolidated schools increases, men seek positions as prin- 
cipals and teachers of the upper grades. (See Table IX, page 316.) 

NUMBER OF PUPILS PER TEACHER 

There was a decrease of .3 in the number of pupils belonging per 
county white elementary teacher in 1936 under the number the 
two years preceding. The average number in 1936 was 35.8 
pupils per teacher. The average number per teacher in the coun- 
ties ranged from 29.7 to 41.6 pupils. All, except eight counties, 
Calvert, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Caroline, Howard, Car- 
roll, Talbot, and St. Mary's, had fewer pupils per teacher in 1936 
than in 1935. Baltimore City had 33.5 pupils per white elemen- 
tary teacher and principal, .8 under the year before. In many of 
the counties and Baltimore City, the smaller number of pupils 
per teacher was due to a decrease in pupils rather than to an 
increase in teaching staff. (See Chart 5.) 



Baltimore City Turnover; County Men Teachers; 
Pupils per White Elementary Teacher 



53 



CHART 5 



AVERAGF NUMBfJi BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN raiTE ELEMQITARY SCHOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 



19M 1935 1936 
55.1 36.1 




Balto. City 35.6 34.2 
State 55.9 35.5 



t Excludes 27.7 pupils for junior high and 19.4 pupils for vocational schools. 

There were on the average per teacher 25.5 pupils in the one- 
teacher schools, 31.6 in the two-teacher, and 37.9 in the white 
graded schools. In the one-teacher school in Calvert there were 
19 pupils, while in Charles there were 29. For two-teacher schools 
the extremes in size per pupil group were found in Wicomico 
with 23 and in Talbot with 37. St. Mary's had the largest group 



54 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



per teacher in its Great Mills school due to lack of building facil- 
ities since remedied, 45 pupils, whereas Montgomery at the oppo- 
site extreme had 33 on the average per teacher and principal. (See 
Table SI.) 

TABLE 31 

Number of Teachers and Average Size of Class in County White Elementary 
One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1936 



County 



Schools Having 
One Teacher 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



County 



Schools Having 
Two Teachers 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



County 



Schools Having 
Three or More 
Teachers 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



Co. Average. 

Charles 

Worcester. . . 

Garrett 

Pr. George's . 
Dorchester . . 
Wicomico . . . 

Cecil 

Washington . 
Allegany .... 

Howard 

Frederick .... 
St. Mary's. . . 
Somerset .... 

Harford 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's 
Anne Arundel 

Kent 

Calvert 



341 



25.5 

29.1 

27.6 

27.6 

27.6 

27.0 

26. 

26. 

26. 

26. 

25. 

25. 

24. 

24. 

24.3 

24.0 

23.7 

22.4 

21.9 

20.9 

20.8 

20.5 

19.3 



Co. Average. 

Talbot 

Baltimore. . . 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Allegany. . . . 

Howard 

Cecil 

Frederick .... 
Washington . 

Kent 

Worcester. . . 
Pr. George's, 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 
St. Mary's. . . 
Montgomery 
Somerset .... 
Anne Arundel 

Charles 

Harford 

Dorchester . . 

Caroline 

Wicomico . . . 



315 

2 
28 
14 

6 
22 

7 
12 
24 
32 

8 

8 
26 
14 

8 
18 
14 
10 
10 

6 
24 

8 

4 
10 



31.6 

37.4 
37.2 
36.2 
35.7 
35.5 
34.9 
34.3 
33.8 
32.7 
32.0 
31.9 
30.7 
30.0 
29.8 
29.7 
29.4 
28.4 
27.7 
26.6 
26.5 
25.9 
25.8 
23.3 



Co. Average. 

St. Mary's. . . 

Calvert 

Baltimore. . . 

Garrett 

Howard 

Caroline 

Pr. George's. 
Wicomico . . . 
Queen Anne's 
Washington . 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel 

Charles 

Worcester . . . 

Carroll 

Somerset .... 
Frederick .... 
Dorchester . . 

Talbot 

Allegany. . . . 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery 



2,292 

4 
12 

356 
44 
33 
43 

180 
64 
29 

229 
51 

145 
33 
45 

106 
41 

165 
58 
38 

295 
79 
25 

217 



37.9 

45.2 
42.6 
42.0 
41.1 
40.5 
40.0 
39.6 
39.2 
38.4 
38.3 
38.2 
38.0 
37.7 
37.6 
37.4 
37.2 
36.9 
36.5 
36.1 
35.9 
35.0 
33.7 
33.0 



AVERAGE SALARY PER WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHER 

The average salary per county white elementary principal and 
teacher was $1,202 in 1936. Keeping pace with the improving 
certificate and experience status of teachers, salaries made steady 
and continuous gains from 1917 to 1933 when they were at their 
maximum at $1,231. With the salary cuts made by the 1933 leg- 
islature, the average salary dropped to $1,122 in 1934 and since 
then has risen to $1,135 in 1935 and $1,202 in 1936. The 1936 
salary is below the average paid in 1931, 1932 and 1933. (See 
Table 32 and Chart 6.) 



No. OF Pupils and Average Salary per White Elementary Teacher 55 



TABLE 32 



Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher 
and Principal, 1917-1936 





Average 


i 


Average 












White 




White 


Year Ending June 30 


Elementary 


Year Ending June 30 


Elementary 




School 




School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


$491 
542 
521 
631 
881 
937 
990 
1,030 
1,057 
1,103 


1927 


$1,126 
1,155 
1,184 
1,199 
1,217 
1,230 
1,231 
1,122 
1,135 
1,202 


1918 


1928 


1919 


1929 


1920 


1930 


1921 


1931 


1922 


1932 


1923 


1933 


1924 


1934 


1925 


1935 


1926 


1936 







CHART 6 

Average Salary Per County White Elementary Principal and Teacher 

1921 to 1936 



500 
,200 
900 
600 


















































300 



































1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1935 1935 



56 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Among the counties average salaries varied from less than 
$1,050 in eleven counties, the lowest being $1,004 in Howard, to 
over $1,200 in four counties, the maximum being $1,5.07 in Balti- 
more County. Every county, except Cecil and Charles, showed an 
increase in salary from 1935 to 1936. Through aid from the State 
reserve fund, counties on the minimum State schedule received 
a 25 per cent restoration of the cuts in effect since the fall of 
1933. In January, 1936, Baltimore County restored its 10 per 
cent cut and Frederick adopted the State minimum schedule in 



CHART 7 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 
IN WHITE ELe.lFNTARY SCHOOLS 



County- 


1953 


1934 


1935 


Co. Average $1J:51 


$1122 $1135 


Baltimore 


1453 


1399 


1393 


Montgomery 


1366 


1221 


1362 


Allegany 


1314 


1175 


1183 


Anne Arundel 


1270 


1170 


1150 


Pr. George's 


1231 


1103 


1112 


Cecil 


1226 


1134 


1172 


Frederick 


1139 


1029 


1033 


y.'ashington 


1168 


1055 


1060 


Wiconico 


1143 


1028 


1023 


Harford 


1151 


1057 


1067 


Queen Anne's 


1183 


1058 


1053 


Kent 


1175 


1050 


1040 


Calvert 


1150 


1015 


1013 


Carroll 


1095 


991 


980 


Talbot 


1121 


1005 


1005 


Garrett 


1144 


1031 


1026 


Worcester 


1118 


992 


989 


Caroline 


1115 


990 


991 


St. Mary's 


1099 


982 


984 


Dorchester 


1104 


989 


988 


Charles 


1100 


1000 


1022 


Somerset 


1119 


1007 


994 


Howard 


1104 


992 


987 


Balto. City 


1701 


1696 


1667 


State 


1405 


1328 


1530 



1936 




t Excludes $1,868 for junior! high and $1,840 for vocational teachers. 



Salary per Teacher; Cost per White Elementary Pupil 57 

effect from 1923 to 1933; for the school year 1935-36 Allegany 
restored cuts in full, Wicomico three-quarters, and Washington 
and Carroll one-half of the cuts which went into effect in the fall 
of 1933. (See Chart 7.) 



COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL 

The average current expense cost, excluding general control 
and fixed charges, per county white elementary pupil belonging, 
was nearly $49* in 1936, an increase of nearly $4 over 1935. 
Costs rose gradually each year from 1923 to a maximum of over 
$50 in 1931, after which they dropped to $44 in 1934. They in- 
creased to $45 in 1935 and $49* in 1936. (See Table 33.) 



TABLE 33 



Average Current Expense Cost, Excluding General Control and Fixed 
Charges, per County White Elementary Pupil, 1923 to 1936 





Average Cost 




Average Cost 


Year 


per Pupil 


Year 


per Pupil 




Belonging 




Belonging 



1923 $39.84 

1924 43.06 

1925 43.67 

1926 46.02 

1927 47.26 

1928 47.81 

1929 49.49 



1930 $49.78 

1931 50.17 

1932 49.27 

1933 46.82 

1934 44.36 

1935 45.16 

1936 *48.90 



* One dollar of this amount is due to inclusion of estimated expenditures on public white 
elementary school children by county health offices from State and county funds. These 
figures are included in 1936 for the first time. 



Among individual counties, costs per white elementary pupil 
in 1936 ranged from $41 to $63. Every county, except Howard, 
showed an increase in cost per pupil from 1934 and 1935 to 1936. 
This 1936 increase is due in part to the inclusion for the first time 
in 1936 of estimated expenditures by county health offices for 
services to school children. In Howard, increase in size of class 
counteracted increase in salary per teacher. (See Char^t 8.) 

The cost per white elementary pupil in the City of Baltimore, 
$65, exceeded that found in any county in Maryland. (See 
Chart 8.) 

The above average county cost per pupil for 1936 when ana- 
lyzed includes the following items: salaries of teachers, $33.62; 
auxiliary agencies, $7.27; operation of buildings, $3.73; mainte- 
nance of buildings, $1.61; books and other costs of instruction, 



* See note under Table 33. 



58 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 8 



Coxmty 
Co. Average 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Kent 

St. %ry's 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

7;"orcester 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Pr. George's 

Hov.ard 

Washington 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



1934 1955 1956 
$ 44 $ 45 

54 
58 
57 
52 
52 
47 
48 
45 
47 
44 
44 
44 
44 
43 
45 
44 
43 
44 
41 
41 
41 
45 
37 




Baltimore City 60 62 
State 50 51 



* Excludes $86 for junior high and $141 for vocational schools. 

$1.53 ; and supervision, $1.14. All of these amounts, except books 
and other costs of instruction, are higher than corresponding costs 
in 1935. (See Table 34.) 

Salary Cost per Pupil in Individual Counties 

The cost per white elementary pupil for salaries of teachers 
and principals ranged between $26.55 in Calvert County, which 
had next to the largest number of pupils per teacher and paid min- 
imum salaries, and $43.22 in Montgomery County which ranked 



Cost per White Elementary Pupil Analyzed 



59 



fourth from lowest in smallness of classes and next to the highest 
in average salary per teacher. Large classes and small salaries 
tend to bring the cost per pupil down, while small classes and 
large salaries tend to raise them. Except for Montgomery and 
Allegany, the counties paying the highest salaries have a larger 
number of pupils per teacher and principal than is found in the 
average for the 23 counties. 

TABLE 34 



Cost Per Pupil in White Elementary Schools, Grades 1-7, (8), for the Main 
Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control, for the 
Year Ending July 31, 1936 



County 


Supervision 


Salaries 


Text Books 
and other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average 


$1. 


14 


$33 


62 


$1 


.53 


$3 


73 


$1 


61 


$7 


27 


$48 


90 


$4 


.84 


Allegany 


1. 


22 


37 


35 


1 


.94 


4 


15 


1 


36 


5 


79 


51 


81 




.39 




1. 


17 


32 


49 


1 


.31 


3 


90 


1 


71 


9 


93 


50 


51 




.43 


Baltimore 




79 


36 


31 


1 


.03 


4 


20 


1 


11 


5 


25 


48 


69 


5 


.30 




2. 


91 


26 


55 


1 


.73 


3 


79 


1 


17 


24 


43 


60 


58 




.09 


Caroline 


1. 


22 


27 


98 


1 


.70 


2 


92 


2 


69 


11 


12 


47 


63 






Carroll 




96 


29 


53 


1 


.39 


2 


91 


1 


17 


11 


18 


47 


14 


10 


^si 


Cecil 




97 


33 


79 


1 


.73 


2 


89 




98 


6 


35 


46 


71 


2 


.56 


Charles 


l! 


42 


28 


45 


1 


.76 


3 


72 


3 


34 


15 


00 


53 


69 


1 


.14 


Dorchester 


1. 


77 


30 


70 


1 


.84 


2 


47 


1 


11 


9 


13 


47 


02 


11 


.58 


Frederick 


1. 


07 


31 


84 




.25 


3 


13 




64 


8 


91 


46 


84 


3 


.39 


Garrett 




89 


30 


41 


2 


.36 


2 


08 


2 


32 


10 


61 


48 


67 




.48 




i! 


27 


34 


83 


1 


.32 


2 


98 


1 


65 


4 


94 


46 


99 


6 


.30 




1 


25 


28 


48 


1 


.50 


3 


03 




72 


8 


37 


43 


35 




.60 


Kent 


2 


19 


35 


64 




.72 


5 


53 


1 


97 


12 


02 


59 


07 


1 


.14 


Montgomery 


1 


18 


43 


22 


2 


.08 


6 


66 


2 


85 


7 


14 


63 


13 


16 


.25 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


1 


08 


30 


85 


1 


.81 


3 


68 


2 


93 


3 


69 


44 


04 


11 


.80 


1. 


79 


31 


50 




.81 


3 


36 


2 


05 


14 


96 


54 


47 


1 


.60 


St. Mary's 


2 


17 


34 


40 


1 


.34 


1 


74 


1 


72 


13 


88 


55 


25 


6 


.83 




1 


18 


30 


61 


1 


.63 


2 


71 


1 


61 


8 


01 


45 


75 


4 


.05 


Talbot 


1 


73 


30 


87 


1 


.79 


4 


64 


2 


79 


11 


21 


53 


03 






Washington 




92 


31 


30 


1 


.33 


3 


10 




82 


3 


24 


40 


71 


2 


!03 


Wicomico 


1 


41 


31 


72 


1 


.52 


2 


98 


2 


27 


6 


02 


45 


92 




.81 


Worcester 


1 


23 


28 


38 




.69 


4 


06 


1 


79 


12 


33 


48 


48 






Baltimore City: 


































Elementary 


1 


20 


50 


16 


1 


.76 


7 


11 


2 


55 


1 


93 


64 


71 


3 


.23 


Junior High 


1 


17 


69 


55 


3 


.65 


8 


38 


2 


62 




20 


85 


57 




.39 


Vocational 


1 


02 


94 


89 


13 


.39 


20 


20 


11 


05 




04 


140 


59 


3 


.52 


State (El. only) 


1 


16 


39 


43 


1 


.61 


4 


92 


1 


94 


5 


38 


54 


44 


4 


.27 



(For actual expenditures see Table XX VIII, page 335) 



There were only three counties, Calvert, Howard, and St. Mary's, 
in which the salary cost per white elementary pupil decreased 
from 1935 to 1936. In these three counties the increase in num- 
ber of pupils per teacher more than counteracted the increase in 
average salary per teacher between 1935 and 1936. 

In Baltimore City, the salary cost per white elementary pupil, 
$50.16, was higher than the cost in any county because of the 
higher salary schedule in the City and because the average num- 
ber of pupils per teacher and principal was below that in 16 of the 
counties. (See Table 34.) 



60 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Supervision Cost per White Elementary Pupil 

In the individual counties, the cost of supervision ranged from 
less than one dollar per pupil in Baltimore, Garrett, Washington, 
Carroll, and Cecil Counties to over two dollars per pupil in Calvert, 
Kent, and St. Mary's. In Baltimore County, two of the super- 
visors act also as principals of elementary schools and their sal- 
aries were not included with those of the other supervisors. Balti- 
more County was eligible to State-aid for seven supervisors. 
Including the two principals, only six were employed. Garrett 
was without one of its two supervisors the latter half of the 
year. Washington, Carroll, and Cecil each had sufficient white 
elementary teachers to justify the employment of an additional 
supervisor. (See Table 34.) 

On the other hand, Calvert, St. Mary's, and Kent, which em- 
ployed only 19, 34, and 44 white elementary teachers, respective- 
ly, each had one supervisor. In Charles, Dorchester, Garrett, Har- 
ford, Howard, and Worcester, the cost per pupil for supervision 
in 1936 was lower than for 1935. 

Cost per White Elementary Pupil for Books and Materials 

The expenditure per white elementary pupil for books and 
materials and ''other" costs of instruction ranged between mini- 
mum amounts of 69 cents in Worcester and 81 cents in Queen 
Anne's and maximum amounts of $2.08 in Montgomery and $2.36 
in Garrett. Half the counties showed increases and half de- 
creases when 1936 expenditures were compared with those for 
1935. Worcester and Queen Anne's were the only counties which 
spent less for these purposes than the aid distributed by the 
State for textbooks and materials of instruction which totalled 
approximately 89 cents per pupil. The expenditure for books, ma- 
terials, and ''other" costs of instruction per white elementary 
pupil in Baltimore City was $1.76. This amount was exceeded 
in six counties, Garrett, Montgomery, Allegany, Dorchester, 
Prince George's, and Talbot. (See Table 34.) 

Cost per White Elementary Pupil for Operation and Maintenance 

For heating and cleaning buildings, the cost per white elemen- 
tary pupil was as low as $1.74 in St. Mary's and as high as $5.53 
in Kent and $6.66 in Montgomery. The average number of pupils 
per room, the cost of fuel, the type of heating equipment, the need 
for trained janitors or engineers, determine the expenditure per 
pupil for this type of service and explain the great variation 
among the counties. (See Table 34.) 

The expenditure per pupil for repair of grounds, buildings, and 
equipment was less than one dollar per pupil in Frederick, How- 
ard, Washington, and Cecil, while it was over $2.65 per pupil in 



Cost per White Elementary Pupil Analyzed 



61 



Caroline, Talbot, Montgomery, Prince George's, and Charles. 
In a number of the counties, these figures included the contribu- 
tions from county funds for materials used in connection with 
projects of the Works Progress Administration. A summary of 
the estimated value of the labor contributed by the W. P. A. to 
county school projects, including sanitation projects is shown in 
Tables 159 and 163 on pages 249 and 252. These latter amounts, 
except for county contributions, are not included in the figures in 
Tables 34 and XXVIII, page 335. 

Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

The cost per white elementary pupil for auxiliary agencies 
varied from less than five dollars in Washington, Prince George's, 
and Harford, to over thirteen dollars in St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, 
Charles, and Calvert. As noted before, there is included with these 
1936 county figures for the first time estimated expenditures 
from State and county funds for health service given school chil- 
dren by the county health offices. In some cities in other states 
these services are given by doctors and nurses employed directly 
by the Board of Education. The Maryland plan provides for 
county health offices whose doctors and nurses cooperate with the 
school authorities in examining children and providing service 
in clinics for those not in a position to obtain it from their fami- 
ly physicians and dentists. Four of the county boards of educa- 
tion, Allegany, Anne Arundel, Montgomery, and Prince George's, 
pay the salaries of one or more nurses who act as public health 
nurses doing not only school work, but also carrying out commu- 
nity health service assigned bv the county health officers. (See 
Table 34.) 

An analysis of transportation, libraries, and health, which are 
included under the general classification of auxiliary agencies, 
shows the importance of each of these factors. 

More County White Elementary Pupils Transported to School 

There were 32,676 white county elementary pupils transported 
to school at public expense in 1935-36. This was 1,729 more than 
were transported at public expense the year before. The group 
transported included 30.5 per cent of the total county white ele- 
mentary school enrollment in 1935-36 in contrast with 28.7 per 
cent in 1934-35. The cost was $631,501, an increase of $6,733 
over the preceding year. The cost per pupil transported was 
$19.33, a decrease of 86 cents under 1934-35. (See Table 35.) 

The range in number of white elementary pupils transported 
was from 458 in St. Mary's to 4,498 in Baltimore County, and the 
per cent of all white elementary pupils who were transported 
ranged from 13 in Washington County to 69.5 per cent in Calvert 



62 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

County. Kent County spent least for transportation, $11,557, 
while Baltimore County spent $69,215 to bring its white elemen- 
tary pupils to school. 



TABLE 35 

Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland County 
White Elementary Schools — Year Ending July 31, 1936 



POTTMTV 

v> U IN X X 


Transportation 


Libraries 


Healtht 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Amount 
Spent 


Cost 

F^pil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 
for 
Libraries 


Amount per 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 

for 
nediLn 


Amount 
per 

'Piirvil 


Number 


Jrer 
Cent 


School 


Teacher 


Total 


32,676 


30.5 




tpX<7 . Oo 




$11.89 


$3.32 




$1 15 


Calvert 


534 


69.5 


16,317 


30.56 


337 


48.21 


17.76 


1,541 


2.07 


Charles 


924 


63.2 


18,998 


20.56 


43 


4.32 


1.08 


2,476 


1.73 


Queen Anne's. . . 


790 


53.4 


18,825 


23.83 


343 


20.15 


7.97 


2,942 


1.99 


St. Mary's 


458 


44.4 


12,481 


27.25 


212 


9.65 


6.24 


1,114 


1.10 




1,170 


55.8 


22,285 


19.05 


114 


6.69 


2.01 


2,797 


1.37 


Kent 


471 


34.8 


11,557 


24.54 


394 


18.75 


8.95 


3,968 


3.00 


Talbot 


594 


35.9 


15,589 


26.24 


303 


18.94 


6.21 


2,431 


1.49 


Carroll 


2,454 


51.4 


48,673 


19.83 


127 


3.34 


.94 


4,067 


.86 




1,090 


53.2 


19,923 


18.28 


168 


8.86 


3.06 


2,265 


1.13 


Garrett 


1,193 


30.3 


35,881 


30.08 


179 


2.45 


1.55 


5,129 


1.32 


Anne Arundel. . . 


2,824 


48.4 


50,786 


17.73 


469 


17.36 


3.00 


6,373 


1.10 


Dorchester 


1,080 


37.2 


22,724 


21.04 


159 


4.68 


1.86 


3,132 


1.10 


Frederick 


2,810 


39.3 


56,134 


19.98 


287 


6.68 


1.47 


6,209 


.88 


Howard 


751 


37.0 


13,850 


18.44 


193 


7.15 


3.40 


2,640 


1.32 




735 


34.2 


14,275 


19.42 


273 


11.37 


4.26 


2,483 


1.17 


Montgomery 


2 , 552 


31.6 


42,577 


16.68 


545 


12.38 


2.21 


13,462 


1.70 


Cecil 


781 


25.0 


14,100 


18.05 


1,019 


25.49 


11.28 


4,411 


1.43 


Wicomico 


818 


24.0 


15,410 


18.84 


565 


15.68 


6.07 


3,412 


1.05 


Allegany 


2,464 


20.1 


46,259 


18.77 


781 


12.01 


2.29 


19,828 


1.65 


Baltimore 


4,498 


27.6 


69,215 


15.39 


2,719 


48.55 


7.08 


11,845 


.74 


Harford 


711 


17.7 


15,069 


21.19 


200 


4.08 


1.57 


4,143 


1.04 


Prince George's . 


1,532 


18.5 


24,696 


16.55 


341 


6.43 


1.57 


5,255 


.64 


Washington 


1,442 


13.1 


25,877 


17.95 


30 


.35 


.10 


9,345 


.86 



t Includes $105,694.00 estimated expenditures of the county health offices for public school 

services and following amounts expended by County Boards of Education : 



Expenditures of County Boards of Education for Health Service 



COUNTY 



Allegany .... 
Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Charles 

Dorchester . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 



School 
Nurses 

and 
Dental 
Clinics 



Physio- 
therapy 



$1,457.22 $1,200.00 
1,055.57 
94.10 



31.13 
105.00 
180.00 



948 
751 



P. A. L. 

Meets 



$19 



10 



COUNTY 



Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 

Somerset 

Washington 

Total 



School 
Nurses 

and 
Dental 
Clinics 



$150.00 
325.00 
4,891.65 
1,927.24 
322.77 
3.00 



10,542.68 



Physio- 
therapy 



P. A. L. 

Meets 



$637 



1,128 
4,666 



55 



$172.42 
191.52 



Analysis of Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies 63 

All of the counties, except Queen Anne's, Kent, Talbot, Somer- 
set, Cecil, Wicomico, Anne Arundel, and Harford, transported 
more white elementary pupils at public expense in 1935-36 than 
in 1934-35. These decreases were probably the result of a declin- 
ing enrollment in white elementary schools. 

Although more white elementary pupils were transported to 
school in 1936 than in 1935, in Carroll, Garrett, Frederick, and 
Washington Counties, transportation costs were lower. On the 
other hand, Talbot and Wicomico spent more for transporting 
white elementary pupils, although fewer pupils were transported. 

Cost per white elementary pupil transported was as low as 
$15.39 in Baltimore County and over $30 in Calvert and Garrett. 
All of the counties, except Charles, Talbot, Caroline, Montgomery, 
Cecil, Wicomico, and Harford, spent less per white elementary 
pupil transported than was paid out the year before. 

The factor which more than any other determines the rank of 
a county in cost per pupil for auxiliary agencies is the per cent 
of pupils transported. This together with cost per pupil trans- 
ported probably determines the proportion of the budget which 
must be reserved for auxiliary agencies. Only four counties, 
Kent, Talbot, Cecil, and Harford, transported a smaller percentage 
of their white elementary enrollment in 1936 than in 1935. (See 
left part of Table 35.) 

Over 40 per cent of the white elementary pupils in Calvert, 
Charles, Worcester, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Carroll, Anne Arun- 
del, and St. Mary's were transported at public expense, while un- 
der 25 per cent of those in Washington, Harford, Prince George's, 
Allegany, and Wicomico were provided with this service. 

There are, of course, many elements to be considered in making 
comparisons of transportation costs — length of route, capacity 
and crowding of bus, type and equipment of bus used, type of 
roads, period of contract, compensation paid driver, amount of 
insurance carried, ownership of bus by county or contractor, and 
others. 

County Expenditures for Library Books 

The expenditure of $9,801 in the counties from public funds 
for library books for white elementary schools in 1935-36 was an 
increase of $1,800 over the amount spent the year preceding. 
Amounts expended from county funds varied from $30 and $43 
in Washington and Charles, respectively, to 81,019 in Cecil and 
$2,719 in Baltimore County. According to Section 167 of the 
School Law, it is required that ten dollars be paid by the county 
school commissioners out of the State school fund to any school 
house district as library money as long as the people of the dis- 
trict raise the same amount annually. Some counties which have 
large consolidated schools pay the $10 to any room which raises 
at least $10. The law was passed in 1904 when many of the county 
schools were one-teacher schools. (See Table 35.) 



64 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The schools raised considerable sums themselves which were 
spent for library books. Counties which report on expenditures 
from other than county funds indicated the amounts spent in 
white schools for library books. (See Table 184, page 281.) 

SERVICES OF THE MARYLAND LIBRARY COMMISSION 



TABLE 36 

Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White Elementary Schools, School Year 1935-36 



County 


Total 
No. of 
Volumes 
Supplied 


Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 


Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 


Number of 


Number of 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 


1931 
1932 
1933 

1 QQ/l 

1935 

1 Q^fi 


12 022 
9 ' 799 
16 606 

o , DUa 

8 675 


157 
165 
182 
96 
81 
66 


196 
206 
275 
128 
144 
80 


299 
275 
419 
225 
219 
184 


89 
79 
87 
91 
77 
46 


124 
84 
112 
107 
88 
56 


393 
266 
334 
210 
247 
150 


Allegany 


al25 


2 


3 


4 








Anne Arundel . . . 


bcf245 


4 


4 


7 








Baltimore 


efm2,550 


16 


18 


58 


' "26 


' 24 


ioi 


Calvert 


23 








1 


1 


3 




el, 118 


5 


" 10 


' '31 


4 


6 


7 


Carroll 


300 


7 


7 


9 








Cecil 


h30 








■ ■ 4 


6 


' ' 6 


Charles 


be. . . . 














Dorchester 


cef254 


"i 


• • ,7 


• • -j 


■ ■ "4 


"5 


"i 


Frederick 


c360 


1 


4 


10 


3 


3 


3 


Garrett 


125 




1 


4 








Harford 


bcf513 


6 


6 


15 








Howard 


245 


3 


3 


5 




5 


10 


Kent 


9 










1 


1 


Montgomery .... 


eg735 


6 


' "9 


" '24 








Prince George's. 


kl70 


5 


5 


5 








Queen Anne's. . . 
































Somerset 


' 43 










' '3 


' ' '9 


Talbot 


d. . . . 














Washington 


d70 


' "l 


"1 


■ ■ '2 










c35 


1 


1 


1 




.... 




Worcester 


e79 


1 


1 


2 






' "i 



a The Cumberland Public Library supplies the schools of Cumberland from its own collec- 
tions. The public libraries in Westernport and Lonaconing supplement the classroom col- 
lections for the recreational reading. In addition, the Library Commission took care of the 
needs in these schools and supplied other schools as shown above. 

b Limited library service given school by County Library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat when the 
library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or 
no outside help. 

e Other teachers supplied with books loaned by the Commission to the County Supervisors 
or County Superintendent for use of county schools. 

f Teachers are supplied through school librarian or principal. 

g Silver Spring Public Library supplies the nearby schools from its own collections also._ 
h Cecil County Board of Education has organized a Central Elementary School Library giv- 
ing county-wide service under the direction of the supervisor. 

k Hyattsville Public Library provides books for school use without charge. Teachers may 
keep these classroom libraries as long as they are needed and books from them may be loaned 
to pupils for home use. 

m The Towson Elementary School Library, sponsored by the Mothers' Club, circulates books 
and conducts story hours for the children during the summer vacation. 



Services of Maryland Public Library Commission C5 

In addition to use of the library facilities in the schools, many 
teachers took advantage of the privilege of securing books from 
the public libraries in the counties, cities, and towns or from the 
Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission with offices in the 
Enoch Pratt Library Building, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

Counties showing an increase in the number of volumes bor- 
rowed were Baltimore, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Prince George's, 
and Wicomico. Elementary schools in Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, 
Charles, and Talbot borrowed no books, but Talbot and Charles 
have county libraries which give some service to the schools, and 
when necessary secure books from the Commission to supplement 
their own collections. (See Table 36.) 

Traveling libraries are collection of books loaned for a period 
of four months at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post ; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not fixed collec- 
tions, but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of trans- 
portation must be met by the schools and guarantee of reimburse- 
ment for lost or damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up 
to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual 
needs, or professional needs of the teachers. These are loaned for 
one month to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to 
a public library. 

During the school year a Centralized Elementary School Li- 
brary was established in Cecil County. A collection of approxi- 
mately 2,000 volumes is now available to the teachers and pupils. 
It was carefully selected and properly organized and catalogued. 
This library is located in Elkton at the office of the County Board 
of Education and the books are circulated either through the 
County Supervisor or borrowed directly. 

Eight elementary school libraries, six in Baltimore County, one 
in Montgomery, and one at Chestertown in Kent, were organized 
and catalogued as W. P. A. projects under the supervision of the 
Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission. 

Works Progress Administration library projects were carried 
on in 17 counties and in the office of the Commission with a total 
of 24 groups of workers. A total of 93,761 volumes were recon- 
ditioned and put back in use in 144 elementary and high schools 
and in 19 public libraries in the State at a cost of $51,111. St. 
Mary's, Charles, Calvert, Howard, Carroll, and Cecil had no 
library projects because suitable workers were not available. (See 
Table 162, page 252.) 



66 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
Expenditures from Public Funds for Health and Physical Education 

Expenditures for health and physical education are shown as 
$121,268 in 1935-36, a much larger amount than ever before re- 
ported. This is due to the fact that there is included with expen- 
ditures of the county boards of education an estimate of $105,694 
from State and county public funds spent by the county health 
offices on services to public school children. These amounts 
were calculated on the assumption that one-half of the State and 
county public funds reported by the Health Department as ex- 
pended were used for health work among public school children. 
(See right part of Table 35.) 

In some communities in other states the health program is a 
responsibility of the school authorities instead of, as in Maryland, 
a responsibility of the health authorities working in cooperation 
with the school authorities. Expenditures for health service 
rendered directly by school authorities have, of course, always 
been reported in school costs to the U. S. Office of Education, 
whereas in the past, for Maryland counties, no amounts have 
been included to cover costs of similar services rendered because 
they were accounted for by a public agency other than the schools. 
The procedure followed in 1935-36 is an effort to correct this and 
to make expenditures reported correspond more closely with 
service rendered regardless of the agency responsible for render- 
ing the service. 

Twelve county boards of education spent directly $10,543 in 
amounts varying from S3 to $4,900 for school nurses and dental 
clinics. Montgomery, Prince George's, Allegany, and Anne Arun- 
del were the counties which had one or two school nurses on the 
school staff. Five counties — the four at the extreme west and 
Harford, spent $4,666 for physiotherapy for crippled children 
for which they were reimbursed from State school funds. Caroline 
and Washington spent county funds for P. A. L. meets, but in 
most counties funds for this purpose were raised in the schools. 
(See note to Table 35.) 

The amounts included as estimated expenditures for health of 
white elementary public school children varied from less than 
$2,000 in St. Mary's and Calvert, to over $11,000 in Baltimore, 
Montgomery, and Allegany. The estimated amount spent per 
pupil was less than one dollar in Prince George's, Baltimore, 
Washington, Carroll, and Frederick and over $2 in Calvert and 
Kent. (See last two columns of Table 35.) 

THE HEALTH PROGRAM, STATE AND COUNTY, AS IT AFFECTS SCHOOL CHILDREN 

Every county employed at least one full time county health 
officer, and four counties, Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, 
and Charles also had an assistant health officer. In addition, 
Baltimore and Carroll each had 14 part-time county health offi- 



Expenditures on Health by County School and Health Offices 67 



i 

ri 



I 



I 
si 



_ -40 

^1 



i 
1 


1 
1 


Federal 
Grants 




Other 

Agencies 






1 






I 






Amount 


Federal 
Grants 






Other 
Agencies 




1 


1 Siii^iisiiiiisiiiii^sii 




County 


$158,648 

35,560 
19,806 
23,380 
2,888 
3 , 566 
4,881 
5,671 
2 , 543 
5,436 
4,788 
5,593 
7,674 
5,577 
9,216 
2,920 
3,169 
1,998 
2,848 
3,296 
2,008 
3,560 
1,471 
799 


Total 


i 




1 z 


! 


Others 


++ 


Clerks 






Sanitary 

In- 
spectors 






i 




xieaitn 
Officers 






Year 
Started 






! 




Total Counties . . . 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

('alvert 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Prince George's. . 

Talbot 

Harford 

('ecil 

Wicomico 

Anne Arundel. . . . 

Kent 

Washington 

Worcester 

Garrett 

1 )orchester 

C^ueen Anne's. . . . 

Howard 

Charles 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 



I 

i 



li 

li 



i 



68 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

cers. The counties employed 76 nurses, the number varying from 
1 in Caroline to 8 in Baltimore County. There were also 19 sani- 
tary inspectors employed in 15 counties. The 23 counties em- 
ployed 28 clerks, 5 of the counties having 2. There were 44 addi- 
tional employees giving service in county clinics or bacteriological 
laboratories. (See Table 37.) 

Of $429,804 spent for the health services in 1935-36, the coun- 
ties contributed 8158,648, the State 8155,478, the federal govern- 
ment $88,584, and other agencies 827,094. Allegany, Baltimore, 
and Montgomery spent the largest amounts of county funds for 
health service, whereas Caroline and St. Mary's spent the smallest 
amounts. The largest amounts of State funds were contributed 
to Dorchester, Washington, and Allegany, and the smallest amount 
was given to Harford. Federal grants were at their maximum in 
Anne Arundel and at their minimum in Howard. (See Table 37.) 

The per cent of funds for health service in the 23 counties 
averaged 37 from county sources, 36 from State funds, 21 from 
Federal funds, and 6 from other agencies. Caroline and Dor- 
chester contributed the smallest per cent of county funds with 
Baltimore County contributing the largest proportion. State- 
aid was in inverse relationship, Dorchester receiving the highest 
proportion and Baltimore County the lowest. Allegany, Mont- 
gomery, Baltimore, and Howard had the smallest proportion of 
Federal funds, while Anne Arundel had the largest percentage 
of funds from the Federal government. Howard and Harford 
received the highest per cent of funds from ''other agencies" 
while Somerset received the lowest per cent. (See Table 37.) 

School Activities of the Maryland State Department of Health 

Health service under the auspices of the State Department of 
Health, affecting school children in 1936 included the medical 
examination of school children on the invitation of the school 
authorities by the county health officers assisted by the county 
nurses, examinations and inspections of the children in connection 
with other measures for the control of communicable diseases 
in the schools, and sanitary inspections of school water and sewer- 
age systems. Dental clinics arranged by the Division of Oral 
Hygiene and the medical examination of pre-school children in 
preparation for their admission to school, under the auspices of 
the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the State Department of Health 
were also part of the regularly organized school health program. 

Medical Examinations and Inspections of School Children 

The number of examinations and inspections of county school 
children amounted to 120,853. Included in the total were 41,940 
complete physical examinations and 78,913 follow-up examina- 
tions or inspections made either in connection with the general 



School Activities of County Health Offices 



69 



health program or for the control of communicable diseases. 
Allegany County led with 16,738; Carroll came next with 16,249, 
and Anne Arundel was third with 12,008. (See Table 38.) 



TABLE 38 



Examinations of School and Pre-School Children by State and County Health 

Officers, 1936 







Pre-school Children 




Per Cent of Pre-school 






Examined During 1936 




Children Examined 




Number 








































T TXT 


of Exam- 
inations 












Requiring 


Not 


or In- 
spections 


Nu 


mber 


Per Cent 




Vaccination 


Immunized 














vs. Smallpox 


vs. Diphtheria 






White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 




120,853 


5,115 


1,373 


35.6 


41 


4 


47.7 


47.8 


50.4 


46.2 


Allegany 


16,738 


957 


5 


62.1 


16 


1 


20.4 


20.0 


54.2 


80.0 


Anne Arundel . . 


12! 008 


407 


162 


53.1 


46 


2 


44.2 


47.5 


26.8 


39.5 


Baltimore 


8.265 


1,030 


219 


45.7 


97 


3 


50.4 


52.1 


52.5 


68.0 


Calvert 


3,775 


37 


97 


32.7 


67 


8 


5.4 




18.9 


10.3 


Caroline 


1,871 




















Carroll 


16,249 


■ ■ 4 




' ".7 






75^0 




50.0 




Cecil 


4,221 


70 


39 


14.1 


100 


6 


87.1 


61.0 


54.3 


28^2 


Charles 


1,401 


49 


144 


22.3 


73 


1 


69.4 


77.8 


53.1 


72.2 


Dorchester. . . . 


1,722 


2 




.6 






100.0 




100.0 




Frederick 


3,464 


467 




48.8 






70.2 




72.2 




Garrett 


3,982 


245 




43.6 






34.3 




41.2 




Harford 


4 , 623 


232 


' 47 


43.9 


42 





53.9 


31.9 


54.3 


63^8 


Howard 


4.118 


127 


44 


41.5 


50 


6 


18.9 


15.9 


4.7 


11.4 


Kent 


7,716 


44 


93 


21.4 


97- 


9 


36.4 


29.0 


38.6 


51.6 


Montgomery . . . 


5,669 


172 


52 


17.2 


31 


3 


8.1 


5.8 


9.3 


7.7 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 


5,282 


271 


73 


22.0 


17 


5 


78.6 


75.3 


59.4 


76.7 


3,626 


36 


62 


16.1 


51 


2 


72.2 


61.3 


38.9 


40.3 


St. Mary's 


1,216 


83 


63 


33.7 


35 


2 


89.2 


81.0 


56.6 


47.6 


Somerset 


968 


80 


103 


29.0 


53 


4 


30.0 


78.6 


60.0 


76.7 


Talbot 


1,057 


35 


31 


11.6 


17 


8 


51.4 


83.9 


22.9 




Washington 


5,288 


527 




41.6 






92.8 




85.4 




Wicomico 


6.461 


240 


139 


56.1 


88 


5 


3.3 


18!0 


2.1 


10^8 


Worcester 


1,133 





















The plan of limiting the physical examinations to the pupils in 
the lower grades and to those in the upper grades who were 
scheduled for reexamination or for whom examination was re- 
quested by the teachers, was continued in the larger schools. All 
of the children in the smaller schools were examined. 

The plan of having the examinations made by local physicians 
was tried in Montgomery County with the approval of the County 
Medical Society. The physicians were selected from a list fur- 
nished by the Medical Society and their services were paid for 
by the County Commissioners. One physician was assigned to 
work with each of the health department nurses for one morning 
each week. At the suggestion of the Medical Society each physi- 
cian was assigned to a territory outside his own practice, except 
in one instance in which a physician had the entire practice in 
the area. 



70 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In his report on the work in the schools, Dr. V. L. Ellicott, Dep- 
uty State Health Officer for Montgomery County wrote : "As a re- 
sult of this plan all new pupils entering kindergarten and first 
grade were examined during the year. Parents were invited to be 
present at all examinations. In addition to the examination of 
the younger children the examinations included all seventh 
grade junior high school pupils, and others engaged in strenuous 
athletics. In the fall term of 1936, the plan was modified by se- 
lecting additional physicians for the high school examinations and 
having these made with the assistance of athletic directors in- 
stead of the nurses. This enabled the County Department of 
Health to complete the high school examinations shortly after 
the schools opened and therefore before much participation in 
athletics. According to this arrangement, women physicians ex- 
amine the high school girls and men physicians the boys." 

In the examinations, special attention was paid to the general 
health of the child, to weight and other indications of good or 
faulty nutrition, growth or development, to the heart, lungs, 
throat, nose, teeth, vision, and hearing, and to other conditions 
indicating freedom from or susceptibility to disease. Reports of 
conditions in need of correction were sent to the homes or were 
brought to the attention of the parents by the county nurses and 
the parents were urged to take the children to their family phy- 
sicians for the necessary treatment or care. Parents were wel- 
come at all of the examinations and in a few of the schools parents 
were present by special invitation. 

Largely through the activities of the county nurses and through 
the interest of the Parent-Teacher Associations there has been 
a steady increase in the attention paid to conditions in need of 
correction. The service clubs have also assisted in financing the 
purchase of glasses and of other necessities. 

In addition to the routine physical examination, special inspec- 
tions were made by the health officers and nurses of children 
who had been exposed to scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles or 
other communicable diseases. Other inspections were made by 
the nurses at the request of the teachers. 

Medical Examinations of Pre-School Children 

Examinations of children approaching school age in preparation 
for their admission to school were made at the regularly sched- 
uled child health conferences held at conveniently accessible cen- 
ters throughout the year under the auspices of the State Bureau 
of Child Hygiene and the County Departments of Health. Through 
the cooperation of the County Superintendents many of the pre- 
school conferences during the spring and summer were held in 
school buildings. 



Medical Examination of School and Pre-School Children 



71 



The regular conferences were supplemented during the summer 
by examinations made in connection with the visits of the health- 
mobile of the Bureau of Child Hygiene to communities off the 
main highways in Southern Maryland and on the Eastern Shore. 
The staff of the motorized conferences included a physician, a 
dentist and the county public health nurse. The itinerary in each 
county was arranged by the county health officer. 

The total number of children examined in preparation for ad- 
mission to school was 6,488 of whom 5,115 were white and 1,373 
were colored, an increase of more than 850 over the total number 
examined in 1935. The per cent of white school entrants exam- 
ined was 35.6 and of colored 41.4 per cent. In Caroline, Carroll, 
Dorchester, and Worcester, neither white nor colored children 
were examined before admission to the first grade, and in Fred- 
erick and Washington no colored children were examined. In 
contrast, Allegany, Wicomico, and Anne Arundel had over one- 
half of their white children about to enter school examined, while 
over 95 per cent of the colored pupils in Cecil, Kent, and Balti- 
more County had an examination before entering school. (See 
Table 38.) 

The aim of the examinations was to discover conditions in need 
of corrections and to advise parents as to the importance of having 
such corrections made promptly so that the children could enter 
school free from the strain of avoidable physical handicaps. Of 
the 5,115 white children examined, 1,007 or over 19 per cent gave 
evidence of faulty nutrition ; unfavorable conditions of the throat 
were observed in 1,915 or 37 per cent, and of the nose in 641 or 
12 per cent. Over half of the total, 2,720, needed dental atten- 
tion ; defects of vision were recorded for 53 and of hearing for 46 ; 
faulty posture was observed in 249. 

Vaccination against smallpox had been neglected for nearly 
half of the white and colored children ; and over half of the white 
and 46 per cent of the colored children had not been protected 
against diphtheria. The parents of the children for whom these 
services had been neglected were urged to have the children 
promptly protected against both diseases. Attention of parents 
was directed to the State law which will not permit any child who 
has not been vaccinated against smallpox to be enrolled in any 
public school in the State. (See Table 38.) 

Immunization Aprainst Diphtheria and Other Diseases 

Over 21,000 children were immunized against diphtheria at 
clinics arranged by the county health officers during the year. 
Washington County led with 5,054 ; Allegany came next \vith 
4,346 ; Montgomery came next with 2,284 ; and Baltimore and Anne 
Arundel followed with 1,839 and 1,806, respectively. 



72 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Many children of school age were included in the 5,989 persons 
who were vaccinated against smallpox and in the 10,557 who were 
immunized against typhoid at the county clinics. Allegany with 
a total of 1,228 vaccinations led in the protections against small- 
pox, and Anne Arundel came next with 705 vaccinations. Wicom- 
ico with 2,594 and Washington with 2,559 led in the typhoid im- 
munizations. This was particularly necessary in Washington 
County in the flood area. 



Dental Clinics 



Dental clinics under the joint direct of the Division of Oral 
Hygiene of the State Department of Health, the county health 
officers, and the county superintendents of schools constituted 
part of the school health service in sixteen counties. In addition, 
nine counties of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland had 
the benefit of the service offered in connection with the visit of 
the healthmobile. Treatments were given to over 10,000 of the 
nearly 19,000 children examined at the clinics held during the 
school year which closed July 31, 1936. The number examined 
ranged from 32 in Garrett to 3,179 in Baltimore County, and the 
number treated from 32 in Garrett to 1,697 in Allegany. The 



TABLE 39 

Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of the Mary- 
land State Department of Health, August 1, 1935 to July 31, 1936 



Number of 
Clinicians 


Time Given 
to Servicet 


Number of 
Children 


Number of 


Exam- 
ined 
by 
Den- 
tists 


Treated 


Fillings 

In- 
serted 


Teeth 

Ex- 
tracted 


Clean- 
ings 


Treat- 
ments 


Total 
Opera- 
tions 


*24 




18,996 


10,834 


18,514 


14,479 


3 , 907 


1,754 


38,654 


1 


Full 


1,859 


1,697 


1,830 


3,676 


526 


330 


6,362 


5 


Part 


2,233 


1,035 


2,334 


1,135 


400 


439 


4,308 


5 


Part 


3,179 


1,242 


1,601 


1,607 


419 


208 


3,835 


1 


Part 


298 


294 


339 


259 


6 


1 


605 


2 


Part 


1,507 


359 


820 


388 


130 


13 


1,351 


1 


Half 


1,279 


1,274 


2,094 


1,035 


264 


3 


3,396 


4 


Part 


32 


32 


88 


72 


17 


2 


179 


2 


Part 


468 


430 


743 


642 


410 


6 


1,801 


1 


Half 


730 


265 


1,089 


354 


156 


67 


1,666 


1 


Half 


571 


220 


1,009 


295 


196 


97 


1,597 


1 


Half 


551 


253 


1.067 


934 


224 


58 


2.283 


1 


Part 


323 


760 


793 


534 


199 


218 


1,744 


1 


Half 


539 


186 


1,015 


255 


181 


215 


1,666 


1 


Part 


720 


373 


374 


506 


150 


3 


1,033 


3 


Part 


269 


269 


51 


845 


2 


49 


947 


1 


Half 


1,977 


714 


2,194 


952 


428 


32 


3,606 


3 


Full, 2 mos. 


2,461 


1,431 


1,073 


990 


199 


13 


2,275 



* Excluding duplicates. 

t The scope of service varies from full and half-time service to "part-time" meaning one 
or more one-day clinics per month. 

t See also healthmobile at bottom which operated full time for two months in Calvert, 
Charles, Kent, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot and Wicomico. 



County Health, Dental, and Mental Hygiene Clinics 



73 



service ranged from full- and part-time activities to clinics con- 
ducted one day in each month. (See Table 39.) 

Oral Hygiene Lectures at State Teachers College, Towson 

Following a custom begun several years ago, a brief course of 
lectures on oral hygiene was given during the spring of 1936 to 
the students of the State Teachers College at Towson by Dr. 
Richard C. Leonard, Chief of the Division of Oral Hygiene of the 
State Department of Health. 

Mental Hygiene Clinics 

Mental hygiene clinics at which 469 persons w^ere examined 
were held in 18 of the 23 counties of the State in 1936, under the 
joint direction of the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the State De- 
partment of Health, the State Commissioner of Mental Hygiene, 
the State Mental Hygiene Society, the County Departments of 
Health, and the county school officials, continuing the arrange- 
ment under which the clinics were established in 1934. 

The examinations were conducted by psychiatrists connected 
with State, Baltimore City, or local hospitals, institutions or or- 
ganizations. The State was districted and a regular schedule of 
clinics was followed in each section. Sixty-three clinics were held 
during the year, from one to eight in each of the eighteen counties. 

Of the 469 persons examined, 416 were white and 51 colored ; 
194 were referred to the clinics by social agencies; 128 by the 
county school officials ; 73 by the County Departments of Health ; 
27 by parents; 18 by physicians; 10 by the courts; and 19 by 
other agencies. The majority — 398 — were under 20 years of age ; 
the age of 18 individuals was not stated, and 53 were adults. The 
distribution of those under 21 by age groups was as follows: 

Age in Years Number Examined Age in Years Number Examined 

1- 3 12 13-15 91 

4- 6 45 16-18 19 

7- 9 109 19-20 8 

10-12 114 

398 

Reasons for reference to the clinics included failure in school, 
159 white, 17 colored; suspected retardation, 133 white, 18 col- 
ored ; conduct or personality problems, 88 white, 3 colored ; sus- 
pected psychosis, 13 white, 2 colored; convulsions, 15 white, 6 
colored ; motor habits, 13 w^hite. 

The findings at the examinations showed that intellectual dif- 
ficulties led the list of basic causes for the mental condition. Fam- 
ily or social maladjustments were involved in a large number of 
cases. Economic conditions were responsible in others. Others 
were attributed to physical conditions, to inherited traits or ten- 
dencies or to other causes. 

Advice was given to teachers with regard to 79 of the white 
children and 5 of the colored; to parents, concerning 81 of the 
white and 1 of the colored children ; to social workers regarding 



74 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

80 of the white and 2 of the colored patients, and to health offi- 
cers, nurses, and physicians with regard to others. 

School Sanitation 

The Bureau of Sanitary Engineering of the State Department 
of Health made 42 sanitary inspections of public schools during 
the year. 

Water supply improvements were made at the schools at Mar- 
dela, Fruitland, Calvert, and Great Mills. 

Sewerage installations and improvements were made at Oxon 
Hill, Accident, Mardela, Crisfield New Elementary, Fruitland, 
Centreville, Calvert, Red House, Rising Sun, and Great Mills. 

The regular school inspections are now carried on by the Dep- 
uty State Health Officers, and the Bureau of Sanitary Engineer- 
ing is called on for advice on matters of an engineering nature 
only. 

Construction and installation of privies with the aid of Fed- 
eral funds under the supervision of the State Department of 
Health was continued during the year. The number of schools 
sanitated was 126. Approximately 90 per cent of the rural public 
and private schools in the State are now provided with approved 
methods of sewage disposal. (See Table 163, page 252.) 

Cost per Pupil Highest in One-Teacher Schools 

The 1936 current expense cost, exclusive of general control, 
supervision, and fixed charges per county white elementary pupil 
belonging averaged over $52 in one-teacher schools, nearly $49 
in two-teacher schools, and just over $47 in larger schools. In 
one-teacher schools the range in cost was from an average of 
$45.50 for the three schools in Worcester to nearly $136 for the 
one school in Anne Arundel. The average county cost per pupil 
ranged in two-teacher schools from $40 to $67, while in graded 
schools the county with the lowest costs was Washington with 
$39 and St. Mary's was highest for its single graded school with 
$64 per pupil. 

In one-half of the counties the one-teacher schools cost the 
most per pupil and the graded schools least. In these counties, 
the larger classes in graded schools more than counterbalanced 
the added cost of transportation in the larger schools. At the 
same time it was possible to give more effective instruction at a 
lower cost in the larger schools than iri the smaller one- and two- 
teacher schools. There were five counties in which the cost per 
pupil in two-teacher schools was lower than in graded schools 
and three counties in which it was higher than in one-teacher 
schools. In one county the cost per pupil in one-teacher schools 
was lowest and in graded schools highest, while in two counties 
the cost per pupil in graded schools was highest and in two-teach- 
er schools lowest. (See Table 40.) 



School Sanitation; Cost per Pupil; Capital Outlay 



75 



TABLE 40 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1936, Exclusive of Expenditures for 
General Control, Supervision, and Fixed Charges 



Two-Teacher 




Graded 


Schools 


County 


Schools 












Cost 






Cost 


No. 


Per 




No. 


Per 




Pupil 






Pupil 


158 


$48 . 69 


v^ounty Average 


313 


$47.20 


7 


67.24 




1 


64.08 


5 


64.43 


A^ontgomery .... 


20 


61.01 


4 


60.00 




3 


60.77 


2 


59.60 


Kent 


6 


56.14 


5 


57 . 36 




6 


53. 52 


4 


54.24 


Queen Anne s . . . 


7 


51.16 


4 


52.76 




29 


50.85 


14 


50.84 


Talbot 


6 


50.13 


9 


50.73 


Anne Arundel . . . 


21 


48.62 


13 


50.63 




39 


47.70 


1 


50.22 


Carroll 


16 


46.39 


3 


49.84 




24 


45.77 


12 


49.40 


Worcester 


9 


45.43 


4 


48.04 


Caroline 


9 


44.62 


6 


45.08 


Dorchester 


10 


44.09 


7 


44.73 


Garrett 


9 


44.01 


11 


44.56 


Cecil 


7 


43.99 


7 


44.22 




12 


43.87 


12 


44.05 


Somerset 


6 


43.64 


3 


43.66 


Prince George's. 


28 


41.74 


4 


43.55 


Wicomico 


12 


41.32 


5 


43.16 


Howard 


6 


40.43 


16 


39.57 


Washington 


27 


38.99 



County 



County Average 

Anne Arimdel . . 
Montgomery . . . 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. . 

Calvert 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Prince George's 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Harford 

Dorchester. . . . 
Washington .... 

Howard 

Charles 

Carroll 

Worcester 



One-Teacher 
Schools 



No. 



341 

1 
15 
11 
6 
1 



Cost 
Per 
Pupil 



$52.41 

135.69 
75.78 
64.32 
63.13 
62.39 
59.77 
55.39 
53.93 
53.80 
53.27 
51.43 
51.18 
50.91 
50.60 
50.33 
50.27 
48.73 
46.61 
46.38 
45.89 
45.63 
45.50 



County 



County Average 

Montgomery . . . , 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel . . 
Queen Anne's. . 

Kent 

Baltimore 

St. Mary's 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Harford 

Dorchester. . . . 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Charles 

Howard 

Somerset 

Washington .... 



CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The capital outlay for county white elementary schools totalled 
over $510,000 in 1935-36, making the average outlay per pupil 
nearly five dollars. The largest capital outlay per white elemen- 
tary pupil appeared in Montgomery, Prince George's, Dorchester, 
and Carroll. (See last column in Table 34, page 59.) 

The largest capital outlays for white elementary schools were 
made in Montgomery, Prince George's, Baltimore, Carroll, and 
Dorchester Counties. All of these counties received grants from 
the Public Works Administration for their school building pro- 
grams. (See last column in Table XXVIII, page 335.) 

SIZE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

During the school year 1935-36 there were 824 schools in which 
instruction was given to white elementary pupils, a decrease of 
28 under the number the year preceding. The largest reductions 
occurred in the number of one- and two-teacher schools, there 



76 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



being 343 one-teacher and 158 two-teacher schools, 25 fewer one- 
teacher and 10 fewer two-teacher organizations than operated in 
1934-35. In 1935-36 there were 7 white elementary schools with 
more than 20 teachers. (See Table 41.) 

TABLE 41 

Number of County White Schools With One or More Grades Through Grade 
7 (8) Having Following Number of Teachers, School Year 1935-36 



COUNTY 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



824 

65 
27 
56 
7 
19 
38 
40 
10 
34 
43 
73 
49 
27 
21 
44 
53 
17 
22 
24 
16 
86 
36 
17 



COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS WITH ONE OR MORE GRADES 
THROUGH GRADE 7 (8). NUMBER OF TEACHERS 



343 

23 
1 

i 

8 
15 
27 

1 
20 

7 
57 
25 
tl8 
11 
15 
11 

6 
12 
13 

9 
40 
19 



158 



64 



24 



21 



* The fig:urp at the top of each column indicates that this number of teachers was em- 
ployed during the entire year or part of the year. 

t Includes a one-teacher school with a two-teacher organization. 



Washington with 86, Garrett with 73, and Allegany with 65 
had the largest number of white elementary schools, while at the 
opposite extreme Calvert had 7, Charles 10, Talbot 16, and Queen 
Anne's and Worcester each 17. 

The greatest reductions in number of schools were found in 
Baltimore and Montgomery Counties, each of which reduced the 
number of white elementary schools by 5 and in Carroll, Freder- 
ick, and Prince George's, which reduced the number by 3. By 
consolidating its five one-teacher schools, Baltimore is the first 
county in the State to have entirely eliminated its white one- 
teacher schools. Montgomery reduced its number of one-teacher 
schools by 7, Prince George's by 4, and Carroll by 3. (See Table 41.) 



Size of County White Elementary Schools 



77 



One-Teacher Schools Continue to Decrease 

The number of white one-teacher schools decreased to 324 in 
the fall of 1936 instructed by 11.1 per cent of the staff of white 
elementary teachers. The annual reduction in these schools since 
1920 when there w^ere 1,171 instructed by 39 per cent of the white 
elementary teachers shows the progress of school consolidation ac- 
companied by transportation of pupils. (See Table 42.) 



TABLE 42 

Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1936 



School Year Ending June 30 



1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

Fall, 1936 



County White Elementary Teachers 



Total 



,992 
,037 
,054 
,063 
,065 
,047 
,067 
.088 
,070 
,078 
,050 
,049 
,022 
,954 
.947 
,941 
.951 
.950 



In One-Teacher Schools 



Number 



1,171 
1.149 
1,124 
1,093 
1,055 
1,005 
956 
898 
823 
739 
663 
586 
489 
407 
377 
365 
342 
324 



TABLE 43 



Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



County 


Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 


Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 


County 


Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 


Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Total and Average 


342 


11.6 


8,695 


8.7 


Queen Anne's. . . 


6 


14.0 


126 


8.5 












8 


14.5 


192 


9.5 


Baltimore 


.... 








Talbot 


9 


18.4 


197 


12.0 


Anne Arundel 




' ' ^6 


' 21 


' " ^4 


Harford 


25 


19.6 


607 


15.2 




1 


2.5 


29 


2.0 


Somerset 


13 


20.3 


318 


14.9 


Frederick 


7 


3.6 


175 


2.5 


Wicomico 


19 


20.4 


504 


15.0 


Prince George's . . 


11 


5.1 


303 


3.8 




20 


23.3 


539 


18.9 




1 


5.3 


19 


2.6 


Kent 


11 


25.0 


225 


17.0 


Montgomery 


15 
23 
4 
15 
40 


6.1 
6.8 
7.1 
11.1 
13.3 


337 
600 
83 
356 
1,0.'^3 


5.2 
6.1 
4.1 
7.5 
10.7 


Cecil 


27 
17 
12 

57 


29.9 
30.0 
35.3 
49.5 


713 
430 
294 
1,574 


23.1 
21.5 
29.1 
40.4 


Allegany 


Howard 




St. Mary's 


Carroll 


Garrett 


Washington 





78 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Conditions vary among the counties from Baltimore with no 
one-teacher schools and Anne Arundel, Charles, and Calvert with 
one each at one extreme to Garrett with 57, Washington with 40, 
Cecil with 27, Harford with 25, and Allegany with 23 at the oppo- 
site extreme. In 1935-36, there were 8,695 white elementary 
pupils or 8.7 of the total county white elementary enrollment in 
one-teacher schools. Seven counties had less than 5 per cent of 
their white elementary enrollment in one-teacher schools, while 
four counties had from 21 to 40 per cent of their white elemen- 
tary pupils receiving instruction in one-teacher schools. (See 
Table 43.) 

A comparison of the number of white one-teacher schools in 
1920 with the number in October, 1936, shows what each county 

TABLE 44 



Number of Schools and Pupils in White One- and Two-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Oct., 1936, Compared with No. of Schools, 1920 





One-Teacher Schools 


Two-Teacher Schools 








Pupils 






Pupils 


County 


Number 


Oct. 1936 


Number 


Oct. 1936 






Oct. 




Per 




Oct. 




Per 




1920 


1936 


No. 


Cent 


1920 


1936 


No. 


Cent 


Total 


1,171 


324 


8,110 


7.6 


255 


154 


9,498 


8.9 


Baltimore 


40 








43 


13 


951 


5.8 


Anne Arundel . . . 


41 


" 1 


' 22 


' " A 


11 


4 


238 


4.1 


Calvert 


32 


1 


19 


2.5 


2 


2 


121 


16.0 


Charles 


44 


2 


62 


4.4 


7 


2 


100 


7.1 


Worcester 


33 


3 


79 


3.9 


8 


4 


252 


12.4 


Caroline 


38 


7 


163 


8.3 


4 


2 


118 


6.0 


Queen Anne's. . . 


33 


7 


174 


11.9 


8 


3 


187 


12.8 


Frederick 


111 


8 


193 


2.8 


16 


12 


805 


11.5 


Talbot 


25 


9 


197 


12.2 


10 


1 


57 


3.5 


Kent 


24 


10 


211 


16.6 


5 


6 


381 


30.1 


Prince George's. 


42 


10 


297 


3.4 


15 


13 


775 


8.8 


Montgomery. . . . 


39 


12 


259 


3.1 


12 


7 


414 


5.0 


St. Mary's 


48 


12 


272 


28.4 


5 


9 


498 


52.1 


Somerset 


28 


12 


280 


13.5 


11 


5 


271 


13.1 


Carroll 


97 


13 


253 


5.3 


12 


5 


321 


6.8 


Howard 


30 


15 


401 


19.8 


7 


4 


260 


12.8 


Wicomico 


43 


16 


426 


12.4 


8 


5 


273 


8.0 


Dorchester 


57 


20 


518 


18.4 


9 


4 


200 


7.1 


Allegany 


51 


21 


541 


4.4 


18 


11 


769 


6.3 


Harford 


51 


23 


543 


13.6 


12 


12 


652 


16.3 


Cecil 


57 


27 


718 


23.2 


5 


6 


398 


12.9 


Washington. . . . 


81 


39 


1,003 


9.3 


16 


14 


818 


7.6 


Garrett 


126 


56 


1,479 


38.5 


11 


10 


639 


16.6 



Reduction in One- and Two-Teacher Elementary Schools; 79 
Supervision 

has done in consolidating schools during the period. Frederick 
made the greatest reduction having 8 one-teacher schools at pres- 
ent as against 111 in 1920; Carroll is second with a reduction of 
84 one-teacher schools leaving 13 at present, while Garrett is 
third having decreased the number of one-teacher schools by 70, 
still leaving it with the largest number, 56. Kent, Howard, and 
Talbot have made the smallest reduction in the number of one- 
teacher schools from 1920 to the fall of 1936. 

The two-teacher schools which numbered 255 in 1920 have de- 
creased to 154 in October, 1936. The greatest reduction in the 
number of two-teacher schools has taken place in Baltimore 
County. (See Table 44.) 

SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 47 supervising teachers for the white elementary 
schools in service in the 23 Maryland counties during 1935-36. 
The resignation in December, 1935, of Mrs. Flossie Skidmore 
Shields from Garrett County and Mrs. Catherine R. Green from 
Prince George's reduced the number to 45. In Prince George's 
as of February 1, the work of supervising the graded schools was 
rearranged by assigning Miss Kemp to the primary grades and 
dividing the work of the upper grades between Mrs. Kathryn 
Reidy, who also supervises music, and Mrs. Louise Colip, who also 
supervises art. 

TABLE 45 



Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties for Vary- 
ing Numbers of White Elementary Teachers, October, 1936 



Number of 


Number of 






White 


Supervisors 


Number 




Elementary 


Allowed 


of 


Names of Counties 


Teachers 


By Law 


Counties 




Less than 80 ... . 


1 


10 


Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Howard, Kent, Queen 
Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Worcester. 


80 to 119. .. . 


2 


1 


Cecil (1;, Dorchester, Garrett, Wicomico. 
Anne Arundel (2), Carroll (2), Harford (2). 
Frederick (3), *Montgomery, *Prince George's. 


120 to 185 


3 


3 


186 to 235 


4 


3 


236 to 285 


5 


2 


Allegany (4), i Washington. 


286 to 335 


6 






336 to 385. . . . 


7 


"i 


JBaltimore (6). 



( ) The number of supervising or helping teachers actually employed in October, 1936. is 
shown in parentheses for counties which employed fewer than the minimum number required 
by law. 

* Includes a supervisor of art and a supervisor of music, 
t Includes a supervisor of art. 

t Two of the supervisors act also as principals of large elementary schools. 

Ten counties were entitled to employ one supervisor, 4 counties 
two supervisors, 3 counties three supervisors, 3 counties four 
supervisors, 2 counties five supervisors and 1 county seven. 
Seven counties — Cecil, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Harford, Freder- 
ick, Allegany, and Baltimore — would each have been entitled to 



80 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



receive State-aid for one more supervisor of white elementary 
schools than the number employed. Actually, therefore, 11 coun- 
ties had one supervisor, 6 counties had two supervisors, 1 county 
had three, 3 counties had four supervisors, 1 county had five, 
and 1 had six supervisors. (See Table 45.) 

In the fall of 1936, Mrs. Caroline Wilson was appointed in 
Garrett as general supervisor and Miss Margery Jane Billows was 
assigned in Montgomery to supervise art. Miss Kristin Nilsson 
became principal of an elementary school in Montgomery. The 
number in service in 1936-37 is 49 except that Miss Pauline Black- 
ford is giving only part-time service, while she carries on studies 
at Johns Hopkins University. (See Chart 9.) 

There are various plans for dividing the work in the counties 
employing more than one supervisor. In Dorchester, Anne Arun- 
del and Wicomico one of the two supervisors has the primary 
grades and the other the upper grades. In Harford, Carroll, and 
Garrett the county is zoned and one supervisor is responsible for 
all of the grades in schools in one part of the county while the 
other has all of the grades in the remaining schools. In Balti- 
more, Allegany, and Frederick Counties, one supervisor or two 
supervisors are responsible for all grades in the rural or smaller 
schools, while supervision in the larger schools is divided between 
a supervisor of primary grades and one of upper grades. In Bal- 
timore County there are also two principals of elementary schools 
who supervise instruction in not only their own school but also 
in schools in the vicinity. In Montgomery, one supervisor has 
the primary grades, another has the upper grades, while there 
is a supervisor of music, and one of art for all elementary grades. 
Prince George's has a supervisor of rural schools, one for primary 
grades in the larger schools, while the supervisors of art and mu- 
sic also supervise the work of the upper grades in larger schools. 
Washington County has two supervisors of all grades in rural 
schools, a primary and an upper grade supervisor in the larger 
schools and a supervisor of art. 

The Assistant State Superintendent in charge of elementary 
instruction and the State Supervisor of Elementary Schools con- 
tinued their program of visiting teachers with the county super- 
visors, discussing the work of teacher and supervisor, participat- 
ing in and evaluating teachers' meetings held by the county super- 
visors, arranging for supervisors to see and evaluate the work of 
supervisors and teachers in other counties and conducting State- 
wide and sectional conferences of supervisors. They also were 
available upon request for assisting in county course of study re- 
visions and for trying out new ideas and procedures. 

At a joint conference of county superintendents and super- 
visors held September 27, 1935, at the Towson State Teachers 



82 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

College, Dr. Gerald S. Craig of Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity, presented 'The Larger Objectives of Science Teaching." 
The supervisors continued the conference with the following 
program : 

I. Discussion Period with Dr. Craig on Teaching and Supervision of 
Science. 

II. The Summer Session as a Means of Growth. 

a. Needs of teachers as seen by supervisors and summer school in- 

structors. 

b. Points of view gained from recent summer school attendance. 

III. Travel and Reading as a Means of Growth. 

IV. Current Supervisory Projects in Maryland. 

a. Problems of articulation. 

b. The English curriculum. 

c. Teachers' meetings. 

A series of sectional conferences was held in December, 1935, 
and January, 1936, for groups of supervisors. In addition to 
questions pertaining to instructional leadership, the primary 
supervisors discussed reading instruction and the general and 
upper grade supervisors took up curriculum problems. The fol- 
lowing questions were formulated as a basis for the discussion 
of the following articles on primary reading: 

The C arrent-E xperience Method in Beginning Reading, Clarence R. Stone 
in "The Elementary School Journal," October 1935; pp. 105-109. 

Prevention and Correction of Reading Disabilities, Emmitt Albert Betts 
in "The Elementary English Review," February 1935; pp. 25-30. 

1. What is Dr. Stone's indictment of "experience reading" for beginners? 

2. Does your observation agree with the findings of a study quoted by 

Dr. Stone; namely, "that the schools giving the most emphasis to 
project activities made the poorest showing in reading achievement"? 

3. What do you consider the requirements of a "good" plan in beginning 

reading? 

4. What are the most striking features involved in Dr. Betts' elaboration 

of these statements? 

a. "Only an aggressive and experienced teacher can hope to avoid 

the pitfalls of any given method." 

b. "Our philosophy regarding learning disabilities has been chiefly 

concerned with remediation rather than prevention." 

c. "Most reading disabilities can either be prevented or remedied." 

5. Suggest some exercises or questions for second and third grade children 

that will cultivate habits of reacting to reading rather than habits of 
repeating what is read. 

The following questions were formulated from Doctor Bagley's 
article "Is Subject Matter Obsolete?" in Educational Administra- 
tion and Supervision, September, 1935. 

1. What is Dr. Bagley's indictment of a "school program limited to frag- 
mentary learnings based upon projects or momentary interests or 
activities"? 



Conferences of Maryland State and County Supervisors 83 



2. In your opinion, what are the advantages and the limitations of organ- 

izing subject-matter around "a problem or a purpose"? 

3. What are the difficulties involved in "insuring adequate backgrounds of 

knowledge" and "developing a true understanding"? 

4. Do you have in mind some educational theories that may have "softened 

the educational fiber"? 

5. Does Dr. Bagley take an extreme position or does he prove that "we 

are paying a very high price in terms of educational inefficiency for 
our educational weaknesses"? 

The statement on Leadership in Instruction prepared by a 
committee for the National Department of Supervisors and Di- 
rectors of Instruction is the source of the following quotations 
and references : 

1. What are the "needs of our present social life" for which the "school's 

instructional progi'am is inadequate"? 

2. Can you think of some "new avenues of self-expression" that we should 

be developing "for the many who possess inherent manipulative dex- 
terity"? 

3. Do you believe that "the leader is effective to the degree not only that 

he is master of a special field but also that he has a broad under- 
standing of major human and social forces"? What books and what 
magazine articles have you read during the last few months that 
have given you this "broader understanding"? 

4. What "conclusions of scientific study" other than those mentioned un- 

der Principle IV "should be part of the usable intellectual equipment 
of the instructional leader"? 

5o Does instructional leadership in Maryland value "immediate achieve- 
ment" of pupils more than "growth and development" of pupils? 
Justify your opinion. 

6 Suggest some "situations which will develop the feeling of mutuality 
which is so essential to growth and progress." 

7. Can you name causes of fear or tension among teachers other than 

those discussed under Principle XIII? 

8. By what criteria are you willing to have your own supervision evalu- 

ated? 

9. What implications for the budgeting of a supervisor's time do you find 

in Principle XVII? 

10. In your opinion, what is an outstanding need of instructional leadership 
in Maryland? 

In exploring difficulties in reading, the State supervisor of ele- 
mentary schools carried on considerable experimental work in 
the field of fourth grade history with supervisors and teachers in 
Baltimore, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Washington 
Counties. A reading investigation involving pupils and teachers 
in the seventh grade and first year high school was undertaken 
in May, 1936, in Anne Arundel and Talbot Counties. The impor- 
tant conclusions of these two experiments were reported at the 
fall meeting of the county supervisors in October, 1936, and will 
be included in more detail in the report for 1936-37. 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



GROWTH IN ENROLLMENT 

The enrollment in the last four years of county white public 
high schools in 1936 increased to 33,111, a gain of 1,325 over cor- 
responding figures for the preceding year. Similar figures for 
Baltimore City indicated an increase of 312, bringing the City en- 
rollment to 18,869 in 1936. (See Chart 10 and Table 46.) 



CHART 10 



GROWTH IN 17HITE HIGH SCHOOL ENROLL\TENT 



1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- I9r4 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 
192G-1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 

1931- 1952 

1932- 1933 
1935-1934 

1954- 1955 

1955- 1956 



Counties 



Balto. City 



L„, 



7/ /////////////////////////A 



V-^-roiV////////////////////////////77A 

mm 



\\%^sT/////////////////7///////////////A 



\\^^^^Y////////////////////////y/////^^^ 



The average number belonging in county white public high 
schools was 31,192, a gain of 1,469 over the year preceding, and 
the average daily attendance increased by 1,298 to 29,261 in 1936. 



84 



Growth in White High School Enrollment 



85 



Average number belonging and average attendance in Baltimore 
City showed gains of 205 and 327, respectively, over corresponding 
figures for 1935. (See Table 46.) 

TABLE 46 



White Enrollment and Attendance in Last Four Years of Public High Schools 
in 2-3 Maryland Counties and Baltimore City for School Years Ending 
June, 1920 to 1936 





23 COUNTIES 


BALTIMORE 


CITY 


1 ear 














Ending 










Average 




June oU 




Average 










Enroll- 


Number 


Average 


Enroll- 


Number 


Average 




ment 


Belonging 


Attendance 


ment 


Belonging 


Attendance 


1920. . . . 


9,392 


* 


7,798 


6,208 


5,980 


5,408 


1921 .... 


10,900 


* 


9,294 


6,899 


6,676 


6,151 


1922. . . . 


12,815 


* 


11,188 


8,320 


8,008 


7,329 


1923. . . . 


14,888 


13,844 


12,716 


9,742 


9,467 


8,656 


1924. . . . 


16,026 


14,842 


13,696 


9,783 


9,513 


8,722 


1925. . . . 


17,453 


16,168 


14,982 


10,658 


10,165 


9,340 


1926. . . . 


19,003 


17,516 


16,218 


10,933 


10,769 


9,951 


1927. . . . 


20,358 


18,770 


17,504 


11,391 


11,067 


10,233 


1928. , . . 


21,811 


20,382 


19,080 


11,792 


11,698 


10,816 


1929. . . . 


23,371 


21,802 


20,275 


12,899 


12,782 


11,802 


1930. . . . 


24,760 


23,186 


21,890 


13,434 


13,175 


12,261 


1931. . . . 


26,998 


25,402 


23,988 


14,549 


14,299 


13,278 


1932. . . . 


28,547 


26,835 


25,249 


16,053 


15,761 


14,696 


1933. . . . 


30,778 


28,877 


27,302 


17,707 


17,030 


15,831 


1934. . . . 


31,036 


29,017 


27,292 


17,807 


17,018 


15,823 


1935. . . . 


31,786 


29,723 


27,963 


18,557 


17,793 


16,567 


1936. . . . 


33,111 


31,192 


29,261 


18,869 


17,998 


16,894 



* Average number belonging not reported before 1923. 



TABLE 47 



Comparison of White High School Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore Citv 
in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1936 



Year 


Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Catholic 
Non-Public Schools 






Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


21,885 


14,246 


20.358 


11,391 


969 


2 . 549 


558 


306 


1928 


23,255 


14,290 


21,811 


11,792 


533 


2.143 


911 


355 


1929 


24,874 


15,994 


23,371 


12,899 


525 


2,491 


978 


604 


1930 


27,525 


16,790 


24,760 


13,434 


1.112 


2,478 


1.653 


878 


1931 


30,175 


18,594 


26,998 


14,549 


1.491 


3,191 


1,686 


854 


1932 


31 ,628 


20,485 


28,547 


16,053 


1.427 


3 , 598 


1,654 


834 


1933 


33 . 639 


22.001 


30,778 


17.707 


1,503 


3,570 


1,358 


724 


1934 


33.760 


22,190 


31,036 


17.807 


1,376 


3,699 


1,348 


684 


1935 


34.803 


23.339 


31.786 


18.557 


1.572 


4,023 


1.445 


759 


1936 


36,249 


23.891 


33,111 


18,869 


1,587 


4,211 


1.551 


811 



86 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The total high school enrollment combined for public and non- 
public schools in the counties and Baltimore City has increased 
steadily each year from 1927 to 1936 and the excess for the coun- 
ties over the City has become larger in succeeding years. The 
total enrollment of 36,249 in secondary schools in the counties in 
1936 is higher by 12,358 than the City high school enrollment of 
23,891. In public schools and non-Catholic private schools the 
high school enrollment in the counties is considerably larger than 
it is in Baltimore City, while in Catholic schools City high school 
enrollment exceeds that in the counties. (See Table 47 and 
Tables III-V, pages 309 to 312.) 

In December, 1935, the National Youth Administration made 
available six dollars a month to 706 needy white high school pupils 
in 89 county public high schools and 155 in 11 county private high 
schools at an expenditure of $24,427 for public school pupils and 
$10,407 for private school pupils, an average of $35 per pupil. 
Corresponding figures for Baltimore City showed 261 white pupils 
in day junior and senior high schools at an expenditure of $9,215, 
and 77 white pupils in private high schools at a cost of $2,383. 
In return these pupils were asked to render service to the school 
or community. For details of pupils and expenditures by county 
and service rendered, see Table 163A on page 254. 

LENGTH OF SESSION IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

TABLE 48 

Length of Session in White High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



County 



County Average 

Howard 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Allegany ...... 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Washington 

Prince George's. 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Montgomery . . . . 
Garrett 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



186.4 

192.5 
192.4 
190.0 
189.6 
189.6 
186.8 
186.3 
185.3 
184.8 
184.7 
184.6 
184.3 



School Year 
1935-36 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/4 

9/4 

9/9 

9/9 

9/4 

9/9 

9/3 

9/10 

9/5 

9/4 

9/16 

9/4 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/19 

6/18 

6/19 

6/19 

6/12 

6/19 

6/9 

6/19 

6/12 

6/12 

6/17 

6/12 



County 



Carroll 

Frederick 

Kent 

Dorchester. . . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's. . 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Charles 

Baltimore City 

Total State 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



184.2 
183.8 
183.8 
183.0 
183.0 
182.0 
181.9 
181.9 
181.5 
181.1 
180.6 

190.0 

187.7 



School Year 
1935-36 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/5 
9/4 
9/4 
9/9 
9/9 
9/3 
9/4 
9/4 
9/3 
9/3 
9/9 

9/5 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/10 

6/12 

6/12 

6/12 

6/17 

6/3 

6/12 

6/5 

6/2 

6/3 

6/12 

6/18 



The dates for the opening of county white public high schools 
in 1935 covered the period from September 3 in Somerset, Wash- 
ington, Wicomico, and Worcester to September 16 in Montgomery. 



Enrollment, Length of Session, % of Attendance in White 87 
High Schools 

The earliest closing date in 1936 was June 2 in Worcester and 
the latest June 19 in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, How- 
ard, and Prince George's. (See Table 48.) 

The county white high schools had an average session of 186.4 
days in 1936 as against 185.8 days in 1935. The length of ses- 
sions among the counties ran from approximately 181 days in 
Charles and Wicomico to 190 days in Baltimore County and over 
192 days in Harford and Howard. The high schools in Baltimore 
City were in session 190 days from September 5, 1935, to June 18, 
1936. (See Table 48.) 

PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The average attendance in county white public high schools 
was 93.8 per cent of the number belonging in 1936, just .3 per 
cent lower than for the preceding year. Baltimore City reported 
an average attendance of 93.9 per cent, an increase of .8 over 
similar figures for 1935. (See Table 49.) 



TABLE 49 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June, 1923, 1934, 1935 and 1936 



County- 



County Average 

Frederick 

Charles 

Allegany 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Prince George's . 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Carroll 

Dorchester 



1923 


1934 


1935 


1936 


County 


1923 


1934 


1935 


1936 


91 


9 


94 


1 


94 


1 


93.8 




93.5 


91.7 


92.4 


93 


1 


















86.8 


93.1 


92.8 


92 


9 


91 


5 


95 


8 


95 


1 


95.5 


Howard 


89.9 


93.8 


94.5 


92 


8 


88 


7 


93 


7 


91 





95.1 




88.9 


92.7 


93.5 


92 


7 


94 


8 


95 


2 


95 


5 


95.0 


Talbot 


93.2 


93.5 


93.4 


92 


4 


93 


1 


95 


5 


95 


4 


95.0 




91.2 


92.9 


93.4 


92 


3 


92 


3 


95 


7 


95 


9 


94.9 




91.9 


94.3 


94.1 


92 


2 


91 


4 


94 


5 


95 


1 


94.5 




91.2 


93.2 


91.9 


92 


2 


91 


7 


93 


9 


94 


4 


9i.2 


Cecil 


92.0 


91.5 


91.4 


91 


5 


91 


8 


94 


4 


94 


3 


94.1 


Garrett 


90.2 


92.7 


92.5 


91 


2 


91 


3 


93 


8 


93 


9 


94.0 


Kent 


90.2 


91.0 


89.6 


90 


7 


92 


1 


94 





93 


7 


93.9 














88 


7 


93 


5 


93 


3 


93.8 


Baltimore City .... 


91.5 


93.0 


93.1 


93 


9 


92 


4 


94 


7 


95 


2 


93.7 




























91.6 


93.7 


93.7 


93 


8 



For attendance in 1936 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 314. 



The range in per cent of attendance in the counties was from 
around 91 per cent in Kent and Garrett to 95 per cent or over in 
Washington, Allegany, Charles, and Frederick. Ten counties had 
a slightly higher average attendance in 1936 than they had the 
preceding year. The lower attendance in 1936 is proloably due 
to the unusually inclement winter weather followed by floods and 
the spread of epidemics in many of the counties. (See Table 49.) 

The average number belonging in county white public high 
schools was highest in October, 32,227, after which there was a 



88 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

decrease each succeeding month, the June figure being 29,112. 
Per cent of attendance was highest in September and June, 96.9 
and 96.5, respectively. The lowest per cent of attendance was 
found in February, 88.8, after which the attendance increased 
steadily each succeeding month. (See Table 50.) 

TABLE 50 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Last Four Years of Mary- 
land County White High Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending 

in June, 1936 



Month 


Average No. 


Per Cent 
of 
Atten- 
dance 


Month 


Average No. 


Per Cent 
of 
Atten- 
dance 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 


September. 


30,941 


31,934 


96.9 


March. . . 


28,661 


30,818 


93.0 


October. . . 


30,875 


32,227 


95.8 


April 


28,450 


30,406 


93.6 


November. 


30,438 


31,987 


95.2 


May 


28,238 


29,972 


94.2 


December . 


29,835 


31,782 


93.9 


June 


*28,106 


*29,112 


96.5 


January. . . 


28,790 


31,451 


91.5 


Average. . 








February. . 


27,746 


31,238 


88.8 


for Year 


29,261 


31,192 


93.8 



* One county reported no pupils enrolled in June. 



IMPORTANCE OF HIGH SCHOOLS 

Of every 100 white pupils attending county public elementary 
and secondary schools, 23.3 attended secondary schools in 1935- 
36. This was an increase of .9 over the corresponding figure of 
22.4 for the year preceding. For Baltimore City corresponding 
ratios were 20.4 in 1936 as against 20.1 in 1935. (See Chart 11.) 

The ratio of number belonging in the white high schools to the 
combined average enrollment in high and elementary schools 
varied among the counties from 17.6 in Washington to 29.8 in 
Talbot. Seven counties on the Eastern Shore, three counties in 
Southern Maryland, and Anne Arundel and Harford ranked 
highest in the proportion of their white pupils in high schools. 
All except four counties — Talbot, Charles, Caroline, and Queen 
Anne's — show^ed a higher ratio in high school in 1936 than during 
the preceding year. This high ranking may be due in part to the 
fact that the elementary enrollment in these counties is declin- 
ing faster than in the average county. (See Table 51.) 



Monthly Attendance; Ratio of High School Pupils to 89 
Total No. of Pupils 



CHART 11 



THE NDUBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITY 
1917 - 1934 



1917 
1913 
1912 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1929 
1929 

1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 

1934 
1935 



1913 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 

1955 
1936 



Maryland Counties 



Baltimore City V77A 



wmrnm. 



10.2 //////////////////////A 



V/////////^^7/77y 



i 



3-1 y/ //// //////^ 



1 



7/////////////////////// ///V///A 



If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four 
years of high school attendance by every elementary school gradu- 
ate, the maximum percentage that could possibly be enrolled in 
the four years of high school would be 33.3 in counties having the 
8-4 or 6-3-3 plan and 36.4 per cent in counties organized on the 
7-4 plan. These percentages assume that there is a uniform 



90 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



number entering school each year, which naturally is not the 
ease. Baltimore City, Allegany, Montgomery, and Washington 
Counties have the 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization, which ex- 
plains their position near the bottom of the list in Table 51. 



TABLE 51 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in Last Four Years of White High Schools to 
"Number Belonging" in White Elementary and White High Schools Combined 



1924 


1934 


1935 


1936 


County 


1924 


1934 


1935 


13 


3 


21 


3 


21 


8 


22 


7 




13 


7 


23 


4 


23 


9 


















Dorchester 


16 


7 


21 


2 


22 


2 


18 


7 


29 


5 


30 


1 


29 


8 




15 


2 


21 


9 


23 


4 


15 


2 


26 


5 


26 


6 


27 


7 


Howard 


12 


7 


20 


2 


21 


6 


10 


2 


22 


4 


24 


6 


27 


3 




14 


9 


20 


1 


20 


5 


18 


9 


25 


7 


25 


9 


27 


1 


Prince George's. . . 


11 


6 


20 


6 


21 


1 


19 


9 


25 


3 


25 


7 


26 


2 




11 





20 


8 


20 


7 


14 


3 


25 


2 


25 


8 


26 


1 


xA.llegany* 


13 


5 


20 


3 


20 


5 


5 


5 


25 


3 


25 


6 


25 


5 




13 


9 


17 


7 


18 


6 


18 


8 


27 


1 


26 





25 


5 


Garrett 


8 


4 


18 


7 


18 


8 


14 


8 


24 





24 


4 


25 


2 




11 


1 


17 





17 


2 


3 





23 


8 


24 


4 


25 

















15 


5 


21 


2 


24 


1 


?4 


5 


Baltimore City*. . . 


9 


7 


18 




19 


6 


18 


3 


25 


8 


25 





24 


5 






























State Average 


11 


8 


20 


3 


20 


9 



County 



County Average 

Talbot 

Kent 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Charles 

Caroline 

Harford 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's. . . 



1936 



24.4 
24.0 
23.8 
22.8 
22.3 
22.3 
21.7 
21.6 
20.0 
19.6 
17.6 

20.1 

21.7 



* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization as against 7-4 plan in remaining counties. 



NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES INCREASES 

There were 5,322 graduates from the county white high schools 
in 1936, an increase of 483 over the preceding year. Of the 
graduates 2,283 were boys and 3,039 were girls. Baltimore City 
also showed an increase in the number of high school graduates, 

TABLE 52 



Four-Year White High School Graduates in Maryland, 1919 to 1936 



Year 


Boys 


23 COUNTIES 
Girls 


Total 


Baltimore 
City 


1919 


323 


681 


1,004 




653 


1920 


378 


772 


1,150 




698 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 




806 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1,633 




948 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1.953 


1 


167 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2.218 


1 


348 


1925 


929 


1,610 


2,539 


1 


141 


1926 


1.045 


1,574 


2,619 


1 


450 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


1 


528 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2 , 993 


1 


503 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


1 


757 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3.785 


1 


775 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


4,204 


1 


970 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


4,397 


2 


167 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


4,921 


2 


371 


1934 


2,220 


2,902 


5,122 


2 


485 


1935 


2.052 


2,787 


4,839 


2 


469 


1936 


2,283 


3,039 


5,322 


2 


759 



Ratio of High School Pupils to Total No. of Pupils; Graduates 91 



2,759 compared with 2,469 in 1935. The number of high school 
graduates in 1936 was larger than ever before reported. (See 
Table 52.) 



CHART 12 



NTJMBE21 OF BOYS AND GIRLS CaiADUATED FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

1956 



County 



Total 
1935 1936 



Boys 



Baltimore 


o54 


702 


Allegany 


500 


580 


Washington 


408 


457 


Anne Arundel 


226 


424 


Pr. George's 


313 


344 


Frederick 


288 


298 


Carroll 


253 


295 


Montgomery 


300 


264 


Harford 


237 


248 




177 


217 


Cecil 


178 


203 


Garrett 


194 


178 


V/orcester 


129 


144 


Caroline 


136 


138 


Talbot 


115 


133 


Dorchester 


147 


125 


Kent 


105 


103 


Somerset 


104 


98 


Chsirles 


83 


88 


Queen Anne's 


108 


88 


Howard 


84 


84 


St. Mary's 


51 


6. 


Calvert 


29 


46 


Balto. City ?. 


,459 J 


2,759 



T777\ Girls 



V//////////////////////////////A 




1,358 
1,401 



92 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The counties varied in number of graduates from 46 in Calvert 
to 702 in Baltimore. Sixteen counties had more high school grad- 
uates in 1936 than in 1935, one county showed no change, and six 
counties, Montgomery, Garrett, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Kent, 
and Somerset, reported a smaller number of graduates. As in 
previous years, the number of girls graduated exceeded the 
number of boys graduated. (See Chart 12.) 

PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

If the number of graduates of 1936 is compared with the first 
year enrollment of 1933, it is possible to obtain a rough estimate 
of persistence to high school graduation of those who were clas- 
sified as in the first year of high school in 1933. Although the 
first year enrollment includes repeaters of the preceding year, 
these are partially offset by the pupils who enter high school 
after the first year. 

The average per cent of persistence to high school graduation in 
1936 was 50.5, which includes 42.6 for boys and 58.6 for girls. 
This was a higher persistence for both boys and girls than was 
shown in the preceding year, but lower than that reported in 
1932, 1933, and 1934. (See Table 52A.) 



TABLE 52A 



Persistence to Graduation by County White High School Pupils 







Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 






Four Years Later 


Year 


First Year 










Enrollment 












Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1923 


5,756 


45.3 


38.4 


51.8 


1924 


6,311 


45.7 


36.0 


54.5 


1925 


6,772 


44.2 


35.6 


52.0 


1926 


7,548 


45.0 


38.2 


50.9 


1927 


7,895 


47.9 


40.3 


55.0 


1928 


8,486 


49.5 


42.2 


56.3 


1929 


8,587 


51.2 


42.9 


58.9 


1930 


9,038 


54.4 


47.1 


61.6 


1931 


9,777 


52.4 


44.8 


60.2 


1932 


9,662 


50.1 


42.1 


58.3 


1933 


10,548 


50.5 


42.6 


58.6 



Among the counties, the percentage of persistence ranged from 
37 in Somerset to approximately 67 in Kent and Montgomery; 
for boys from 30 in Somerset to 59 in Kent ; and for girls from 
less than 50 in Somerset, Frederick, Calvert, and Wicomico to 
73 in Kent and 82 in Montgomery. In every county the percentage 
of persistence to high school graduation was higher for girls than 
for boys. (See Chart 13.) 



Persistence to High School Graduation 
CHART 13 



93 



County- 



Total and 10548 
Co. Average 



PER CENT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 
First Year 
Enrollment 

1933 1936 

50.5 



Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 
B^Boys I I Girls 




In Kent, Montgomery, Washington, Worcester, and Prince 
George's, the per cent of persistence to graduation was higher 
in 1936 than in 1935 for both boys and girls ; in Caroline, Anne 
Arundel, St. Mary's, Carroll, Howard, Calvert, and Somerset it 



94 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



was higher for boys only ; and in Garrett, Harford, Charles, Al- 
legany, Dorchester, Cecil, and Wicomico it was higher for girls 
only. (See Chart 13.) 

MORE ENTRANTS TO STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 
CHART 14 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS EOTERING MARYLAND 
TEACHERS COLLEGES THE FALL FOLLOWING GRADUATION 



County 



Number 



1934 


1935 


1956 


1935 


County 










Averajre 


88 


9? 


131 


3.3 


Wicomico 


on 


10 


19 


9.7 


Calvert 


1 


- 


3 


- 


Caroline 




7 


10 


9.3 


Somerset 


1 


3 


5 


4.5 


Baltimore 


19 


14 


?3 


3 . 5 


Kent 






5 


3.3 


Talbot 


? 


4 


6 


6.3 


Worcester 


■z 


c 

r) 




7 X 


Garrett 


2 


1 


4 


.9 


Harford 


c 


6 


6 


4.4 


Washington 


6 


5 


10 


2.2 


Allegany 


15 


15 


12 


5.8 


Dorchester 


o 


5 


2 


6.2 


St. Mary's 




2 


1 


4.5 


Charles 




2 


1 


4.0 


Q . Anne ' s 


2 


3 


1 


4.8 


Cecil 




2 


2 


2.2 


Carroll 


2 


2 


2 


1.3 


Frederick 


3 


2 


2 


1.3 


A. Arundel 


3 




2 




Pr. George 


s - 




1 




Howard 


1 


1 




2.1 


Montgomery 


1 


1 




.6 


Balto. City 50 


48 


96 


3.9 


State 


138 


141 


227 


3.5 



Per Cent 
1936 




The number of 1936 county girl high school graduates entering 
the three Maryland State Teachers Colleges in the fall of 1936 



1936 High School Graduates Who Entered State Teachers Colleges 95 



increased from 93 in 1935 to 131 in 1936. These represented 4.3 
per cent of the girls graduated from county high schools in 1936 
compared with 3.3 the preceding year. (See Chart 14.) 

The girl graduates entering Teachers Colleges ranged from none 
in Montgomery and Howard and less than 1 per cent in Prince 
George's and Anne Arundel to nearly 15 per cent in Wicomico. 
Worcester, Allegany, Dorchester, St. Mary's, Charles, Queen 
Anne's, Howard, and Montgomery sent fewer girl graduates to 
Maryland State Teachers Colleges in 1936 than in 1935. (See 
Chart 14.) 

Baltimore City which sent 48 girls to the State Teachers Col- 
lege at Towson, in 1935, doubled the number in 1936, 96 girls 
being reported as entrants. There were 227 girl graduates from 
the City and county public white high schools in 1936 who en- 
tered the State Teachers Colleges. (See Chart 14.) 

There were 48 county boys w^ho graduated from white high 
schools in 13 counties in 1936 who entered Maryland State Teach- 
ers Colleges in the fall after graduation. The largest number and 
per cent, 12 representing 13.6 per cent of the boys graduated, 
came from Wicomico County, in w^hich the Salisbury State Teach- 
ers College offering junior college work is located. There were 
7 boys from Worcester, Allegany, and Baltimore County, 4 from 
Garrett, 2 each from Caroline, Talbot, and Anne Arundel, and 1 
each from Kent, Somerset, Harford, Frederick, and Washington 
who entered the State Teachers Colleges the fall following their 
graduation in 1936. Baltimore City sent 21 bov graduates of 
1936 to the State Teachers College at Towson. (See Table 53.) 



TABLE 53 



Boy Graduates from White Public High Schools Entering Maryland 
State Teachers Colleges, 1936 



COUNTY 


Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers 
Colleges 


COUNTY 


Total 
Number 

White 
Bov 

Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers 
Colleges 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County 
















Average 


2.283 


48 


2.1 


Baltimore 


316 


7 


2.2 






Anne Arundel .... 


171 


2 


1.2 




88 


12 


13.6 


Harford 


107 


1 


.9 


Worcester 


66 




10.6 


Frederick 


135 


1 


.7 


Garrett 


86 


4 


4.7 




211 


1 


.5 


Caroline 


50 


2 


4.0 






Talbot 


57 


2 


3.5 


Baltimore City . . . 


1.358 


21 


1.5 


Allegany 


248 




2.8 








Kent 


41 


1 


2.4 


Entire State 


3,641 


69 


1.9 


Somerset 


42 


1 


2.4 





96 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



OCCUPATIONS IN 1935-36 OF 1935 COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL 

GRADUATES 

The discussion on the preceding pages was concerned with grad- 
uates of 1936. In order to follow up on occupations of graduates 
in 1935-36 it was necessary to investigate activities of the 1935 
graduates who were not as numerous as those for 1936. There 
were 2,052 boys and 2,787 girls who graduated in 1935. Of 
these 2,052 boy graduates in 1935, there were 498 or 24.3 per cent, 
and of the 2,787 girl graduates in 1935 there were 800 or 28.7 per 
cent who continued their education during 1935-36. On the 
other hand, 367 boys or 18 per cent and 1,172 girls, or 42 per 
cent of the 1935 county graduates were reported as staying or 
working at home or married the year following graduation. (See 
Tables 54 and 55.) 

TABLE 54 



Occupations of 1935 Graduates as Reported by Principals of County White 

High Schools in 1935-36 





Number 


Per Cent 




OmiPATTON 
















Boys 


Ljiris 


Boys 


Girls 


Continuing Education 


498 


800 


24 


3 


28 


7 


Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities 


239 


268 


11 


6 


9 


6 


State Teachers Colleges 


55 


93 


2 


7 


3 


4 


Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Law, Agri- 
culture and Ministry 














22 


4 


1 


1 




1 


Engineering 


24 




1 


2 






Physical Education, Home Economics, and 














Kindergarten Training Schools 




8 








3 


Army and Navy Academies 


' "s 






2 






Commercial Schools 


92 


'245 


4 


5 


'8 


8 


College Preparatory Schools 


38 


17 


1 


9 




6 


Post-Graduate High School Courses 


15 


40 




7 


1 


4 


Art and Music Schools 


8 


13 




4 




.5 


Hospitals for Training 




112 






4 





Staying at Home 


'l83 


631 


'8 


9 


22 


6 


Working in Own or Others' Homes 


184 


344 


9 





12 


.3 


Married 




197 






7 


1 


Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and Saleswomen, 














Business 


309 


223 


15 


1 


8 


.0 


Manufacturing, Mechanical, Building, Mining 


225 


97 


11 


.0 


3 


.5 


Farming, Fishing, Forestry, C.C.C 


270 




13 


.2 






Office Work 


91 


254 


4 


.4 


9 


.1 


Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur 


56 




2 


.7 






Communication, Newspaper, Telephone and 














Telegraph Operators 


17 


36 




.8 
.1 


1 


.3 


Army, Navy, Marines, Aviation 


43 




2 






Beauty Parlor 




' 14 








.5 


Musician, Dancing Teacher 


' " 3 


2 




.1 




.1 


Died 


4 


1 




.2 




.1 


Miscellaneous and Unknown 


169 


188 


8 


.2 


6 


.7 


Total 


2,052 


2,787 


100 


.0 


100 






Occupations in 1935-36 of 1935 White High School Graduates 97 

County white high school graduates of 1934 and 1935 who con- 
tinued their education the year following graduation decreased 
in number in the later year, but increased in percentage. These 
percentages which decreased steadily for graduates of the years 
from 1926 to 1933 have shown consistent gains since that year. 
(See Table 55.) 

TABLE 55 



Comparison of Number and Per Cent of County White High School Graduates 
Continuing Education or Staying or Working at Home Year Following 
Graduation, 1926 to 1935 



Graduates 
of 


Total Number 
of Graduates 


NUMBER 


PER CENT 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1926 


1 ,045 


1,574 


507 


856 


88 


323 


48.8 


54.3 


8.5 


20.5 


1927 


1.07] 


1,81G 


472 


913 


99 


417 


44.1 


50.3 


9.3 


22.9 


1928 


1,142 


1.851 


480 


947 


118 


432 


41.8 


51.2 


10.3 


23.3 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


527 


1,051 


125 


455 


39.3 


51.3 


9.3 


22.1 


1930 


1 , 534 


2,251 


542 


1 ,031 


223 


694 


35.3 


45.8 


21.5 


28.7 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


574 


953 


361 


994 


33.5 


38.2 


21.2 


39.8 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


471 


820 


495 


1,321 


26.6 


31.2 


27.9 


50.4 




2.114 


2,807 


469 


701 


447 


1,453 


22.2 


25.0 


21.1 


51.8 


1934 


2,223 


2,904 


522 


803 


473 


1,348 


23.5 


27.7 


21.2 


46.4 


1935 


2.052 


2,787 


498 


800 


367 


1,172 


24.3 


28.7 


17.9 


42.0 



On the other hand, the number of boys staying or working at 
home the year following graduation increased steadily for gradu- 
ates of the years 1926 to 1932, dropped for the graduates of 1933, 
increased again for those of 1934, and decreased to 367 in 1935, 
just slightly higher than the 1931 level. The per cent of boy 
graduates at home the year following graduation ranged between 
8.5 for those who graduated in 1926 and 28 for those who gradu- 
ated in 1932, dropped to 21 for graduates of 1933 and 1934 and to 
18 for those who graduated in 1935, the lowest percentage since 
the boys who graduated in 1930. For girls the rise and fall in 
number staying or working at home for those who graduated dur- 
ing the period from 1926 to 1935 is similar to that for boys, the 
number in 1935, 1,172, being lower than for any year since 1931. 
The percentage of girls who stayed or w^orked at home the year 
following graduation increased from 20.5 per cent for 1926 gradu- 
ates, to the peak, 52 per cent for 1933, from which point it 
dropped to 42 per cent for 1935 graduates. (See Table 55.) 

Nothing could prove more conclusively the changing character 
of the high school population, recruited since the depression years 
from the group who ordinarily would have found jobs, and the 



98 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



need for adapting high school instruction to those who will re- 
main in the home environment of their earlier years. 

In addition to those graduates who were at home or at school, 
there were 309 boys and 223 girls employed as clerks or sales- 
people, 225 boys and 97 girls in shops or factories, 270 boys on 
farms or in the fishing industry, and 91 boys and 254 girls doing 
office work. Various occupations were reported for the remaining 
1935 graduates during 1935-36. (See Table 54.) 



Counties Vary in Occupations of Their Graduates 

Fewer than one-sixth of the boys in Garrett, Howard, Cecil, 
and Somerset continued their education the year after high school 
graduation in contrast with 32 per cent or more of the boys in 
Kent, Wicomico, Queen Anne's, Montgomery, and St. Mary's. Less 
than 6 per cent of the Garrett County girls had an opportunity to 
continue their education beyond high school graduation, while 
from a third up to three-fifths of the girls in Cecil, Anne Arundel, 
Frederick, Montgomery, Howard, Harford, Queen Anne's, Kent, 
and Calvert went to colleges, to commercial schools, or into hos- 
pitals to study nursing. The proximity of colleges, financial 
status, faith in the availability of positions for those better pre- 
pared, interest in further education fostered by teachers and 
others, lack of available positions were probably the factors most 
potent in determining further study on the part of high school 
graduates. (See Table 56.) 



1935 Graduates Attending Maryland Colleges 

There were 242 white county boys and 290 white county girls 
graduated from county public high schools in 1935 who were en- 
rolled in the following Maryland colleges in the fall of 1935. 





1935 Graduates 




Entering College 


College or University 


in Fall of 1935 County Sending Largest Numbers 




Boys Girls 



University of Maryland 82 

State Teachers College, Salisbury. . . 40 

Western Maryland College 21 

Washington College 28 

State Teachers College, Towson. ... 8 

Hood College 

State Teachers College, Frostburg . . 6 

Blue Ridge Junior College 8 

St. John's College 18 

Johns Hopkins University 16 

Goucher College 

St Mary's Seminary 

Maryland Institute 5 

University of Baltimore 7 

Peabody Institute 1 

Other 2 



54 Montgomery, Prince George's 

39 Wicomico 

40 Carroll 

25 Kent 

29 Baltimore 

26 Frederick 
18 Allegany 
15 Carroll 

Anne Arundel 
Baltimore 
14 Baltimore, Anne Arundel, 

Harford 
13 St. Mary's 
5 Baltimore 

3 Anne Arundel 

4 Baltimore 



Occupations of 1935 High School Graduates in 1935-36 99 



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Occupations of 1935 Graduates; Subjects Offered 



101 



In every case the institution was attended in largest numbers by 
graduates who lived in the same county in which the school was 
located or in an adjoining county. (See Table 57.) 

In Anne Arundel and Baltimore Counties less than 10 per cent 
of the boys were staying or working in their own or others' 
homes the year following high school graduation in 1935. This 
was the case for less than 30 per cent of the girl graduates in 
these counties and Prince George's. At the opposite extreme, how- 
ever, from 35 to 40 per cent of the boys in St. Mary's, Howard, 
and Garrett, and from 50 to 82 per cent of the girls in Cecil, Somer- 
set, Charles, Caroline, Worcester, St. Mary's, and Garrett were 
staying or working at home in 1935-36 following their gradua- 
tion in 1935. A large proportion of the boys and girls in St. 
Mary's stay at home or work in their own or others' homes after 
high school graduation. Since this is the case, it would probably 
be advisable to prepare these boys and girls to do better what 
they will be doing by offering courses in home economics, indus- 
trial arts, or agriculture in the high school curriculum w^hich 
are not now available. (See Table 56.) 

SUBJECTS OFFERED IN HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were only slight changes in the distribution of county 
white high school enrollment by subject. There were increases 
for 1936 over 1935 in the number and per cent taking mathe- 
matics, social studies, science, industrial arts, home economics, 
agriculture, physical education, and commercial subjects for 
girls. There were decreases under the 1935 figures for the en- 
rollment taking Latin, French, and art for boys. (See Table 58.) 

About 85 per cent of the county white high school pupils were 
enrolled for the social studies and approximately 70 per cent for 
mathematics and science, a larger per cent of boys than of girls 
taking each of these subjects. (See Table 58.) 

Approximately 16 per cent of the county white high school 
pupils were enrolled in Latin classes, and nearly 14 per cent for 
French, the girls having a larger number and proportion en- 
rolled for these languages than the boys. The schools in which 
Latin and French were offered enrolled 81 and 89 per cent, re- 
spectively, of all high school pupils. (See Table 58.) 

Enrollment of boys and girls taking foreign languages from 
1925 to 1936 shows fluctuations from year to year. In 1925 there 
were 2,076 boys taking Latin. The number increased to nearly 
2.500 in 1928, but receded in 1929 to 2,271 after which there was 
an increase to 2,559 in 1932, the maximum for the entire period. 
Since then, with the exception of 1934, there has been a decrease 
each year until the 1936 enrollment is only slightly larger than 



102 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 58 



Distribution of Enrollment in Last Four Years of Maryland County White 
High Schools by Subjects Taken for Year Ending June 30, 1936 



Subject 


Number 
Enrolled 


Per Cent 


Number 
of High 
Schools 
Offering 
Subject 


Per Cent of 
Total Enroll- 
ment Enrolled 
in Schools 

which Offer 
Each Subject 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


15,407 


17,189 






151 




English 


15,286 


17,041 


99.2 


99.1 


151 


100.0 


Mathematics 


11,356 


11,394 


73.7 


66.3 


151 


100.0 


Social Studies . . . 


1 Q 1 80 


14 , Oil 


oO . O 




151 


100.0 


Science 


11,389 


11,639 


73.9 


67.7 


151 


100.0 


Latin 


2,106 


3,208 


13.7 


18.7 


90 


81.4 


French 


1,604 


2,872 


10.4 


16.7 


116 


88.9 


Spanish 


36 


48 


.2 


.3 


1 


3.1 


Industrial Arts. . . . 










83 


78.2 


General 


6^928 




45^0 




78 


70.0 


Vocational 


772 




5.0 




12 


16.9 


Home Economics. . 










120 


89.6 


General 




8^259 




48^0 


92 


79.2 


Vocational 




1,330 




7.7 


39 


21.1 


Agriculture 


1,482 




'9;6 




44 


23.8 


Commercial 


3,665 


5^243 


23.8 


S0'.5 


81 


79.2 


Physical Education 


5,413 


5,182 


35.1 


30.1 


38 


50.2 


Music 


7,526 


9,134 


48.8 


53.1 


113 


86.3 


Art 


418 


571 


2.7 


3.3 


10 


10.1 



that in 1925. The 3,333 girls taking Latin in 1925 increased to 
3,535 in 1927 after which there was a decrease to 3,446 in 1930. 
An increase thereafter to 3,746 in 1934, the peak year for the 
entire period, was followed by a decrease to 3,208 in 1936, the 
smallest enrollment for the entire period. (See Table 59.) 

There were 1,411 boys taking French in 1925. Until 1927 there 
was a slight decrease in enrollment, followed by an increase to 
1929. The decrease in 1930 was followed by increases which 
brought the maximum enrollment for the entire period to 1,989 
in 1933, since which year there has been a decrease to 1,604 in 
1936. There were 2,306 white high school girls taking French in 
1925. Each year thereafter, with the exception of 1930, showed 
an increase until the maximum total of 3,237 in 1933. Since then 
there has been a decrease each year until 1936 when the girls 
taking French totalled 2,872. (See Table 59.) 

Only one school has offered Spanish. During the period 1925 
to 1936 the enrollment of boys has fluctuated between 19 and 
53 and of girls between 10 and 57. In 1936 the enrollment of 
boys was 36 and of girls 48. (See Table 59.) 



Enrollment by Subject; Foreign Languages; Industrial Arts 103 

TABLE 59 



Enrollment in the Foreign Languages* for Years Ending June 30, 1925 to 1936 



Year Ending June 30 


Latin 


French 


Spanish 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1925 


2,076 


3,333 


] ,411 


2,306 


38 


39 


1926 


2 , 1 54 


3,497 


1,400 


2,428 


31 


29 


1927 


2,335 


3,535 


1,379 


2,532 


24 


17 


1928 


2,494 


3,510 


1,420 


2,690 


19 


10 


1929 


2,271 


3,475 


1,656 


2,751 


34 


26 


1930 


2,338 


3,446 


1,567 


2,713 


46 


57 


1931 


2 , 534 


3,684 


1 , 598 


2,786 


22 


13 


1932 


2 , 559 


3 , 683 


1 ,762 


2,967 


53 


26 


1933 


2,421 


3,713 


1,989 


3,237 


46 


26 


1934 


2,460 


3,746 


1,850 


3,149 


30 


28 


1935 


2,272 


3,409 


1,601 


2,966 


36 


52 


1936 


2,106 


3,208 


1,604 


2,872 


36 


48 



* Excludes 8 boys and 10 girls taking German in 1924-25 ; 6 boys and 2 girls in 1925-26. 



General and/or vocational industrial arts were taught in 1936 
in 83 county high schools enrolling 78 per cent of all county white 
high school boys. One-half of all county white high school boys 
took this work which in most of the schools was taught in only 
the first and second years. (See Table 58.) 

There has been considerable growth in interest in industrial 
arts since 1925 when the enrollment was 4,333. Each year un- 
til 1931, with the exception of 1926, more boys were given in- 
struction in industrial arts. After the drop in 1932, due partly 
to the depression, there has been a steady growth until the maxi- 
mum enrollment of 6,928 was found in 1936. With the exception 
of recessions in 1934 and 1935, the county white enrollment in 
day and part-time vocational work in trades and industries has 
increased from 69 in 1929 to 772 in 1936. (See Table 60.) 

TABLE 60 



Enrollment in Industrial Arts, Agriculture and Home Economics for Years 
Ending June 30, 1925 to 1936, Inclusive 



Year Ending June 30 


Industrial Arts 


Agriculture 


Home Economics 


General 


Vocational 


General 


Vocational 


1925 


4.333 




853 


6.258 


465 


1926 


4,256 




936 


6.595 


546 


1927 


4,905 




922 


7.304 


618 


1928 


5,349 




949 


7,798 


587 


1929 


5,534 


' 69 


985 


8 . 085 


516 


1930 


5,721 


117 


933 


7,766 


497 


1931 


6,450 


225 


1.100 


7.753 


566 


1932 


6,043 


418 


1 .264 


7.464 


770 


1933 


6.388 


520 


1 ,260 


7.827 


720 


1934 


6,. 536 


410 


1,278 


7.908 


780 


1935 


6.873 


403 


1 , 389 


8.065 


1 .040 


1936 


6,928 


772 


1.482 


8.259 


1 . 330 



104 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In 1936, agriculture was taught in 44 schools enrolling 24 per 
cent of all county high school boys. Just under 10 per cent of all 
county high school boys took the course which was offered for 
only two years in most schools. (See Table 58.) 

The enrollment taking agriculture has shown more or less 
steady growth from 853 in 1925 to 1,482 in 1936. (See Table 60.) 

Home economics, general and vocational, was taught in 1936 
in 120 schools enrolling nearly 90 per cent of all county white 
high school girls. This work was taken by 56 per cent of all 
county white high school girls, most schools scheduling the work 
for the first and second years only. There were, however, 31 
schools which offered elective work in home economics in the third 
and fourth years. (See Table 58.) 

The girls taking general home economics totalled 6,258 in 1925. 
There was an increase to 8,085 in 1929, after which the number 
declined to 7,464 in 1932. Since that year, there has been a steady 
increase to 8,259 taking the work in 1936. Part of the decrease 
between 1929 and 1932 is explained by the change in policy advo- 
cated by the State Supervisor of Home Economics who started 
her work in September, 1927. Instead of offering the work for 
two periods a week during each of the four years, which had been 
the prevailing practice, an increasing number of high schools 
scheduled the work for five periods a week during the first and 
second years. This decreased the number and per cent of girls 
reported as taking the work in any one year, although the actual 
time devoted to the subject over the four-year period was in- 
creased. Building on the foundation laid in the first two years, 
when the girls had had their work for five periods a week, several 
schools also added elective advanced courses in the third and 
fourth years scheduled for from 2 to 5 periods a week. (See 
Table 60.) 

The girls taking vocational home economics have with slight 
fluctuations increased from 465 in 1925 to 1,330 in 1936. (See 
Table 60.) 

In 1936, commercial subjects were taught in 81 schools in which 
79 per cent of all county white high school pupils were enrolled 
and were taken by 24 per cent of all county white high school boys 
and 31 per cent of the girls. Since the major part of the com- 
mercial work is offered in the junior and senior years, a much 
larger proportion of third and fourth year pupils were enrolled 
for these courses than the above percentages would indicate. (See 
Table 58.) 

Music was taught in 113 schools enrolling 86 per cent of the 
county white high school pupils and was taken by 49 per cent of 
all county high school boys and 53 per cent of the girls. In most 
schools, music is a required subject for first year pupils or 
first and second year pupils, and if offered in the junior and senior 



Per Cent of White Pupils Taking Each High School Subject 



105 



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106 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



years is elective. Pupils participate in choruses, glee clubs, or- 
chestras, and bands as electives in schools which have them. (See 
Tables 58 and 65, pages 102 and 113.) 

Physical education courses given as regularly assigned instruc- 
tion were available in 38 county white high schools in which 50 
per cent of all high school pupils were enrolled. About one-third 
of all county high school pupils took this subject on this basis in 
1936, which means it was taken by two-thirds of the pupils in the 
schools which offered physical education regularly. (See Table 
58.) 

Art was offered in 10 schools which enrolled 10 per cent of all 
county white high school pupils. Slightly over 3 per cent of all 
county high school pupils received instruction in art. (See 
Table 58.) 



Enrollment in Individual Counties in Various Branches of the Social Studies 



TABLE 62 



Enrollment* in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County 
White High Schools, by Years, 1931-1936, and by County, 1936 



YEAR 
And 
COUNTY 


Civics 


Economics 


World History 


Ancient History 


Ancient and 
Medieval ^ 


JROPEA> 

>f 
1^ 

W 


Medieval and ffi 
Modern ^ 



50 

Modern 


United States 
History 


Problems of 
Democracy 


Economic 
Geography, 
Industrial 
History a 


1930-31 


3,379 


79 


3,090 


2,188 


769 


513 


813 


2,621 


5,359 


3,109 




. . .a 


1931-32 


3,636 


436 


4,137 


2,740 


349 


432 


170 


3,305 


5,981 


3,094 




. . .a 


1932-33 


4,009 


338 


4,135 


2,529 


593 


407 


597 


3,440 


6,790 


3,741 






1933-34 


4,175 


450 


3,998 


2,726 


910 


582 


919 


3,285 


6,102 


4,108 






1934-35 . . . 


4,022 


490 


4,607 


1,922 


1,001 


497 


364 


3 , 559 


7,002 


3,454 




574 


1935-36 


4,747 


445 


5,373 


2,132 


323 


564 


298 


3,551 


6,668 


3,998 




868a 


Allegany 


682 


135 


348 


121 








421 


711 


533 






Anne Arundel . . . 


345 




313 


287 






" '47 


124 


496 


302 




ii 




275 




1,045 


224 


'i28 




122 


915 


776 


253 






Calvert 




' 63 


28 






' 62 




57 


58 


40 




'44 




211 




118 






23 




45 


191 


118 




37 


Carroll 




' 21 


34 


'i94 


'i72 




"57 


290 


350 


271 






Cecil 


'372 




249 










88 


204 


181 




'46 


Charles 


83 




75 


" '49 




' '55 




56 


107 


109 




13 


Dorchester 


288 




174 










27 


209 


118 




74 


Frederick 


80 




1,156 












420 


238 








173 




290 


' '27 






" '21 


' ' '9 


192 


185 




'25 


Harford 


185 


' 50 


215 




' 23 


" '45 


11 


135 


326 


226 




77 


Howard 


37 


36 




'i26 






26 


115 


125 


23 






Kent 


136 




'iio 










31 


114 


86 




'43 


Montgomery. . . . 


351 


* '45 


311 


3,52 








133 


379 


127 




43 


Prince George's . 


497 


19 


347 


207 




' 84 




250 


547 


240 




119 


Queen Anne's. . . 


79 




75 












133 


73 






St. Mary's 


60 




37 


" 32 








" 30 


66 


70 




'52 


Somerset 


154 


' '24 


65 










79 


149 


87 




30 


Talbot 


151 




14 


'i48 








154 


173 


88 




95 




34 


' '37 


32 


365 




295 




512 


490 


384 




75b 




351 


15 


228 










19 


300 


104 




99 




203 




109 










61 


152 


142 







* Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institution. 

a Excludes 796 pupils in 1930-31, 282 in 1931-32, and 75 in 1935-36 taking Industrial History. 

b Industrial History. 



Pupils in Each County Enrolled for Social Studies and Science 107 

In the individual counties the range in the per cent of boys 
taking the social studies was from 66 per cent in Queen Anne's 
to 100 per cent in Calvert. For girls the percentages ran from 71 
in Queen Anne's and approximately 79 in Somerset, Baltimore, 
and Worcester to 100 per cent in Calvert. This means that some 
pupils took only the two required courses in social studies, one 
of which was United States history, while others took social 
studies' courses throughout the four years. (See Table 61.) 

The enrollment in civics, world history, ancient history, early 
European history, problems of democracy, and economic geog- 
raphy was larger in 1936 than in 1935. On the other hand, there 
were decreases in the number enrolled for economics, ancient and 
medieval history, medieval and modern history, and United 
States history. The increases and decreases evident in European 
history courses may be due chiefly to the way these courses are 
designated. For United States history it may be due partly to 
alternation with problems of democracy in smaller schools. (See 
Table 62.) 

Instruction in United States history, a required course, and 
problems of democracy, was given in every county in 1936. World 
history, or combinations of ancient, medieval, and modern Euro- 
pean history were also offered in every county. In Calvert and 
Carroll, which did not offer civics, economics was taught. Eco- 
nomic geography was offered in 15 counties and industrial history 
in one county. (See Table 62.) 



Courses in Science 

Science courses were reported as taken by just one-third of the 
boys in Calvert and under 59 per cent of the boys in Frederick, 
while nearly 90 per cent of the Cecil County boys were reported 
as studying science. The percentage of girls taking science 
varied from 52 and 59 per cent in Caroline and Talbot, respec- 
tively, to 86 per cent in Cecil. The low percentages in Calvert and 
Frederick and in other counties are probably explained by the fact 
that boys taking vocational agriculture were not reported as tak- 
ing science, although all teachers of vocational agriculture are 
required to teach ''related science." In future reports, efforts 
will be made to report ''related science" courses separately under 
the science classification rather than with agriculture and voca- 
tional home economics. (See Table 61.) 

Although the enrollment in general science, biology, and chem- 
istry was larger in 1936 than for any year preceding, the enroll- 
ment in physics was smaller than in 1933, 1934, and 1935. Every 
county offered courses in general science and biology. In a num- 
ber of the smaller schools, chemistry and physics are taught in 



108 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Pupils Enrolled for Science, Math., Foreign Languages 109 



alternate years, and this explains why Calvert offered chemistry 
only in 1935 and physics only in 1936. Dorchester, Kent, Queen 
Anne's, St. Mary's, and Talbot did not offer physics in 1936 and 
this was the case in Queen Anne's and St. Mary's also in 1935. 
(See Table 63.) 

Mathematics Courses Taken 

The percentage of boys taking mathematics ranged from less 
than 60 per cent in Carroll, Dorchester, and Worcester to more 
than 85 per cent in Baltimore, Harford, St. Mary's, and Wicomico. 
Corresponding percentages for girls included from approximately 
50 per cent in Carroll and Charles to nearly 90 per cent in Calvert. 
(See Table 61.) 

Enrollment taking general mathematics showed a very large 
gain for 1936 over 1935, continuing the tendency evident since 
1931. Enrollment in Algebra I and II and plane geometry, arith- 
metic review, and vocational mathematics, which showed in- 
creases from 1931 to 1933 or 1934 have showed decreases since 
that time. Trigonometry, solid geometry, and mathematics re- 
view, which had their peak enrollments in 1933 or 1934, showed 
decreases thereafter, but in 1936 had larger enrollments than in 
1935. For the first time business arithmetic was classified as 
mathematics for those schools in ten counties which had no other 
commercial subjects. 

Every county offered Algebra II and plane geometry, and, ex- 
cept for Dorchester, every county gave instruction in Algebra I. 
The Dorchester enrollment in general mathematics in 1936 was 
greatly increased since this subject replaced Algebra I. Carroll 
and Wicomico were the only counties which did not offer general 
mathematics. Trigonometry was taught in 17 counties, solid 
geometry in 13, mathematics review in 9, arithmetic review in 
6 counties, and vocational mathematics in 4 counties. (See 
Table 63.) 

The Foreign Languages 

Fewer than 10 per cent of the boys and girls in Cecil, Carroll, 
Garrett, Howard, and Prince George's took Latin, as against from 
17 to 23 per cent of the boys in St. Mary's, Caroline, Calvert, 
Montgomery, and Frederick, and from 26 to 33 per cent of the 
girls in Caroline, Washington, St. Mary's, Frederick, and Calvert 
Counties. (See Table 61.) 

At one extreme, less than 7 per cent of the boys in Allegany, 
Dorchester, St. Mary's, Calvert, Charles, and Talbot Counties 
studied French, while at the opposite extreme 26 per cent of the 
boys in Queen Anne's were given instruction in French. Similar 
differences appeared for girls since under 14 per cent in Howard, 
Prince George's, Kent, St. Mary's, Dorchester, Charles, Allegany, 



110 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Talbot, and Calvert were reported as enrolled in French in con- 
trast with 32 per cent in Caroline and 50 per cent in Queen Anne's. 
(See Table 61.) 

For boys in 10 counties and for girls in 11 counties, the enroll- 
ment in French was higher than that in Latin. Preparation for 
entrance to liberal arts colleges and tradition probably affect the 
proportion taking Latin. (See Table 61.) 

Industrial Arts, Agriculture, and Home Economics 

High schools in Calvert and Howard, which gave instruction in 
agriculture, and in St. Mary's were the only ones which offered 
no work in industrial arts in 1936. Over 50 per cent of the boys 
in Worcester, Talbot, Allegany, Harford, Kent, Anne Arundel, 
Caroline, Baltimore, Carroll, and Cecil had instruction in indus- 
trial arts. In seven counties work on a vocational basis was offered 
in part-time and all-day industrial courses in addition to the gen- 
eral course in industrial arts. The tendency in industrial arts 
instruction has been away from two periods a week throughout 
the four-year course to five periods a week during the first two 
years, with elective courses available in the larger schools in the 
last two years. (See Table 61.) 

Vocational agriculture was offered in 44 schools of 16 coun- 
ties. The percentage of boys taking agriculture in 16 counties 
ranged from less than 16 in Prince George's, Allegany, Baltimore, 
and Anne Arundel to 31 per cent in Queen Anne's, 40 in Garrett 
and 48 per cent in Calvert. Since the work is designed especially 
for farm boys from homes engaged in full- or part-time farming, 
it is natural that the counties having large cities or in the vicinity 
of metropolitan areas have a smaller percentage of their enroll- 
ment taking agriculture. (See Table 61.) 

Boys from full-time farming homes who take agriculture look 
forward to partnership with parents or neighbors with full owner- 
ship or operation the eventual objective. For boys from part-time 
farming homes the drift of placement is toward the efficient use 
of gardens, poultry, and special crops in supplementing wages 
from other employment. Every boy studying vocational agricul- 
ture at high school carries on some teacher-supervised farming 
operation. 

St. Mary's was the only county which offered no work in home 
economics to high school girls, although a very large proportion 
of its graduates work or stay at home. There were only six coun- 
ties — Montgomery, Queen Anne's, Talbot, Washington, Wicomico, 
and Dorchester — in which less than 50 per cent of the girls had 
work in home economics. As in industrial arts, the trend in gen- 
eral home economics has been to offer five periods a week for the 
first two years instead of two periods a week during all four years. 
This change has had a tendency to reduce the percentage reported 



Industrial Arts, Agriculture. Music, Commercial Subjects 111 



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112 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



as taking home economics. Thirty-one schools offer elective 
courses in the last two years. Courses in vocational home eco- 
nomics v^ere given in 13 counties, tv^o of these counties, Calvert 
and Howard, offering no work in general home economics. (See 
Table 61.) 

Offerings in Commercial Work 

The major offerings in the commercial subjects include stenog- 
raphy, typewriting, and bookkeeping in the third and fourth 
years, more boys taking typing and bookkeeeping, and the major- 
ity of the girls enrolled f or typing and stenography. Enrollments 
in typing III and IV, stenography for girls, commercial arith- 
metic, junior business training, office practice and salesmanship 
for girls were larger in 1936 than ever before. Decreases in 
1936 under corresponding enrollments in 1935 were found in com- 
mercial geography, in Typing II, and stenography for boys and 
in salesmanship for girls. (See Table 64.) 

Less than 10 per cent of the boys in Baltimore, Garrett, Har- 
ford, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's were enrolled for commercial 
courses; on the other hand, over 40 per cent of the boys took 
commercial work in Carroll, Dorchester, and Somerset. The per- 
centage of girls who received training in commercial courses 
ranged from approximately 10 per cent in Garrett and St. Mary's 
to more than 50 per cent in Carroll and Washington. Before 
pupils are encouraged to take commercial courses with the defi- 
nite idea of preparing for a vocation, those in charge of their 
guidance should be sure that the pupils have the necessary quali- 
fications for success in these types of work. The commercial work 
offered in the high schools should include courses which will en- 
able graduates to be better prepared for the positions that are 
likely to be available to them. (See Table 61, page 105.) 

Stenography, typing, and bookkeeping were offered in the third 
and fourth years in every county except Calvert, Queen Anne's, 
and St. Mary's. Commercial or business arithmetic was given in 
19 counties, junior business training in 18 counties, office practice 
in 8 counties, and commercial geography in 6 counties. In addi- 
tion to these courses, typing II was offered in Carroll, salesman- 
ship in Allegany, Frederick, and Montgomery, commercial law in 
Allegany and Garrett, and banking in Montgomery. (See Table 
64.) 

Physical Education and Music 

Baltimore County offered the most extensive opportunities for 
physical education through the employment of trained leaders 
on the staff of the Playground Athletic League. Over 95 per cent 
of the boys and girls in this county were enrolled in physical edu- 
cation classes. It was taught as a regular part of the curriculum 



Commercial Subjects; Physical Education and Music 



113 



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114 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in 12 other counties, although fewer than 20 per cent of the pupils 
in Carroll, Dorchester, Garrett, and Washington were reported in 
these classes. It was not offered for credit in Calvert, Caroline, 
Cecil, Charles, Harford, Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somer- 
set, Talbot, and Worcester. (See Table 61.) 

Music w^as taught in the high schools of every county except 
Cecil, Queen Anne's, and Somerset. Over 90 per cent of the high 
school pupils in Carroll and Howard had instruction in music, 
while this was true of less than 20 per cent of the pupils in Dor- 
chester and Montgomery. (See Table 61.) 

Instrumental and choral music making possible participation in 
a school chorus, orchestra, band, or glee club was an elective in 
the music course in 39 county white high schools of 17 counties. 
In 31 schools in 16 counties the glee clubs and choruses attracted 
563 boys and 1,152 girls. There were 22 schools in 9 counties 
which had orchestras made up of 216 boys and 130 girls; while 
five schools in 3 counties had bands composed of 134 boys and 8 
girls. (See Table 65.) 

ENGLISH ENROLLMENT DISTRIBUTED BY YEARS 

Of the 32,735 pupils taking English, over one-third were taking 
first year work, more than one-fourth were taking English II, 
21.5 per cent were enrolled for English III, and 17.5 per cent for 
English IV. The proportion of the enrollment in the second and 
fourth years was higher for both boys and girls in 1936 than in 
1935. The girls had a smaller proportion of their total English 
enrollment than the boys in the first and second years and a higher 
proportion in the third and fourth years. (See Table 66.) 

TABLE 66 



County White High School Enrollment in English Distributed by Year of 
English Taken in 1935-36 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


I 

II 

Ill 

IV 

Total 


11,099 
8,864 
7,029 
5,743 


5,571 
4,258 
3,208 
2,510 


5,528 
4,606 
3,821 
3,233 


33.9 
27.1 
21.5 
17.5 


35.8 
27.4 
20.6 
16.2 


32.2 
26.8 
22.2 
18.8 


32,735 


15,547 


17,188 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



Frederick had nearly 39 per cent of its white high school enroll- 
ment taking first year English in contrast with less than 30 per 
cent in Talbot, Caroline, Queen Anne's, Charles, Kent, and Cal- 



Music Opportunities; English Enrollment by Years 115 



vert. The enrollment in fourth year English ranged between less 
than 14 per cent in Montgomery and Dorchester and 21 per cent 
in Caroline. In Montgomery, the rapid growth of population in 
the past few years increased enrollment in the elementary grades 
and lower high school years far more than it did in the last two 
years of high school. Families which moved in had proportion- 
ately more younger children. All but eight counties — Dorchester, 
Frederick, Garrett, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, 
and Somerset — had a larger percentage of pupils enrolled in the 
fourth year in 1936 than in the peceding year. (See Table 67.) 



TABLE 67 

Per Cent of County Enrollment Taking English in Each Year of High School, 

1935-36 



COUNTY 


Number 
Enrolled 
in 

English 


Per Cent Enrolled in English in Years 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


Total and Average . . 


32,735 


33 


9 


27.1 


21 


5 


17 


5 


Allegany 


3,648 


33 


8 


27.4 


20 


1 


18 


7 


Anne Arundel 


2,315 


33 


6 


25.6 


21 





19 


8 




4,638 


34 


5 


27.8 


21 


4 


16 


3 


Calvert 


256 


29 


7 


28.1 


23 


8 


18 


4 


Caroline 


710 


28 


5 


25.6 


24 


9 


21 





Carroll 


1,599 


32 


8 


26.8 


21 


2 


19 


2 


Cecil 


1,151 


34 


1 


29.8 


17 


8 


18 


3 


Charles 


501 


29 


3 


26.1 


25 


2 


19 


4 


Dorchester 


928 


33 


7 


26.3 


26 


1 


13 


9 


Frederick 


2,156 


38 


8 


25.5 


20 


8 


14 


9 


Garrett 


991 


35 


3 


25.3 


20 


5 


18 


9 


Harford 


1,399 


32 


2 


26.7 


22 


7 


18 


4 


Howard 


621 


36 


6 


30.1 


19 





14 


3 


Kent 


517 


29 


4 


26.7 


23 


6 


20 


3 


Montgomery 


2,067 


35 


5 


28.7 


22 


4 


13 


4 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


2,504 


36 


2 


26.4 


22 


2 


15 


2 


496 


28 


8 


27.8 


24 


4 


19 





St. Mary's 


347 


36 


3 


25.9 


17 


9 


19 


9 


Somerset 


683 


35 


4 


26.7 


23 





14 


9 


Talbot 


736 


28 


3 


27.2 


24 


7 


19 


8 


Washington 


2,411 


32 


4 


27.6 


20 


1 


19 


9 


Wicomico 


1,259 


31 


9 


28.1 


20 


7 


19 


3 


Worcester 


802 


33 


8 


24.5 


21 


.6 


20 


1 



A comparison of the enrollment in each of the four years of 
high school shows steadily mounting figures from 1925 to 1936 
except for a slight decrease in the fourth year enrollment in 1935. 
From 1925 to 1936 the per cent of increase in enrollment was 66 
in the first year, 97 in the second year, 111 in the third year and 
102 in the fourth year, compared with an average increase of 89 
per cent in enrollment for all four years. (See Table 68.) 



116 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 68 

Enrollment in Each Year of Last Four Years of Maryland County White 
High Schools, by Year, 1925-1936 



Year 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


X OSt- 

Graduates 


Total 


1925 


6,772 


4,453 


3,281 


2,732 




17,238 


1926 


7,558 


4,777 


3,610 


2,748 




18,693 


1927 


7,871 


5,363 


3,856 


3,067 




20,157 


1928 


8,487 


5,636 


4,257 


3,178 




21,558 


1929 


8,587 


6,100 


4,694 


3,612 




22,993 


1930 


9,038 


6,292 


5,080 


3,981 


■ 26 


24,417 


1931 


9,777 


6,969 


5,490 


4,338 


21 


26,595 


1932 


9,662 


7,636 


6,070 


4,646 


153 


28,167 


1933 


10,548 


7,658 


6,720 


5,207 


169 


30,302 


1934 


10,629 


8,016 


6,381 


5,404 


91 


30,521 


1935 


11,072 


8,162 


6,731 


5,110 


153 


31,228 


1936 


11,267 


8,749 


6,927 


5,526 


127 


32,596 



HIGH SCHOOL NON-PROMOTIONS AND WITHDRAWALS DECREASE 

With the exception of withdrawals* of boys from French, non- 
promotions in agriculture, and for girls in science, the number 
and per cent of withdrawals* and non-promotions in the county 
white high schools were lower in 1936 than in 1935. (See 
Table 69.) 

TABLE 69 



Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject, for Year Ending June 30, 1936 





Number 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Subject 




























c 


T3 


c 


t3 


a 




c 


-0 


c 


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c 


T3 






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+-> 


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Hi 


c 


2 


o 


t- 


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2 


o 


2 


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s 




S 


T) 


£ 


•V 


£ 




£ 






2 








^ 2 


J= 


4J O 




2 




^ 2 


















1^ 






i 


1^ 


English 


2,782 


2,392 


1,663 


1,727 


1,119 


665 


8.5 


7.3 


10.7 


11.1 


6.5 


3.9 




2,015 


2,310 


1,278 


1,381 


737 


929 


8.5 


9.7 


10.6 


11.5 


6.3 


8.0 


Social Studies 


2,496 


2,054 


1,489 


1,259 


1,007 


795 


8.6 


7.1 


10.7 


9.1 


6.6 


5.2 


Science 


2,123 


1,680 


1,295 
89 


1,033 


828 


647 


9.1 


7.2 


11.2 


8.9 


7.0 


5.5 




202 


464 


303 


113 


161 


3.8 


8.7 


4.2 


14.4 


3.5 


5.0 




227 


256 


120 


163 


107 


93 


5.0 


5.6 


7.3 


9.9 


3.7 


3.2 


Commercial 


1,431 


1,283 


631 


646 


800 


637 


8.4 


7.5 


10.0 


10.2 


7.5 


5.9 


Agriculture 


179 


66 


179 


66 






11.7 


4.3 


11.7 


4.3 







* For reasons other than removal, transfer, death, commitment to an institution. 



Enrollment by Years; High School Non-Promotions 117 
AND Withdrawals 

The combined percentage for white high school boys with- 
drawn and not promoted included 22 per cent for mathematics 
and English, 20 per cent for science, commercial subjects, and 
social studies, 19 per cent for Latin, 17 per cent for French and 
16 per cent for agriculture. For girls, just as for boys, mathe- 
matics proved the greatest stumbling block, 14 per cent either 
withdrawing from or failing in the subject. Approximately 13 
per cent of the girls were lost by withdrawal or failure from com- 
mercial subjects and science, 12 per cent from social studies, 10 
per cent from English, 9 per cent from Latin, and 7 per cent 
from French. In every case the per cent of withdrawals and fail- 
ures was lower for girls than for boys. (See Table 69.) 

Withdrawals and Failures in Individual Counties 

The range in withdrawals and non-promotions for boys in Eng- 
lish varied from between 13 and 14 per cent in St. Mary's, 
Queen Anne's, Garrett, and Montgomery to 29 per cent or over in 
Wicomico and Cecil. For girls the percentages of withdrawals 
and non-promotions ran from 5 per cent or less in Kent, Mont- 
gomery, and Charles, to 16 per cent in Wicomico and nearly 19 
per cent in Frederick. (See Table 70.) 

For boys withdrawals and non-promotions in mathematics 
ranged from 12 per cent in Montgomery to 30 per cent or more 
in Wicomico, Worcester, and Cecil. For girls the corresponding 
percentages varied from between 5 and 10 per cent in Montgom- 
ery, Kent, Charles, Caroline, and Garrett to 20 per cent in Fred- 
erick and over 25 per cent in Howard. (See Table 70.) 

In the social studies the percentage of withdrawals and non- 
promotions for boys included from less than 15 per cent of the 
enrollment in Montgomery and Washington to 32 per cent in 
Howard. For girls withdrawals and non-promotions for the social 
studies varied from approximately 6 per cent in Montgomery, 
Kent, Charles, and Garrett to 21 per cent in Frederick. (See 
Table 70.) 

The range in boys withdrawn and not promoted in science was 
from nearly 9 per cent in St. Mary's to over 30 per cent in Calvert 
and Cecil. The per cent of withdrawals and failures for girls in- 
cluded from 3 per cent in Kent and 5 per cent in Charles to more 
than 20 per cent in Frederick. (See Table 70.) 

In Latin withdrawals and non-promotions for boys varied from 
4 per cent in Montgomery and 8 per cent in Caroline to 30 per 
cent or more in Frederick, Anne Arundel, and Worcester. There 
were no withdrawals and failures in Latin for girls in Carroll, 
Charles, and Howard, and only for 2 per cent or less in Kent and 
Montgomery as against 15 per cent or more in Worcester, Fred- 
erick, and Somerset. (See Table 70.) 



118 



1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Withdrawals and Non-Promotions by Subject; Standard Tests 119 



Withdrawals and non-promotions in French for boys varied 
from none at all in Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's and 8 per 
cent in Carroll to over 25 per cent in Prince George's, Cecil, and 
Somerset. There were no girls who withdrew or failed in French 
in Calvert and about 3 per cent in Montgomery, Howard, and 
Kent, while over 10 per cent did so in Anne Arundel, Cecil, and 
Wicomico. (See Table 70.) 

Withdrawals and non-promotions of boys in the commercial 
subjects included from less than 15 per cent in Garrett, Kent, 
Queen Anne's, and Washington to over 30 per cent in Caroline 
and Frederick. Corresponding figures for girls included from 
less than 10 per cent in Charles, Kent, Carroll, and Cecil to 23 per 
cent in Caroline and 28 per cent in Frederick. (See Table 70.) 

The boys who dropped or failed to be promoted in agriculture 
varied from less than 10 per cent in Worcester and Allegany to 
23 per cent in Harford, 27 per cent in Somerset, and 41 per cent 
in Dorchester. (See Table 70.) 

Girls and boys withdrew from high school in largest numbers 
because they were over 16 years and because they undertook 
agricultural work and work at home. A number of pupils with- 
drew for economic reasons and because of inability to do the work. 
The type of program offered in many of the schools failed to in- 
terest some pupils sufficiently to keep them in school until gradua- 
tion. 

STANDARD TESTS IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The State Department of Education planned and financed a test- 
ing program in the county high schools during 1935-36. The 
O'Rourke Survey Test in English Usage, Form P, was given in the 
fall of 1935 to 10,458 first year, 8,058 second year, 6,513 third 
year, and 5,307 fourth year pupils. At the same time the Pro- 
gressive Achievement Tests in Mathematical Fundamentals and 
Mathematical Reasoning were taken by 5,311 pupils of general 
mathematics and 6,476 pupils of Algebra. 

In the spring of 1936, a Silent Reading Test in French, Form A, 
by M. E. Broom and L. P. Brown, was given to 2,260 pupils of 
first year French and 1,745 pupils of second year French. Also 
in the spring of 1936, Form B of the Wesley Test in Social Terms, 
of which Form A had been used the preceding year, was given to 
6,027 third year and to 5,102 fourth year pupils. (See Table 71.) 

A number of county high schools gave tests in various subjects, 
but since no specific report was requested regarding tests given, 
no summary is included for the ten principals who commented on 
them in their comprehensive reports for 1935-36. All principals 
are being asked to report on testing in their 1936-37 comprehen- 
sive reports. 



120 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Results of Tests; White High School Teachers by Subject 121 

THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 

In 1935-36 in the last four years in the county high schools, 
a teaching staff equivalent to the full-time service of 1,244 teach- 
ers was employed, 41 more than for the preceding year. Except 
for Latin, French, home economics, and the library, every sub- 
ject had a larger white teaching staff on a full-time basis than in 
1935. (See Table 72.) 

TABLE 72 

Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in County White 
High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



subjects 



English 

Social Studies 

Science 

Mathematics 

French and Spanish .... 
Latin 

Commercial 

Home Economics 

Industrial Arts 

Music 

Agriculture 

Physical Education .... 

Library 

Art 

Administration and 
Supervision 

Total 



Number of 
Teachers on 
Full-Time 
Basis Dis- 
tributed by 
Time Devoted 
to Different 
Subjects 



215.2 
188.8 
165.0 
160.3 
49.5 
45.0 

107.1 
79.1 
59.5 
42.3 
25.7 
32.0 
12.3 
3.4 



59.2 
1,244.4 



Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 



Number of Cases Where 
ISpecial Teachers Instruct in 
More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 



Teachers 



151 




151 




151 




151 




116 




90 




81 




120 


17 


83 


13 


113 


23 


44 


6 


38 


3 


17 




10 





Approximate 
Number of 
Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 



Schools 



116 

85 
73 
38 
36 



English with 215 teachers on a full-time basis, employed the 
services of more teachers than any other subject. The number of 
teachers of social studies on a full-time basis was 189, while science 
required 165 and mathematics 160 teachers. French and Spanish 
had approximately 50 teachers and Latin required 45 teachers on 
a full-time basis. (See Table 72.) 

From 1935 to 1936 there was an increase of 10 teachers in sci- 
ence, of 9 in social studies, of 8 in English, and of 5 in mathe- 
matics. 

The full-time equivalent of 107 teachers was required for in- 
struction in the commercial subjects. Home economics with 79 
teachers on a full-time basis, actually required the services of 116 
different teachers instructing in 120 schools. Time devoted by 



122 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

these teachers to related science was classified with science. In- 
dustrial arts and trades and industry with a full-time staff of 
nearly 60 teachers included 85 individuals who taught in 83 
schools. 

Music with the equivalent of 42 teachers on a full-time basis 
was taught in 113 county white high schools by 73 different teach- 
ers. This means that many of them also taught subjects other 
than music. There were the equivalent of 26 teachers of agri- 
culture on a full-time basis, but actually 38 individuals gave in- 
struction in agriculture in 44 schools. The related science which 
they taught was included under science. Physical education 
taught by 36 different teachers in 38 schools included the equiva- 
lent of 32 teachers on a full-time basis. The art courses given 
in 10 schools required the equivalent of 3.4 full-time teachers. 
(See Table 72.) 

Seventeen schools reported having librarians or teacher-libra- 
rians, which on a full-time basis required the equivalent of 12 
individuals. Administration and supervision required the equiva- 
lent on a full-time basis of 59 principals and vice-principals. Ten 
principals in large county junior and senior high schools did no 
teaching, but devoted all their time to administration and super- 
vision. (See Table 72.) 

Five counties employed clerks in 19 large schools at an annual 
salary cost of $13,161. The average clerk's salary of $693 is much 
lower than that of a teacher, and the principal is relieved of many 
clerical and routine duties making it possible for him to devote 
his time to constructive professional supervision. (See Table 73.) 

TABLE 73 



Number of Clerks in County Schools, 1935-36 



County 


Number 

of 
Clerks 


Total 
Salaries 


Average 
Annual 
Salary 


Total and Average 




19 


$13,161 


$693 






5 


4,200 


840 


Allegany 




8 


4,635 


579 






3 


2,670 


890 






2 


1,156 


578 


Frederick 




1 


500 


500 



CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

In October, 1936, of 828 principals and teachers giving instruc- 
tion in the last four years of schools organized on the 7-4 or 8-4 
plan in all counties, except Baltimore and Montgomery, which 
had the 6-5 and 6-3-3 plan throughout their counties, 97 per cent 
held regular certificates, and 24 or 3 per cent were assistant teach- 
ers holding provisional certificates or employed as substitutes. 



Teachers by Subject, Certification, Experience, Summer School 123 

Of 543 principals and teachers in junior-senior and senior high 
schools in 6 counties, 90 per cent held regular certificates, and 
32 or 6 per cent held regular elementary* teachers' certificates, 
and 21 or 4 per cent were substitutes or held provisional certifi- 
cates. Of 126 principals and teachers in junior high schools in 6 
counties, 92 per cent were certificated as principals or regular 
high school assistants, 5 per cent as holding regular elementary* 
certificates, and 4 or 3 per cent were substitutes or provisionally 
certificated. (See Table XII, page 319.) 

EXPERIENCE OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

The median teaching experience of 669 members of the staff 
in the junior, junior-senior, and senior high schools in 8 counties 
in October, 1936, was 8 years, while that of 828 teachers in regular 
high schools was 7.2 years. The number of junior, junior-senior, 
and senior high school teachers with one and five years' experience, 
56 and 51, respectively, is larger than the number with no experi- 
ence, 46. In the regular high schools, 83 teachers had had one 
year of experience and only 74 were inexperienced in October, 
1936. (See Table 74.) 

In the individual counties the median experience in the junior- 
senior high school group ranged between 2.5 years in the two 
small junior high schools in Anne Arundel and the newly organ- 
ized junior high school in Carroll to 9.9 years in Washington and 
10.6 years in Allegany. In the regular high schools the median 
experience varied from 4.5 years for the 11 teachers in St. Mary's 
to 10.8 years for the 23 teachers in Queen Anne's and 13.3 years 
for the 24 teachers in Kent. (See Table 74.) 



SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

Of the white high school teachers in service in October, 1936, 
399 or 26.6 per cent attended summer school in 1936, an increase 
of 28 teachers or 1 per cent over corresponding figures for 1935, 
the first increase apparent since 1932. (See Table 75.) 

Among the counties, the per cent of summer school attendance 
ranged between 9 and 64 per cent. In Charles, Montgomery, and 
St. Mary's, over 45 per cent of the white high school teachers 
were summer school attendants. At the opposite extreme, less 
than 15 per cent of the white high school teachers in Calvert, 
Howard, Somerset, and Dorchester went to summer school in 
1936. Ten counties had a higher percentage of summer school 
attendants in 1936 than for the preceding year. (See Table 75.) 



* Teachers of erradL' 7 or pradcs 7 and S in a junior hifnh school orjranizalion holding 
either a B.S.. advanced first, or first grade certificate. 



124 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Experience, Summer School Attendance of Teachers 125 



TABLE 75 

County White High School Teachers in Service in October, 1936, Reported by 
County Superintendents and /or Colleges as Summer School Attendants 

in 1936 



County 



Total and Average 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Charles 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Prince George's. . . 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Kent 

Washington 

Frederick 

Queen Anne's 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Howard 

Calvert 



Teachers Employed 
October, 1936, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1936 



Number 



399 

7 
83 
11 
19 
11 
48 
12 
32 



Per Cent 



26.6 

63.6 
46.4 
45.8 
39.6 
33.3 
30.0 
30.0 
28.6 
24.1 
22.2 
21.6 
21.6 
21.3 
21.3 
20.8 
19.5 
19.0 
17.4 
15.7 
14.3 
13.3 
11.5 
9.1 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Columbia University 

Western Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University .... 
Pennsylvania State College. . . 

Duke University 

Catholic University 

University of Wisconsin 

George Washington University 

University of Vermont 

Harvard University 

George Peabody College 

Middlebury College 

Stout Institute 

University of Indiana 

University of North Carolina . 

Peabody Conservatory 

New York University 

Other 



The University of Maryland attracted 150 or 38 per cent of the 
county high school teachers who attended summer school. Colum- 
bia University came second with 48 or 12 per cent ; Western Mary- 
land, third with 46 ; and Johns Hopkins University, fourth with 
38 summer school attendants who served in the county high 
schools in October, 1936. The remaining teachers attended va- 
rious colleges throughout the country. (See Table 75.) 

GROWTH OF STAFF IN COUNTY JUNIOR, JUNIOR-SENIOR, AND 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Until the fall of 1926, the counties operated their school sys- 
tems on the 7-4 or 8-4 plan, i. e., with seven or eight elementary 
grades and four years of high school. In the fall of 1926, Alle- 
gany, which had had the 8-4 plan, started the 6-3-3 plan in its 
city schools, i. e., six elementary grades, three junior high and 
three senior high school years. All 12 grades were in some cases 
in the same building, but in other cases the elementary and junior 
high school grades were together, or the junior and senior high 
school years were in the same building. Allegany still continues 
to have two of its rural high schools on the 8-4 plan. Montgomery 
started experimenting with the 6-3-3 plan in the fall of 1927 
and now has its entire system on this basis. Prince George's 



126 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

with the 7-4 plan throughout the county has had the 6-5 plan in 
one or two schools for six years. Washington County has had 
the 6-3-3 plan in the Hagerstown schools for five years with the 
8-4 plan in the rest of the county. Frederick has had the 6-5 
plan in Brunswick for five years with the 7-4 plan in the rest of 
the county. Baltimore County has had the 6-5 plan throughout 
the county for three years. 

The number of teachers employed in junior, junior-senior, and 
senior high schools grew from 154 in Allegany in October, 1926, 
to 625 in 7 counties in October, 1935. Allegany has the largest 
number, 183 teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools, 
Baltimore County is second with 159, and Montgomery stands 
third with 155. The two high schools at Brooklyn Park and Lin- 
thicum Heights in Anne Arundel were first classified as junior 
high schools in the fall of 1935. Prior to that time they were 
considered annexes of regular high schools. Caroline and Dor- 
chester are the only counties which experimented with a junior 
high school which they later abandoned. (See Table 76.) 

TABLE 76 



Teachers in Countj^ White Junior, Junior-Senior, and Senior High Schools 







Alle- 


Mont- 


Prince 


Wash- 


Fred- 


Caro- 


Balti- 


Dor- 


Anne 


October 


Total 


gany 


gomery 


George's 


ington 


erick 


line 


more 


chester 


Aru ndel 


1926 


154 


154 


















1927, 


182 


161 


21 
















1928 


202 


165 


37 
















1929 


207 


165 


42 
















1930 


245 


166 


51 


28 














1931, 


398 


174 


96 


33 


80 


is 










1932 


424 


178 


101 


33 


79 


15 


is 


'5 






1933 


575 


180 


109 


23 


79 


15 


13 


148 


8 




1934 


576 


177 


123 


25 


79 


17 




155 






1935 


625 


183 


155 


26 


79 


17 




159 




6 



RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

Between October, 1934, and 1935, there were 75 resignations 
from regular four-year high schools and 36 from high schools with 
the junior-senior organization. This total of 111 was 15 fewer 
resignations from county white secondary schools than were re- 
ported for the preceding year. In only one year before, 1932-33, 
when there were only 98, was the number of resignations smaller 
than in 1934-35. (See Table 71.) 

Marriage continued to be the chief cause of resignations, 29 
having left all types of high school for this cause. There were 26 
from all types of schools who entered work other than teaching, 
while 19 left county high schools to take teaching positions in 
Baltimore City, other states, or private schools. The number who 
withdrew to take administrative positions in the State, because 
of illness, or retirement, or other causes, is shown in Table 77. 



Reorganized High Schools, Resignations, Turnover 127 

There were 19 county teachers from all types of secondary 
schools who took positions in counties other than the one in which 
they had been teaching, while 22 teachers from the county high 
schools were on leave of absence. (See Table 77.) 

TABLE 77 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Mary- 
land County Regular White High Schools and from Junior, Junior-Senior and 
Senior High Schools Between October of One Year and October of the Fol- 
lowing Year 









<i> ► tn 




































o 




















c 








c 


October 

to 
October 


Marriage 


Work other Than 
Teaching 


Teaching in Baltim 
City, Another Sta 
or in Private Scho 


Administrative, 
Supervisory, or St 
Teachers College 1 
tions in the State 


Illness 


Inefficiency 


Retirement 


Death 


Rejected by 
Medical Board 


Moved Away 


Abolished Positions 


Provisional Certific 
or Failure to Atte 
Summer School 


other and Unknow 


Total 


Transfer to 
Another County 


Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Other 
Types of Schools i 
the Same County 



WHITE REGULAR HIGH SCHOOLS 



1927-1928 


41 


19 


35 


5 


5 


17 


2 


2 




2 




2 


13 


143 


36 


7 


6 


1928-1929 


44 


18 


53 


9 


3 


19 


5 






2 




7 


2 


]62 


50 


17 




1929-1930 


41 


17 


50 


2 


4 


16 


5 


'2 




2 




6 


15 


160 


37 


9 


22 


1930-1931 


36 


16 


33 


1 


4 


26 


4 


3 




1 




11 


9 


144 


27 


4 


63 


1931-1932 


21 


7 


3 


2 


3 


25 


3 


3 


'2 


1 


9 


11 


14 


104 


15 


6 


26 


1932-1933 


18 


7 


4 


2 


2 


5 


4 


2 


2 


4 


13 


3 


9 


75 


7 


2 


114 


1933-1934 


31 


11 


11 




1 


3 


3 


1 




3 


2 


1 


4 


71 


13 


3 


2 


1934-1935 


20 


18 


11 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


'2 


1 


1 


1 


9 


75 


17 


16 


1 


WHITE JUNIOR, JUNIOR-SENIOR, AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 


1927-1928 


3 


3 


8 






6 








1 






1 


22 


2 


1 


4 


1928-1929 


5 


5 


11 


'2 


1 


2 








1 






4 


31 


2 


1 


4 


1929-1930 


7 


2 


3 






5 


i 






2 






1 


22 




2 


4 


1930-1931 


7 


2 


6 


'i 


'2 


13 












1 


1 


33 


1 




9 


1931-1932 


8 


1 


3 






3 


2 






1 




7 


4 


29 


1 


1 


6 


1932-1933 


6 


4 






i 


3 






'4 


1 




3 


1 


23 


1 


4 


14 


1933-1934 


12 


9 


'e 




6 


4 


"5 










2 


3 


55 




1 
6 


29 


1984-1935 


9 


8 


8 




3 




2 






1 




1 


3 


36 


"2 





TURNOVER IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of teachers new to the county white 
high schools, 205 or 14 per cent in 1936, were larger than for the 
three preceding years. There were 60 additional high school 
positions in 1936 as against 36 more for the preceding year. The 
increase in enrollment since 1931-32 which had been taken care 
of by increasing the size of classes came to the point where it was 
absolutely necessary to increase the teaching staff in 1934-35 
and 1935-36 if classes were to be accommodated in the rooms avail- 
able and if they were not to be too large for efficient work. (See 
Table 78.) 



128 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 78 



Number and Per Cent of White Regular, Senior High, Junior High, and Jun- 
ior-Senior High School Teachers* New to the Schools of Each 
Individual County During the School Year, 1935-36 



County 


New to 
County 


It 


Change in 
Number of 
Teaching 
Positions 
October 
of One Year 
to 
October 
of Following 
Year 


Number New to County Who Were 


Num- 
ber 


Pel 
Cer 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


In Counties 
but not 

in 
Service 
Preceding 
I ear 


Experie 

But 

New 
to 

otate 


need 

From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 

Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 
in Same 
County 


Substi- 
tutes 
and 

wtners 


Total and 






















Average 






















1930-31 


o4o 







+ 107 


^uo 


71 




39 


10 


30 


1931-32 


°247 


18. 


3 


+ 94 


172 


50 


19 


27 


2 


4 


1932-33 


°134 


10. 


2 


—15 


81 


23 


21 


16 


1 


8 


1933-34 


°108 


7 


9 


+ 14 


70 


14 


17 


9 


1 


6 


1934-35 


°172 


12 


2 


+ 36 


122 


28 


17 


16 


3 


2 


1935-36 


°205 


14 





+ 60 


149 


20 


17 


16 


8 


11 


Wicomico 


I 


2 







1 












Cecil 


2 


4 


3 




1 




i 








Somerset 


2 


6 


7 




1 












Harford 


4 


6 


9 


'+i 


3 


i 










Queen Anne's. . 


2 


8 


7 


+ 1 


2 












St. Mary's 




9 


1 




1 


.... 










Baltimoref. . . . 


16 


10 





'+4 


11 












Allegany*! 


1 

19 


20 
10 



2 


+ 1 

+ 5 


1 
10 












Worcester 


4 


11 


1 




3 


1 










Kent 


3 


12 


c 
D 




3 












Carroll 


11 


13 


1 




9 












Washington*! 


8 
8 


20 
10 


5 
1 


"+i 


6 
7 






" i 






Talbot 


5 


14 


7 




3 












Frederick*! 


10 


14 


9 




5 






3 






3 


17 


6 




3 












Dorchester. . . . 


7 


17 


1 




5 












Howard 


5 


19 


2 




4 












Caroline 


7 


19 


4 




7 












Garrett 


8 


20 





+ 1 


7 












Charles 


5 


20 


8 




4 






. . 






Prince f 


18 


22 


8 


'+7 


10 




■ ■ 2 


2 


. ... 




George's*\ 


5 


19 


.2 


+ 1 


3 






1 




Montgomery! . 


41 


26 


.1 


+ 32 


22 






3 


5 




Anne Arundel*! 


18 
2 


25 

33 


.7 
.3 


+ 5 
+ 1 


13 
1 




2 


1 
1 


1 




Calvert 


5 


41 


. 7 


+ 1 


3 












Baltimore / 


9 


2 


.0 


+ 20 


5 




2 


1 






City* \ 


24 


3 


.8 


—8 


16 




5 


2 






Entire State . . . 


°235 


9 


.4 


+ 72 


170 


22 


24 


19 


8 


11 



° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 

* Top row of figures in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Frederick, Prince George's, and Washing- 
ton includes teachers in regular high schools ; bottom row represents teachers in junior, junior- 
senior, and senior high schoo's. In Baltimore City the top row includes senior and the bottom 
row junior high school teachers. 

t All secondary schools in Baltimore and Montgomery Counties are organized as junior- 
senior high schools. 

Of the 205 teachers new to the county white high schools in 
1935-36, there were 149 inexperienced teachers, 20 who formerly 
had experience in the counties, but were not teaching in 1934-35, 
17 with experience outside the counties, 8 from elementary 



Turnover; Colleges Attended by Inexperienced Teachers 



129 



schools, and 11 substitutes. There were also 16 high school teach- 
ers who transferred from one county to another. (See Table 78.) 

Among the counties the per cent of turnover ranged from 1 
teacher representing 2 per cent of the high school teaching staff 
in Wicomico, and less than 10 per cent in Cecil, Somerset, Harford, 
Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's to over 25 per cent in Montgomery 
and Anne Arundel, and 42 per cent in Calvert. (See Table 78.) 

Montgomery increased the number of teachers on the high 
school staff from October, 1935, to October, 1936, by 32. Prince 
George's added 8 teachers to its staff, Allegany and Anne Arun- 
del, 6 each, and Baltimore County, 4. The number of high school 

TABLE 79 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended by Inexperi- 
enced White High School Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, Senior and Reg- 
ular High Schools; Also State of College Attended for Teachers with Teach- 
ing Experience in Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryland 
Counties, for School Year, 1935-36 



STATE OF 
COLLEGE 
ATTENDED 



3 4i 



IMEXPERIENCED TEACHERS EMPLOYED FOR SCHOOL YEAR, 1935-1936 



Total. 



Maryland 

Western Maryland 

University of Maryland . 

Washington 

Goucher 

Hood 

St. Joseph's 

Notre Danne 

Pennsylvania 

Washington, D. C 

West Virginia 

New York 

Massachusetts 

Kentucky 

Indiana 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

8 Other States 

Unknown 



149 



11 


14 


11 


3 


7 


9 


1 


4 


5 


8 


7 


3 


4 


3 


22 


13 


2 


1 


1 


3 


13 


1 


3 


1 


6 


2 


1 


2 


6 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 


2 




2 


2 


1 






1 


1 








2 




1 


1 






1 




2 


2 




1 




5 


6 










2 








3 




1 








2 










2 


1 


1 












i 




2 


4 


i 








1 






























2 














2 










1 






















1 














1 




















1 










1 
























1 
















"i 


3 


i 


2 




1 


2 














1 




1 


1 








1 


5 






























5 


1 




1 










2 


















1 




















1 










1 












1 




1 








1 








































2 


















1 


























1 












1 




























1 
































1 




























1 






1 








1 




































1 








1 






1 














2 


1 






1 








1 


































2 



















































Teachers with Experience in Other States Employed for School Year, 1935-1936 



Total 


17 


1 


2 


3 












1 












7 


2 


















































4 

3 
2 






2 
























1 
1 


1 
1 




























1 






























1 


1 




































7 Other States 








1 
















5 




















1 




1 

















































































130 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



teachers new to the county was highest in Montgomery, Prince 
George's, Allegany, and Anne Arundel. (See Table 78.) 

In Baltimore City there were 20 new positions established in 
senior high schools and 8 positions abolished in junior high schools 
in 1935-36. The turnover represented 2 per cent of the white 
teaching staff in the senior high schools and 3.8 per cent of the 
white teachers in the junior high schools. (See Table 78.) 

Of the 149 inexperienced teachers appointed to the high school 
staffs in the counties in the fall of 1935, 93 graduated from col- 
leges in Maryland, 18 from schools in Pennsylvania, 7 from col- 
leges in Washington, D. C, and 5 had attended schools in West 
Virginia. Of those graduating from Maryland colleges, 38 were 
from Western Maryland, 23 from the University of Maryland, and 
12 from Washington College. (See Table 79.) 

Of 17 teachers appointed in the Maryland counties after having 
had experience in other states, 4 had attended New York schools, 
3 had been trained in Maryland, and 2 were graduates of colleges 
in Kentucky. (See Table 79.) 

MARYLAND 1935 COLLEGE GRADUATES WHO MET CERTIFICATE 
REQUIREMENTS AND WHO RECEIVED COUNTY 
HIGH SCHOOL POSITIONS 



Maryland Students Who Completed in June, 1935, at Colleges Indicated, the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with the 
Number of Graduates Who Took Positions in the County 

High Schools in the Fall of 1935 



TABLE 80 



Number of Graduates 



College 



Who Met Requirements 
for Certification from 



Who Received 
Md. County 
High School 
Positions 



Maryland 
Counties 



Baltimore 
City 



Western Maryland 

University of Maryland 

Washington 

Goucher 

Hood 

Notre Dame 

Johns Hopkins University . . . 
St. Joseph's 



64* 

48 

14 

4 

9 



4 
3 



4 
14 


15 





41 
21 
8 
6 
4 
3 



9 
5 



2 



1 



* Twelve of these were teachers in service who completed the requirements for the degree 
by extension and summer work. 



Turnover; Md. College Graduates Ready to Teach; Men; 131 
Approved Schools 

The Maryland colleges reported on their 1935 graduates from 
the counties and Baltimore City who were eligible to receive 
Maryland high school certificates and who actually received coun- 
ty high school positions. Of 148 Maryland county 1935 graduates 
eligible, the colleges reported county high school positions in 
1936 for 86 or 58 per cent. (See Table 80.) 

The excess in placement of graduates of the University of 
Maryland, Washington College, Goucher, Hood, and St. Joseph's 
shown in Table 79 over Table 80 is undoubtedly due to the inclu- 
sion in Table 79 of graduates of preceding years. 

MEN EMPLOYED ON COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFFS 

In 1935-36 there were 466 men employed on the white teaching 
staffs giving instruction in the last four years of high school 
work. They represented 37.6 per cent of the total staff. This 
was an increase of 11 over the preceding year, but a decrease of 
.2 in per cent. In Montgomery, Prince George's, and Baltimore 
Counties approximately 30 per cent of the teaching staffs in the 
last four years of high school were men. In Garrett, 55 per cent 
of the high school staff were men and in Washington County 47.5 
per cent. (See Table IX, page 316.) 

TABLE 81 

Number of Approved White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1936 







Group 


Year and 








County 


Total 










°1 


°2 


Total Counties 








1920 


82 


*69 


tl3 


1925 


148 


*130 


tl8 


1926 


150 


*136 


tl4 


1927 


152 


*137 


tl5 


1928 


153 


141 


12 


1929 


151 


141 


10 


1930 


152 


142 


10 


1931 


153 


144 


9 


1932 


152 


140 


12 


1933 


149 


136 


13 


1934 


151 


136 


al5 


1935 


150 


136 


al4 


1936 


151 


136 


bl5 


Allegany 


11 


9 


Xt2 


Anne Arundel . . . ^ . 


6 


4 


tt2 




11 


6 




Calvert 


2 


2 




Caroline 


5 


5 





County 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . , 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. 
St. Mary's. ... 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 
Wicomico .... 
Worcester .... 

Baltimore City 

State 



Group 



Total 



23 
174 



8 
4 
4 
7 
10 
5 
2 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 

6 

142 



° First group schools have as a minimum an onrollmont of 30, an attendance of 25. and 
two teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an en- 
rollment of 15. an attendance of 12. They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore Coun- 
ty giving a one-year course are classified as second group schools. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 192S. 

t Each t represents one junior high school. 

a Includes 7 junior high schools. 

b Includes 10 junior high schools. 

c Includes 16 junior high schools with grades 7 to 9, and one with grades 7 to 10. 



132 



1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 




Number and Size of Teaching Staff of Approved High Schools 133 



NUMBER OF APPROVED WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 151 white high schools in the Maryland counties in 
1935-36, one more than for the preceding year. Of these schools, 
136 were classified as first group, and 15 as second group. The 
change in the number of high schools occurred in Allegany, which 
dropped the ninth grade from the Greene Street Junior High 
School and in Montgomery which opened the Leland and Takoma- 
Silver Spring Junior High Schools in the fall of 1935. (See 
Table 81 and Chart 15.) 

Two counties, Calvert and St. Mary's, had as few as two high 
schools, while Allegany, Baltimore, and Prince George's Counties 
each had 11 schools, one or more of which latter schools were 
junior high schools. Carroll and Prince George's with 10 schools 
each had the largest number of first group high schools. (See 
Table SI a.nd Chart 15.) 

TABLE 82 



Size of Teaching Staff in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



number 

OF 

teachers* 


Total No. Schools 


Allegany || 


Anne Arundel | j 


Baltimore || 


Calvert || 


Caroline | 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles | 


Dorchester 


Frederick || 


Garrett 


1 Harford | 


Howard || 


Kent II 


Montgomery 


Prince George's || 


< 

c 

& 

i. 

3 

3" 


1 St. Mary's || 


Somerset || 


1 Talbot II 


1 Washington || 


Wicoinico || 


1 Worcester || 


Total 


151 


11 


6 


11 


2 


5 


10 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


4 


9 


11 


5 


o 


4 


6 


8 


7 


5 




1 


6 
13 
12 
21 
20 
9 
14 
13 
8 
4 
4 
2 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
3 
2 
2 

1 

1 
2 
1 

1 

1 
2 
1 


2 
2 
2 


1 
1 

2 


3 




















1 
1 






















2 


1 






1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 


i 

2 

i 
1 


1 
1 
2 


2 


1 
4 


i 

2 
1 
1 


1 




2 


i 

3 


i 


1 

i 


1 
2 
1 


2 
2 
2 


2 
2 


2 

i 


3 


4 


1 
1 




1 
1 


"i 
1 

5 
2 


i 


1 
1 


i 

1 
1 
1 

2 


1 
1 
1 
2 

1 


5 


6 


7 














1 




1 


1 




1 


8 






1 


i 


1 
1 




1 


1 




9 




1 


1 










10 
















1 


















11 


2 


























1 






1 
1 




12 






























1 








13 














1 














1 
















14 






1 












1 










1 
















15 






















1 
















16 






















1 
























17 






















1 
























18 


i 


























1 


















19 




1 
1 










1 




























20 








































22 
























1 


















26 




1 










































27 


1 


























1 
















28 




































1 




32 




1 








































35 






































1 






36 






1 




































37 














1 











































































* Mid point of interval. 



134 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



SIZE OF TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1935-36 the median county white high school had a staff 
of 6 teachers including the principal. The six one-teacher high 
schools included the ninth grade of 2 junior high schools in Alle- 
gany, 3 one-year high schools in Baltimore County, and a second 
group school in Howard. The largest high schools were at An- 
napolis, with 32 teachers, Hagerstown with 35 teachers, Alle- 
gany High, Cumberland, and Catonsville, with 36 teachers each, 
and Frederick with 37 teachers. (See Table 82.) 

The number of high schools having fewer than five teachers 
has shown a very evident decrease from 1925 to 1936. Whereas 
in 1925 there were 94 high schools having from one to four teach- 
ers, inclusive, by 1936 the number had decreased to 52. The 
number of one-teacher high schools has been reduced from 19 
in 1925 to only 6 in 1936, those having two teachers from 20 to 
13, those having three teachers from 26 to 12, and those having 
four teachers from 29 to 21. On the other hand, schools employ- 
ing from 5 to 8 teachers, inclusive, increased from 31 in 1925 to 
56 in 1936, and those having more than ten teachers from 13 to 
31. (See Table 83.) 

TABLE 83 



Distribution of Maryland County White High Schools on the Basis of the 
Number of Teachers Employed on a Full-Time Basis, 1925-1936 



Year 


Total No. 
Schools 


Number of High Schools Having Following Number of Full-Time 
Teachers 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Over 
10 


1925 


150 


19 


20 


26 


29 


14 


5 


7 


5 


7 


5 


13 


1926 


154 


15 


21 


25 


28 


18 


8 


11 


4 


3 


5 


16 


1927 


153 


8 


22 


23 


26 


20 


10 


12 


6 


3 


8 


15 


1928 


152 


6 


21 


26 


27 


16 


10 


14 


1 


6 


7 


18 


1929 


152 


6 


18 


21 


30 


21 


6 


14 


5 


3 


4 


24 


1930 


152 


7 


13 


22 


27 


20 


13 


8 


6 


4 


6 


26 


1931 


153 


4 


13 


21 


26 


22 


11 


9 


6 


6 


5 


30 


1932 


152 


4 


12 


13 


29 


18 


15 


9 


6 


8 


6 


32 


1933 


149 


6 


13 


11 


25 


18 


13 


13 


4 


11 


4 


31 


1934 


151 


5 


14 


13 


22 


21 


10 


15 


8 


9 


4 


30 


1935 


149 


5 


13 


13 


25 


17 


11 


13 


7 


10 


5 


30 


1936 


151 


6 


13 


12 


21 


20 


9 


14 


13 


8 


4 


31 



SIZE OF ENROLLMENT IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1935-36 the median county white high school had an average 
enrollment of from 126 to 150 pupils. The schools varied in av- 
erage enrollment from 2 in Baltimore County having fewer than 
25 pupils to 1 in Baltimore County having over 1,250 pupils. The 
three largest high schools with enrollments exceeding 1,000 were 
Hagerstown, Allegany, and Catonsville. (See Table 84.) 



Size of Teaching Staff and Enrollment in White High Schools 135 

TABLE 84 

Size of Enrollment in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools, for Year Ending June 30, 1936 



Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 11 


Calvert 11 


Caroline 


Carroll 11 


Cecil 


1 Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 11 


Howard 


Kent II 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


1 St. Mary's 


Somerset 


o 

X! 
Eh 


Washington || 


1 Wicomico 


[ Worcester || 


11 

2 

1 
1 
2 


6 

i 


11 
2 

i 


2 


5 


10 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


4 


9 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


8 


7 


5 


1 






1 


1 

2 

1 


1 
1 
2 








1 


1 




1 
1 
1 

2 












1 




i 

2 

1 

1 


1 

1 
2 
1 




2 
1 
1 

i 




1 
1 


1 

3 






1 


2 

3 
3 


1 
1 
2 


3 
1 

i 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


2 
1 


2 
1 
1 


3 
1 
1 


1 
1 

i 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 




1 
1 


1 




1 






2 


1 


2 




1 






i 




2 


2 
1 


1 












1 






1 
1 




i 




1 










































1 






2 








2 
























1 








1 
















1 














1 










1 


1 
























1 
































1 










1 


























1 




















































1 






1 


















1 
i 




1 
















1 




























1 






























1 
















































































1 


1 


































































1 




















































1 






1 


1 


















































1 






























































1 






1 










































1 



















































































AVERAGE NUMBER 
BELONGING 



Total 

Less 

than 25 

26- 40 

41- 50 

51- 75 

76- 100 

101- 125 

126- 150 

151- 175 

176- 200 

201- 225 

226- 250 

251- 275 

276- 300 

301- 325 

326- 350, 

351- 375, 

376- 400, 

426- 450, 
451- 475, 

501- 525, 

626- 650, 
651- 675, 
676- 700, 

726- 750 , 
751- 775, 

851- 875, 

976-1,000, 

1,051-1,075 

1,151-1,175 

1,251-1,275 



There has been considerable change in the distribution of en- 
rollment in the secondary schools from 1925 to 1930, 1935, and 
1936. In 1925 there were 109 high schools or 72 per cent which en- 
rolled 100 pupils or less. By 1930 this number had dropped to 83 
or 55 per cent, and by 1935 to 58 or 39 per cent of all high schools 
for white pupils. The opposite side of the picture is presented 
when the number of high schools having over 200 pupils is shown. 
In 1925 there were 19 or 12.5 per cent, in 1930 there were 30 or 
20 per cent, in 1935 and 1936 there were 39 and 41, 25 and 27 
per cent, respectively, which had over 200 pupils. (See Tabic 85.) 



136 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 85 



Distribution of Maryland County White Public Secondary Schools by Size of 
Pupil Groups, 1925, 1930, 1935 and 1936 







Number 




Cumulative Per Cent 


Average Number 


















Belonging 




















1925 


1930 


1935 


1936 


1925 


1930 


1935 


1936 


Total 


152 


152 


149 


151 










1- 25 


26 


7 


2 


2 


17.1 


4.6 


1.3 


1.3 


26- 50 


31 


21 


16 


16 


37. 5 


18 4 


12 


11 9 




37 


35 


25 


22 


61.8 


41.4 


28^8 


26^5 


76- 100 


15 


20 


15 


15 


71.7 


54.6 


38.9 


36.4 


101- 125 


7 


17 


22 


20 


76.3 


65.8 


53.6 


49.6 


126- 150 


9 


6 


8 


15 


82.2 


69.7 


59.0 


59.5 


151- 175 


5 


10 


9 


5 


85.5 


76.3 


65.0 


62.8 


176- 200 


3 


6 


13 


15 


87.5 


80.2 


73.7 


72.7 


201- 250 


4 


6 


8 


6 


90.1 


84.1 


79.1 


76.6 


251- 300 


2 


5 


5 


9 


91.4 


87.4 


82.5 


82.6 


301- 400 


6 


9 


6 


8 


95.3 


93.3 


86.5 


87.9 


401- 500 


4 


2 


6 


4 


97.9 


94.6 


90.5 


90.6 


501- 600 


1 


1 


3 


2 


98.6 


95.3 


92.5 


91.9 


601- 700 




2 


4 


3 


99.3 


96.6 


95.2 


93.9 


701- 800 


.... 


3 


1 


3 


99.3 


98.6 


95.9 


95.9 


801- 900 






o 




100.0 


98.6 


97.2 


96.6 


901-1,000 




1 


T 


2 




99.3 


97.9 


97.9 


1,001-1 .100 






1 


1 




99.3 


98.6 


98.6 


1,101-1,200 




.... 


1 


1 




99.3 


99.3 


99.3 


1,201-1,300 






1 


1 




100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




63.8 


92.3 


119.8 


126.8 











In 1925, the median number of pupils enrolled in 152 white high 
schools was 63.8 pupils with a median staff of 4.3 teachers. The 

TABLE 86 

Median Number of Pupils Belonging and Median Number of Teachers in 
Service in Maryland County White Public Secondary Schools, 1925-1936 







Median 




Number 






School Year 


of 






Ending in June 


Secondary 


Number 


Number 




Schools 


of Pupils 


of Teachers 






Belonging 


Employed 


1925 


152 


63.8 


4.3 


1926 


154 


69.0 


4.6 


1927 


154 


75.3 


4.9 


1928 


153 


83.7 


4.9 


1929 


152 


86.9 


5.0 


1930 


152 


92.3 


5.4 


1931 


153 


101.7 


5.6 


1932 


152 


110.2 


6.0 


1933 


149 


118.6 


6.1 


1934 


151 


118.9 


6.1 


1935 


149 


119.8 


6.1 


1936 


151 


126.8 


6.4 



Size of Enrollment per High School; Ratio of Pupils to Teachers 137 



number of pupils has increased steadily each year until 1936 when 
the median enrollment in high schools, 126.8, was almost double 
the number in 1925. (See Table 86.) 

Although the median enrollment in white high schools was 100 
per cent greater in 1936 than in 1925, the median teaching staff 
was only 50 per cent greater, having grown from 4.3 in 1925 to 6.4 
teachers in 1936. In many schools it is possible to absorb small 
increases in enrollment without adding to the teaching staff, but 
in large schools with large classes and full teaching schedules, 
an additional teacher is required as soon as sufficient pupils to 
form a new section enter. The counties suburban to Washington, 
D. C, and Baltimore, in particular, have had large increases in 
enrollment in their large high schools, many of which have had 
large sections. (See Table 86.) 



RATIO OF PUPILS TO HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

The average number of pupils per teacher and principal in the 
last four years of county white high schools was 25.1 in 1936 as 
against 24.7 pupils for the year preceding. In the individual coun- 
ties, the average number belonging per white high school teacher 
ranged from approximately 19 in Carroll and Caroline to 30.6 in 
St. Mary's and 33.4 in Baltimore County. In all but seven coun- 
ties — Cecil, Calvert, Talbot, Queen Anne's, Charles, Montgomery, 
and Caroline — there was an increase in the ratio of high school 
pupils to teachers over corresponding figures for 1935, which 
means that most of the counties took care of their increased high 
school enrollment without a corresponding increase in teaching 
staff. (See Chart 16.) 

In Baltimore City senior high schools there were 28.4 pupils be- 
longing per teacher in 1936, a decrease of .2 under 1935. In 1936 
four counties — Baltimore, St. Mary's, Allegany, and Anne Arun- 
del — had a larger pupil-teacher ratio for white high schools than 
Baltimore City. (See Chart 16.) 



138 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 16 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN raiTE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 

Baltimore 
St. Mary's 
Allegany 
Anne Arundel 
Washington 
Frederick 
Pr, George's 

Garrett 

1i7icomico 

Howard 

Harford 

Cecil 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Calvert 

Talbot 

Kent 

Ttorcester 

Queen Anne' s 

Charles 

Montgomery 

Caroline 

Carroll 



Balto. City>^ 28.5 28.6 



State 




25.8 25.8 



* Senior high schools in Baltimore City. 

AVERAGE SALARY PER COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL 
PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 

The average salary per county white high school principal and 
teacher which, with the exception of a slight reduction in 1930, 
had increased steadily from 1917 to 1932, after a small decrease 



Pupils Belonging and Average Salary per Teacher 139 



TABLE 87 

Average Salary Per County White High School Principal and Teacher, 

1917-1936 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


V^hite 


High School 


High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


$798 
841 
908 
1,017 
1,289 
1,345 
1,436 
1,477 
1,485 
1,517 


1927 


$1,534 
1 , 544 
1,557 
1,550 
1,559 
1,571 
1,532 
1 ,394 
1,398 
1,469 


1918 


1928 


1919 


1929 


1920 


1930 


1921 


1931 


1922 


1932 


1923 


1933 


1924 


1934 


1925 


1935 


1926 


1936 







CHART 17 

Average Annual Salary per White High School Teacher and Principal, 

1921 to 1936 



$2,000 



$1,600 



$1,200 



$ 800 



$ 400 




1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1951 19?5 19?5 



140 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in 1933 showed a marked drop to 1934, increased very slightly 
in 1935 to $1,398 and rose again in 1936 to $1,469. The tem- 
porary reduction of from 10 to 12 per cent in the minimum State 
salary schedule resulting from legislation which went into effect 
in most of the counties in the fall of 1933 accounts for the low 
average salary in 1934 and 1935. As a result of 1935 legislation 
the restoration by the Board of Public Works of one-fourth of the 
1933 cuts which affected the Equalization Fund counties, and 
further restoration in most of the non-Equalization Fund coun- 
ties account for the rise in salary shown in 1936. (See Table 87 
and Chart 17.) 

CHART 18 



AVERAGE SALARI PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 1933 1934 1935 1936 



Co. 

Av. $1532 $1394 $1398 



Bait. 1771 1658 1698 

All. 1655 1511 1487 

Mont. 1612 1447 1571 | 

Wash. 1593 1411 1597 | 

Harf . 1550 1437 1447 | 

Q. A. 1611 1439 1426 | 

A. A. 1556 1464 1403 | 

Fred. 1434 1373 1371 1 

P. G. 1519 1356 133' 

Cecil 1510 1567 13&; 

Garr. 1525 1541 155; 

Chas. 1447 1311 IS^. 

Wico. 1397 1246 124 

Calv. 1463 1394 137 

Kent 1458 1279 130 

Talb. 145? 1503 1?9 

Dorch. 1485 1511 128 

Somer. 1455 1288 128 

Wore. 1405 1276 127 

How. 1442 1282 128 

Caro. 1399 1246 125 

Carr. 1359 1201 119 

St. M. 1405 1146 118 

Balto. 

City 2196 2379 234 

State 1715 1659 165 




1&05 



1527 
1491 
1461 
1440 




13fl0 ■ . „ ■> ^ ■ 

1364 - . - • • : 

1363-.- • . ■ ■ > ' ■ V 

135S ^ ' : . 



1349 
1342 
1335 
1323' 

13 17-: 

1^49 




Average Salary per White High School Teacher 



141 



In the individual counties the average salary per member of 
the high school staff varied from 81,225 in St. Mary's and $1,249 
in Carroll to $1,605 in Montgomery, $1,656 in Allegany, and $1,816 
in Baltimore County. Five counties paid an average salary be- 
tween $1,200 and $1,300, ten counties had an average salary of 
$1,300 to $1,400, four counties paid between $1,400 and $1,500, 
and four paid over $1,500. Four counties, Cecil, Charles, Cal- 
vert, and Howard, showed slight decreases in average salary 
in 1936 under 1935. The largest increases from 1935 to 1936 
were found in Allegany, Washington, Baltimore, and Wicomico, 
which counties made from one-half to full restoration of the cuts 
in effect for three preceding years. (See Chart 18.) 

In Baltimore City the average annual salary paid to a white 
senior high school teacher in 1936 was $2,352, an increase of 
$7 over the average salary of 1935. The average salary for the 
State as a whole was $1,703, as against $1,657 the preceding year. 
(See Chart 18.) 

CHANGES IN HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TEACHING STAFF 
AND SALARY BUDGET 

Although the total county white high school enrollment in the 
last four years of high school was 4,564 or 16 per cent greater in 
1936 than it was in 1932, the number of white high school teach- 
ers employed increased by only 40 or 3.3 per cent from 1932 to 
1936, while the expenditure for salaries of high school teachers, 
which had decreased from 1932 to 1934, but showed a slight rise 
in 1935 which continued in 1936, was, however, $62,000 or 3.3 per 
cent less than the 1932 salary list. (See Table 88.) 

TABLE 88 



Change from 1932 to 1936 in Last Four Years of County White High School 
Enrollment, Teaching Staff, and Salaries 



Year 


Enrollment 


Number of 
Teachers 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


1932 


28,547 
30,778 
31,036 
31,786 
33,111 


1,204 
1,183 
1,169 
1,203 
1,244 


$1 ,891.000 
1,807.000 
1,635.000 
1,677,000 
1.829.000 


1933 


1934 • 


1935 


1936 




Change 1932-1936 




+4,564 
+ 16.0 


+40 
+3.3 


—$62,000 

—3.3 


Per Cent 



142 



1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Changes in Enrollment, Teachers, Salaries; Cost per Pupil 143 



All except six counties — Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Queen Anne's, 
Somerset, and Talbot — showed increases in white high school 
enrollment from 1935 to 1936 ; all except four counties — Caroline, 
Kent, Queen Anne's, and Somerset, all on the Eastern Shore — 
showed increases from 1932 to 1936. (See Table 89.) 

In comparing the white high school teaching staff for 1936 
with that for 1935, it will be noted that 10 counties increased the 
number of teachers employed, 12 counties showed no change, 
and one county, Washington, reduced its staff. When compari- 
son is made between 1932 and 1936, it is found that 11 counties 
increased their teaching staffs, 10 counties showed a decrease in 
staff and 2 counties made no change. (See Table 89.) 

Expenditures for white high school teachers' salaries increased 
from 1935 to 1936 in all but 3 counties, Charles, St. Mary's, and 
Worcester, which made no change in salary expenditure. From 
1932 to 1936, increases in the salary budget were found in but 
6 counties — Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Harford, Mont- 
gomery, and Prince George's. (See Table 89.) 

COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 



TABLE 90 

Cost, Excluding General Control, Per Pupil Belonging, in Last Four Years 
of White High Schools, for Year Ending July 31, 1936 



COUNTY 


Salaries 


other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Mainte- 
nance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average 


*$58 


63 


$4 


69 


$5.61 


$2.90 


$8 


65 


$80 


48 


$45.21 


Allegany 


55 


63 


5 


57 


4 


78 


2 


32 


4 


47 


72 


77 


179.47 


Anne Arundel. . . 


48 


05 


5 


30 


4 


94 


1 


43 


11 


45 


71 


17 


1.17 


Baltimore 


*54 


47 


3 


75 


4 


48 


1 


05 


5 


66 


69 


41 


10.16 


Calvert 


61 


58 


3 


20 


5 


59 


1 


84 


42 


89 


115 


10 


.29 




66 


92 


2 


63 


6 


48 


5 


66 


10 


98 


92 


67 


55.48 


Carroll 


65 


69 


4 


85 


4 


70 


7 


02 


12 


07 


94 


33 


118.93 


Cecil 


60 


34 


5 


95 


6 


58 


1 


45 


7 


35 


81 


67 


12.21 


Charles 


66 


59 


3 


16 


7 


57 


6 


86 


21 


69 


105 


87 


.02 


Dorchester 


59 


69 


5 


05 


6 


79 


5 


20 


11 


07 


87 


80 


140.91 


Frederick 


55 


56 


5 


19 


4 


24 


1 


44 


10 


11 


76 


54 


1.46 


Garrett 


54 


44 


4 


62 


4 


05 


2 


94 


21 


91 


87 


96 


1.57 


Harford 


62 


96 


4 


08 


5 


55 


3 


33 




35 


76 


27 


84.79 


Howard 


53 


75 


3 


82 


5 


32 


1 


64 


9 


32 


73 


85 


127.14 


Kent 


63 


43 


5 


06 


6 


51 


5 


23 


13 


55 


93 


78 




Montgomery .... 


*81 


07 


9 


04 


9 


70 


2 


69 


3 


01 


105 


51 


46^28 


Prince George's. 


55 


84 


4 


70 


4 


96 


5 


16 


4 


23 


74 


89 


46.24 


Queen Anne's. . . 


70 


15 


1 


73 


9 


25 


2 


31 


16 


74 


100 


18 


.96 


St. Mary's 


39 


96 


2 


71 


5 


44 


2 


21 


36 


01 


86 


33 






59 


40 


4 


54 


5 


41 


5 


58 


13 


22 


88 


15 


' .66 


Talbot 


61 


86 


2 


99 


4 


40 


3 


85 


12 


09 


85 


19 




Washington 


56 


71 


3 


48 


6 


46 


1 


54 


5 


39 


73 


58 




Wicomico 


55 


09 


3 


10 


4 


67 


3 


63 


8 


24 


74 


73 


1^34 


Worcester 


61 


00 


4 


82 


9 


56 


3 


58 


12 


53 


91 


49 




Baltimore City . . 


79 


10 


4 


39 


9 


65 


3 


09 




57 


96 


80 


.06 


Total State 


64 


70 


4 


60 


6 


81 


2 


96 


6 


25 


85 


32 


31.81 



Includes salary of supervisor. 

See Table XXX, page 337, for actual disbursements. 



144 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The current expense cost per pupil belonging was $80.48 in 
1936, an increase of $2.90 over the average cost for the year pre- 
ceding. Costs in the individual counties ran from $69 in Baltimore 
to $100 or more in Queen Anne's, Montgomery, Charles, and Cal- 
vert. Seven counties had a lower cost per high school pupil in 
1936 than in 1935, the largest reduction, $6, occurring in St. 
Mary's, while the average cost dropped $5 per pupil in Howard. 
The largest increase, $9, appeared in Calvert and Caroline. (See 
Table 90 and Chart 19.) 

CHART 19 



COST PER V-'HITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



1955 
S 78 



County 1953 1934 
Co. Average $ 85 S 76 

Calvert 
Charles 
Montgomery 
Q . Anne ' s 
Carroll 
Kent 
Caroline 
V.'orcester 
Somerset 
Garrett 
Dorchester 
St. Marj^'s 
Talbot 
Cecil 
Frederick 
Harford 

Pr. George' s 86 
Wicomico 76 
Horard 96 
Washington 72 
Allegany 76 
Anne Arundel 81 
Baltimore 67 

Balto. Cityt 95 99 100 



1936 



State 




86 



t Cost per pupil in senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



Cost per White High School Pupil 



145 



In Baltimore City the cost per white high school pupil was 
$96.80, approximately $3 lower than in 1935. The cost per white 
high school pupil in 1936 exceeded that in Baltimore City in Queen 
Anne's, Montgomery, Charles, and Calvert. (See Chart 19.) 

Analysis of Current Expense Cost per White High School Pupil 

The average current expense cost of $80.48 per county white 
high school pupil covered $58.63 for salaries of teachers, $4.69 
for textbooks, materials, and ''other costs of instruction," S5.61 
for operation of buildings, $2.90 for maintenance of buildings, and 
$8.65 for auxiliary agencies, which include transportation, libra- 
ries, health, and physical education. The average cost per pupil 
of each of these factors, except operation, was higher in 1936 than 
for the year preceding. The increase per pupil for salaries was 
$2.20, for maintenance 44 cents, for auxiliary agencies 37 cents, 
and for other costs of instruction 23 cents. 

In Baltimore City the cost per white senior high school pupil 
decreased in 1936 under corresponding figures for 1935 for sal- 
aries, operation of schools, and auxiliary agencies, but increased 
for textbooks and other costs of instruction and maintenance of 
buildings. (See Table 90.) 

Salary Cost per Pupil 

The salary cost per white high school pupil ranged between $40 
in St. Mary's, where the classes were large, salaries were at the 
minimum, and the program of studies was limited, and $81 in 
Montgomery, where the curriculum was varied, including many 
special subjects, classes were small and a high salary schedule 
was in effect. In addition to St. Mary's, Anne Arundel was the 
only county in which the salary cost per white high school pupil 
was lower than $50. All but eight counties had a higher salary 
cost per pupil belonging in 1936 than in 1935. (See Table 90.) 

Effect of Federal Aid for Vocational Work on Salary Cost per Pupil 

Reimbursement from the Federal Government for one-half the 
salaries of instructors of vocational education was received by 17 
counties during 1935-36. Queen Anne's with 26.7 per cent of the 
white high school pupils taking vocational work received S6.61 in 
Federal aid per white high school pupil belonging. Garrett re- 
ceived $6.60 per pupil in Federal aid and had 46.6 per cent of all 
high school pupils enrolled for vocational work. Howard ranked 
third in the amount of Federal aid per pupil received, $5.77, while 
43.3 per cent of the high school pupils were taking vocational 
subjects, and Calvert stood fourth, receiving $5.19 in Federal 
aid per pupil with 51.4 per cent of its high school pupils taking 
vocational work. On the other hand, Anne Arundel and Balti- 
more Counties, where the Federal aid per white high school pupil 



146 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



amounted to only 74 cents and 92 cents, respectively, enrolled 
only 5 per cent of their high school pupils in vocational courses. 
(See Table 91.) 



TABLE 91 



Comparison of 1936 Salary Cost Per White High School Pupil, Inclusive and 
Exclusive of Federal Aid, for Counties Providing Vocational Education 



COUNTY 


1936 Salary Cost 
per White High 
School Pupil 


Rank Among 
23 Counties 


Federal 
Aid Per 
H. S. Pupil 


Per Cent of 
White High 
School Pupils 
Taking Voca- 
tional Work 


Including 
Federal 
Aid 


Excluding 
Federal 
Aid 


Including 
Federal 
Aid 


Excluding 
Federal 
Aid 


Average for 23 Counties . . 


$58.63 


$56.59 






$2.04 


10.7 


Montgomery 


81.07 


76.31 


1 


1 


4.76 


19.2 


Caroline 


66.92 


65.03 


3 


3 


1.89 


9.4 




70.15 


63.54 


2 


4 


6.61 


26.7 


Charles 


66.59 


62.97 


4 


6 


3.62 


15.8 




61.00 


59.77 


10 


9 


1.23 


8.1 


Harford 


62.96 


59.45 


7 


10 


3.51 


17.6 




59.40 


58.01 


13 


11 


1.39 


10.3 


Dorchester 


59.69 


57.65 


12 


12 


2.04 


7.5 


Calvert 


61.58 


56.39 


9 


13 


5.19 


51.4 


Allegany 


55.63 


54.12 


16 


15 


1.51 


7.0 




55.56 


53.76 


17 


16 


1.80 


9.7 


Prince George's 


55.84 


53.58 


15 


17 


2.26 


13.8 


Baltimore 


54.47 


53.55 


19 


18 


.92 


5.1 




56.71 


52.93 


14 


19 


3.78 


13.9 




53.75 


47.98 


21 


20 


5.77 


43.3 




54.44 


47.84 


20 


21 


6.60 


46.6 


Anne Arundel 


48.05 


47.31 


22 


22 


.74 


5.3 



By reporting the reimbursement per pupil from Federal funds 
separately, it is possible to show the effect of the inclusion or ex- 
clusion of this amount on the rank in salary cost per pupil for the 
17 counties which offer vocational education. The greatest effect 
of Federal aid on rank appears in Washington County, which 
would drop from fourteenth to nineteenth place, according to 
whether the Federal aid were included or excluded. Calvert would 
drop four places, Harford, three places, and Queen Anne's, Charles, 
and Prince George's, each would rank two places lower were this 
aid excluded. (See Table 91.) 

Total expenditures for salaries of county teachers of vocational 
agriculture, home economics, and industries totalled $131,280, 
an increase of $13,825 over corresponding figures for 1935.* 
One-half of the salaries paid were reimbursed from Federal funds. 
(See Table 92.) 



* Includes salaries of four colored teachers of agriculture and two colored teachers of 
home economics. 



Effect of Federal Vocational Aid on Salary Cost per Pupil 147 



TABLE 92 



Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland County Day Schools 
For Year Ending July 31, 1936 





Expenditures for Salaries of County 








Vocational Teachers from 




COUNTY 












Vn 
ZjU- 




County 








roll- 




Funds 


Federal 


Total 


inent 




and 




Funds 








State Aidt 










AGRICULTURE 














White 














Garrett 


$3,683 


10 


$3,683 


09 


! $7,366.19 


198 




3,438.45 


3,438.45 


6,876.90 


165 




3,333 


.90 


3,333 


90 


fi 667 80 


201 




3,331 


.72 


3,331 


71 


6,663.43 


133 




3,040.00 


3,040.00 


6 080 no 


127 




2,597.25 


2,597.25 


5,194.50 


95 


Queen Anne's 


2,050 


.51 


2,050 


49 


4,101.00 


76 


Baltimore 


2,050.04 


2,050 


02 


4,100.06 


114 


Dorchester 


1,414 


98 


1,414 


98 


2,829.96 


57 




1,408.27 


1,408.26 


2,816.53 


74 




1.243 


50 


1,243.49 


2,486.99 


58 




998 


.72 


998 


72 


1,997.44 


52 


Charles 


997 


75 


997 


75 


1,995.50 


40 




934 


28 


934 


28 


1,868.56 


65 


Somerset 


923 


00 


923 


00 


1,846.00 


71 


Calvert 


720 


00 


720.00 


1.440.00 


44 


Colored 
















589 


75 


589 


75 


1,179.50 


78 




396.00 


396.00 


792.00 


20 




235 


94 


235 


93 


471.87 


46 


Prince George's 


197 


49 


197 


50 


394.99 


49 


Total 


$33,584 


65 


$33,584 


57 


$67,169.22 




1,763 


HOME ECONOMICS 














White 
















$2,894 


84 


$2,894 


80 


$5, 789. ■64 


149 


Prince George's 


2,784 


50 


2,784 


50 


5,569.00 


203 




2,586 


45 


2,586 


45 


5,172.90 


263 


Howard 


1,991 


85 


1,991 


80 


3,983.65 


193 




1,669 


00 


1,669 


00 


3,338.00 


118 


Allegany 


1,208 


10 


1.208 


10 


2,416.20 


91 




1,114 


15 


1.114 


15 


2,228.30 


56 




783 


04 


783 


02 


1,566.06 


40 




650 


00 


650 


00 


1,300.00 


27 




613 


50 


613 


50 


1.227.00 


68 


Calvert 


531 


81 


531 


79 


1,063.60 


86 


Dorchester 


425 


48 


425 


48 




14 


Washington 


200 


00 


200 


00 


400.00 


17 


Colored 














Caroline 


450 


00 


450 


00 


900.00 


31 


Charles 


190 


00 


190 


00 


380.00 


90 


Total 


$18,092 


72 


$18,092 


59 


$36,185.31 


1 ,446 


INDUSTRIES 














All-Day Classes 
















$3,524.58 


$3,524 


58 


$7,049.16 


101 




3,079 


96 


3,079 


96 


6,159.92 


85 




2,100.01 


2,099.99 


4,200.00 


123 




1,306.25 


1.306 


25 


2,612.50 


81 




1,291 


00 


1,291 


00 


2,582.00 


63 


Caroline 


652 


50 


652 


50 


1.305.00 


40 


Frederick 


312.50 


312 


50 


625.00 




Part-Time 














Washington 


1,696 


00 


1,696.00 


3.392.00 


84 


Total Industries 


$13,962.80 


$13,962.78 


$27,925.58 


584 


Grand Total 


$65,640.17 


$65,639.94 


$131,280.11 


3,793 



t Includes State support through high school aid and equalization fund. 



148 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Of total salaries paid vocational teachers, those of teachers of 
agriculture absorbed $67,169, of teachers of vocational home ec- 
onomics 136,185, and of trades and industries $27,926. The larg- 
est increase over 1935 appeared for salaries of teachers of home 
economics — $6,558. The increase for teachers of agriculture was 
$4,988 and for trades and industries $2,280. 

During 1935-36 vocational work in home economics was added 
to the curriculum of Sherwood High and the new Montgomery- 
Blair Senior High School in Montgomery, and to Mt. Rainier, 
Marlboro, Oxon Hill, Surrattsville, and Bladensburg High Schools 
in Prince George's. Instruction in agriculture was offered for 
the first time in 1936 at the Salisbury Colored High School in 
Wicomico and at Sherwood High School in Montgomery. Voca- 
tional industrial arts was introduced at Montgomery-Blair Senior 
High School during 1935-36. 

Expenditure per Pupil for Costs of Instruction Other Than Salaries 

The amount spent per white high school pupil for books, mate- 
rials, and "other costs of instruction" in 1936 fell between $1.73 
in Queen Anne's and $9.04 in Montgomery. Ten counties spent 
less for these purposes in 1936 than in the year preceding. Eleven 
counties showed a lower expenditure per pupil for these purposes 
than the amount of $4.39 spent in Baltimore City. The specific 
State-aid for books and materials was 89 cents per pupil, exclu- 
sive of funds for this purpose provided in the Equalization Fund. 
(See column 2, Table 90, page 143.) 

Cost per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance of School Buildings 

The range in cost per white high school pupil for heating and 
cleaning buildings ran from $4.05 in Garrett to over $9 in Queen 
Anne's, Worcester, and Montgomery. Eight counties showed 
higher costs for these purposes than were reported in 1935. Mont- 
gomery was the only county which spent more for operation of 
school buildings than Baltimore City, $9.65 per senior high school 
pupil. (See column 3, Table 90, page 143.) 

The variation in maintenance expenditures per white high 
school pupil belonging was from $1.05 in Baltimore County to 
$6.86 in Charles and $7.02 in Carroll. Lowered expenditures per 
pupil for repairs occurred in seven counties in 1936 under corre- 
sponding figures for 1935. (See column 4, Table 90, page 143 
and pages 249 to 252 for work relief projects affecting school 
maintenance.) 

Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

Auxiliary agencies is a term used to cover combined expendi- 
tures for transportation, libraries, health, and community activi- 
ties. Costs for these combined purposes varied from 35 cents 
per pupil in Harford, which does little in the way of transporting 



Cost per White High School Pupil Analyzed 149 

high school pupils at county expense to $36 per pupil in St. Mary's 
and nearly $43 in Calvert, in which latter counties all or nearly 
all the high school pupils are transported at public expense. Ten 
counties showed an increase in this cost from 1935 to 1936. In 
Baltimore City the cost for these purposes was 57 cents per white 
senior high school pupil. (See column 5, Table 90, page 143.) 

Increase in Pupils Transported at Public Expense 

Public expenditures for transporting 13,191 county white high 
school pupils amounted to $258,824 in 1936, an increase of 1,674 
pupils and of more than $33,000 over corresponding figures for the 
year preceding. On the average, 40.5 per cent of county white 
high school pupils were transported at public expense in 1936, 3.6 
per cent more than in 1935. Harford County transported at coun- 
ty expense only 83 pupils to high school or 5.9 per cent of the total 
white high school enrollment, while in St. Mary's every high 
school pupil and in Calvert nearly 96 per cent were transported at 
public expense. Eleven counties transported over 50 per cent of 

TABLE 93 



Public Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools for School 
Year Ending July 31, 1936 



COUNTY 


Transportation 


Libraries 


Health 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at Public 
Expense 


Amount 
Spent 
From 
Public 
Funds 


Cost 
Per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 


Amount per 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 


Amount 
Per 
Pupil 


Number 


Per 
Cent 


School 


Teacher 


Total 


13,191 


40.5 


*$258,824 


*$19.62 


$5,584 


$36.98 


$4.49 


$2,888 


$ .09 


Calvert 


242 


95.7 


10,135 


41.88 


158 


78.86 


14.34 






St. Mary's 


349 


100.0 


11,838 


33.92 


109 


54.40 


9.89 






Garrett 


654 


66.1 


20,262 


30.98 


488 


81.30 


12.77 


■ '4 




Charles 


360 


71.0 


10,612 


29.48 


20 


4.00 


.83 


25 


" .05 


Queen Anne's. . . 


311 


62.8 


7,924 


25.48 


90 


18.00 


3.91 






Kent 


301 


57.7 


6,775 


22.51 


77 


19.13 


3.19 






Somerset 


318 


46.0 


8,723 


27.43 


69 


17.25 


2.30 








442 


55.4 


9,353 


21.16 


142 


28.47 


3.95 






Talbot 


314 


43.2 


7,900 


25.16 


76 


12.62 


2.35 






Carroll 


903 


56.9 


17,443 


19.32 


784 


78.39 


9.76 


200 


".is 


Anne Arundel . . . 


1 , 382 


61.5 


23,923 


17.31 


576 


96.05 


7.80 


395 


.18 


Dorchester 


414 


44.0 


9.892 


23.89 


97 


16.23 


2.39 








399 


55.9 


7,311 


18.32 


92 


18.39 


2.56 


" 68 


".10 


Frederick 


837 


38.9 


19,621 


24.16 


175 


25.00 


2.20 


316 


.16 


Howard 


329 


.53.3 


*5,369 


*16.32 


103 


20.60 


4.17 






Wicomico 


543 


41.8 


9,364 


17.25 


342 


48.88 


7.04 






(^ecil 


494 


42.7 


7,708 


15.60 












Baltimore 


1,917 


41.3 


*24 , 684 


*12.88 


386 


35^09 


2^87 






Washington 


624 


25.9 


12,090 


18.63 


321 


40.11 


3.71 


' 82 


' '.OA 


Allegany 


748 


21.1 


14,168 


18.94 


209 


19.01 


1.85 


377 


.11 


Prince George's . 


586 


23.6 


9,725 


16.60 


70 


6.36 


.74 


200 


.08 


Montgomery .... 


641 


30.9 


*3,854 


*6.01 


881 


97.94 


8.97 


1,221 


.62 


Harford 


83 


5.9 


*150 


*1.80 


319 


39.86 


5.62 







* Excludes amounts paid directly by parent.s or guardians of pupils. 



150 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



their high school pupils at public expense. The greatest change 
in per cent of white high school pupils transported at public ex- 
pense occurred in Frederick County which transported 38.9 per 
cent of its high school pupils in 1936 as against 13.9 per cent in 
1935. (See Table 93.) 

The expenditures for transporting county pupils to white high 
schools, $258,824, varied in the individual counties from $150 in 
Harford to more than $20,000 in Garrett, Anne Arundel, and Bal- 
timore County. The amount spent by the counties for transport- 
ing pupils to high school was supplemented by the parents of high 
school pupils in Howard, Baltimore, Montgomery, and Harford 
Counties. Ten counties spent less for transportation in 1936 than 
in 1935. The largest increases in transportation costs occurred in 
Frederick and Baltimore Counties. (See Table 93.) 

The 1936 average payment by the public per county high school 
pupil transported was $19.62, just two cents higher than the cor- 
responding figure in 1935. The public expenditures per pupil 
transported among the counties were lowest in Harford and Mont- 
gomery, $1.80 and $6.01 per pupil, respectively, (which amounts 
were supplemented by payments by parents), and highest in Cal- 
vert, $41.88 per pupil transported. The cost to the pubhc per 
white high school pupil transported exceeded $30 in Garrett and 
St. Mary's as well as in Calvert. Ten counties had increases in 
the cost per pupil transported over the costs for the preceding 
year. Some factors affecting the cost of transportation are the 
number transported, distance travelled, type of road, steepness of 
grade, type of vehicle, equipment, and capacity of vehicle. (See 
Table 93.) 

Expenditures for High School Libraries 

Every county, except Cecil, contributed county funds totaling 
$5,584 for Hbraries in the white high schools during 1935-36. In 
addition, the parents, teachers, and school organizations raised 
large sums for libraries. (See Table 184, page 281.) The largest 
amount of county funds, $881, was contributed by Montgomery, 
while Carroll was second with $784. According to Section 167 
of the School Law passed in 1904, it is required that ten dollars 
be paid by the county school commissioners out of the State school 
fund to any school house district as library money as long as the 
people of the district raise a like amount annually. Some coun- 
ties pay the $10 toward any class or teacher who raises at least 
$10. 

On the average $37 in public funds was allowed for each county 
white high school and $4.49 for each county white high school 
teacher for libraries in 1936. (See Table 93.) Among the coun- 
ties the amount spent for libraries per high school varied from 
nothing in Cecil, $4 in Charles and approximately $6 in Prince 



Transportation to and Libraries in White High Schools 151 



George's, to over $96 in Anne Arundel and Montgomery, while 
the average spent per white high school teacher ranged between 
less than $1 in Cecil, Prince George's, and Charles and $12.77 in 
Garrett and $14.34 in Calvert. 

cooperation from the MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMISSION 

The inability of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commis- 
sion to comply with several requests for assistance in organizing 
high school libraries was another result of the reduced State bud- 
get. It was possible, however, to organize and catalog high school 
libraries at Cambridge and Bel Air with the assistance of W. P. A. 
workers. 

The W. P. A. library projects involving 24 groups of workers 
were active in seventeen counties and in Baltimore City at the 
office of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission. St. 
Mary's, Charles, Calvert, Howard, Carroll, and Cecil Counties 
had no projects because suitable workers were not available. A 
total of 93,761 volumes were reconditioned and put back in use in 
144 elementary and high schools and in 19 public libraries in the 
counties at a cost of $51,111. (See Table 162, page 252.) 

Because of lack of funds, there was no library institute at Hood 
College under the auspices of the Maryland Library Commission 
in the summer of 1936. This deficiency was overcome, however, 
by the inauguration of a course in Library Science for School Li- 
brarians by Western Maryland College in the summer of 1936. 
There were seven students who took the course. 

A State Association of School Librarians was formed during the 
year to stimulate school library service and further professional 
interest. Its membership includes 18 high, 4 elementary, and 4 
parochial school librarians or teacher-librarians, and 16 from col- 
leges, private schools, and institutions, of whom 26 are from the 
counties and 18 from Baltimore City. 

Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period 
of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post ; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not fixed collec- 
tions, but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of trans- 
portation must be met by the schools and guarantee of reimburse- 
ment for lost or damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up 
to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual 
needs, or professional needs of teachers. These are loaned for one 
month to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to a 
public library. For travelling and package libraries borrowed in 
1936, see Table 94. 



152 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 94 



Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White High Schools, School Year 1935-36 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 






(30 to 35 books in each) 


(1 to 12 books in each) 




Total 
















No. of 




Number of 






Number of 




V>OUIN 1 I 


Volumes 
















Supplied 






i raveling 






T) 1 

X ackage 






ocnools 


i eacners 


Libraries 


ocnools 


1 eacners 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


1931 


3,236 


31 


47 


77 


27 


32 


125 


1932 


4,562 


Q1 

ol 




lUO 


49 


O'k 


1 HQ 


1933 


6,266 


35 


45 


148 


47 


57 


331 


1934 


4,148 


35 


39 


91 


37 


63 


324 


1935 


6,172 


42 


79 


148 


48 


67 


338 


1936 


3,723 


31 


46 


95 


24 


29 


134 


Allegany 


ahSO 






2 


2 


2 


2 


Anne Arundel . . 


bcfhl28 






3 


1 




5 


Baltimore 


fk410 










4 


g 


69 


Calvert 
















Caroline 


ef954 


■ "5 


"12 


" "28 


" i 




■ ■ 2 


Carroll 


35 


1 


1 


1 








Cecil 


360 


3 


4 


13 


' ' '2 




■ 2 


Charles 


bc8 








1 




1 


Dorchester. . . . 


cnlO 








1 




1 




chl09 


■ ■ '2 


' ' "2 


' ' '3 


1 




2 


Garrett 


f60 


2 


2 


2 










bcfn473 


2 


2 


13 


' ' 2 




"5 


Howard 


71 


1 


1 


2 


1 




1 


Kent 


12 








1 




4 


Montgomery . . . 


efg450 


"6 


" 12 


"is 


2 


3 


8 


Prince George's 


hjl75 


2 


2 


5 








Queen Anne's. . 


35 


1 


1 


1 


.... 






St. Mary's , . 


65 












' 15 


Somerset 


21 








1 




2 


Talbot 


d. . . . 














"Washington 


dh 








.... 






Wicomico 


ch33 


.... 










' "6 




fm234 




' ' '2 


' "6 


2 


4 


9 



a Cumberland Public Library supplies the schools in Cumberland from its own collections. 
The five largest high schools have organized libraries with full-time librarians in charge. In 
addition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of the Cumberland schools 
and supplied other schools of the county as well. 

b Limited library ser vice given by the County Library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days 
when the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or 
no outside help. 

e Other teachers supplied with books loaned by the Commission to the County Supervisors 
or County Superintendents for the use of the county schools, 
f Teachers also supplied through school librarians or principals. 

g Silver Spring Public Library and Rockville Public Library supply nearby schools from 
their own collections also. All high schools in the county have part-time teacher-librarians 
and two have full-time librarians in charge of the high school library. 

h The largest high school in the county has an organized library with a full-time librarian 
in charge. 

j Hyattsville Public Library provides books for school use without charge. Teachers may 
keep these collections as long as they are needed and books from them may be loaned to pu- 
pils for home use. 

k Catonsville and Towson have organized libraries in charge of full-time librarians. All 
other high schools have libraries with teacher-librarians in charge. 

m The largest high schools in the county have organized libraries in charge of teacher- 
librarians. 

n The! largest high school in the county has an organized library in charge of a teacher- 
librarian. 



Books Supplied by Library Commission; Health; Capital Outlay 153 



Expenditures for Health 

Expenditures for health education in the county white high 
schools totalled $2,888 in 1936, just nine cents per pupil belonging. 
Of the 10 counties which invested in health education, the largest 
amount, $1,221, was spent by Montgomery. The expenditure per 
pupil ranged from four cents in Washington and five cents in 
Charles to sixty-two cents in Montgomery. Garrett and Charles 
spent small amounts for health activities in 1936, although noth- 
ing was spent for this purpose in 1935. On the other hand, Queen 
Anne's did not spend any funds for physical education and health 
activities in 1936, although $55 was expended the preceding year. 
(See Table 93.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The capital outlay for county white high schools in 1935-36 
totalled $1,410,118, an increase of $601,787 over corresponding 
figures for the preceding year. The largest outlay, $605,295, 
was found in Allegany, while outlays of over $100,000 were 
made in Carroll, Harford, Dorchester, and Prince George's. All 
of these counties received grants from the Federal P. W. A. to- 
ward a program of school building, as did Baltimore, Caroline, 
Frederick, Howard, and Montgomery. There was no capital 
outlay in Kent, St. Mary's, Talbot, Washington, and Worcester. 
(See Table XXX, page 337.) 

The average capital outlay per white high school pupil in the 
counties was $44.75 in 1936, as against $27.20 in 1935. The 
amounts in the counties ranged from two cents or less in Kent, St. 
Mary's, Talbot, Washington, Worcester, and Charles to over $46 
per pupil in Prince George's, Montgomery, Caroline, Carroll, Dor- 
chester, Howard, and Allegany. (See Table 90, page 143.) 

SUPERVISION IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

TABLE 95 



Supervision of White High Schools by State High School Supervisors, 1936-37 



Section 


Number 
of 

Counties 


Number of 
Public High 
Schools 


Number 
of 

Teachersf 


Western 




5 


41 


317 


Central 




*8 


49 


*415 


Eastern 




10 


58 


319 



t Excludes teachers of home economics, industrial arts and agriculture. 
* Each of two counties in the central section employs a county supervisor. 



154 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In 1935-36 the white high schools in 5 Western, 8 Central, and 
10 Eastern counties of Maryland were under the supervision of 
the three State high school supervisors, one of whom is assigned 
to each of these sections. Two of the counties in the central sec- 
tion, Baltimore and Montgomery, each have a full-time and one, 
Anne Arundel, has a part-time supervisor of high schools. (See 
Table 95.) 

In addition to the teachers shown in the last column of Table 
95, those giving instruction in home economics, trades and in- 
dustrial arts, and agriculture each have a State supervisor for 
these subjects. There are 116 teachers of home economics, 85 of 
industrial arts, and 38 of agriculture. The supervisor of agricul- 
ture is also in charge of training teachers of agriculture at the 
University of Maryland. (See Table 72, page 121.) 

In the field of administrative supervision, the three general 
State high school supervisors check with principals on equipment, 
courses of study, daily programs, extra-curricular activities, 
courses followed by pupils, credits earned by seniors, distribution 
of work among the teaching staff, and qualifications of teachers 
to give instruction in the subjects to which they have been as- 
signed. 

In addition to the above, the three State high school supervisors 
in 1935-36 concentrated their supervisory program on the follow- 
ing problems: 

1. Developing in high school pupils the ability to read intelligently 
the material in high school text books, studying carefully the results 
of county- and State-wide reading tests given during the past two years; 
and suggesting and directing on the basis of such study, an analysis of 
the causes of the difficulties and a follow-up plan of remedial instruction 
in reading in the various high school subjects. 

2. Revision of the high school commercial courses, to the end that 
these courses may function more effectively in meeting the vocational 
needs of the pupils who elect them. 

3. Revision of the courses in high school English. 

4. Studying during classroom observation the work of inexperienced 
teachers, followed by personal conferences based on these observations. 

5. In any county in which the superintendent feels there is a special 
need for curriculum study and revision in a subject or subjects not 
mentioned above, special aid, suggestions, and direction given by the 
State supervisor on request. 

The following topics were discussed at the regional county high 
school principals' conferences held in the fall of 1935 and spring 
of 1936: 

What plans have you instituted for the current year to help your 
teachers attain increasing success in their work? 

What plans of pupil guidance have you found successful? 

Present the methods you are using to help weak and maladjusted 
pupils in your school and to provide for their needs. 



Supervision of County White Public High Schools 



155 



What plans have you formulated to analyze the results of the State- 
wide tests given last year and to provide remedial instruction to dimin- 
ish disclosed weaknesses, especially in reading ability? 

If you were entirely unrestricted by regulations of the State or coun- 
ty school authorities, or by college entrance requirements, what pro- 
gram of studies (by years) would you offer in your school? Justify 
your selections. 

Discuss the advantages, and also the difficulties and possible weak- 
nesses, of the lengthened sixty-minute period. 

List the most important teacher activities in the typical "supervised 
study" period, and discuss each briefly. 

In your observation of the classwork of beginning teachers, what weak- 
nesses have you found most frequent and conspicuous? What measures 
have you taken to eliminate these deficiencies? 

What important changes, if any, seem advisable in the content and 
organization of commercial courses in public high schools. What first- 
and second-year subjects constitute the best preparation for the tech- 
nical commercial subjects in the third and fourth years? What is your 
opinion concerning the extent and character of the courses in book- 
keeping in public high schools? 

What plans have you found successful in securing interest and at- 
tendance at the meetings of your Parent-Teacher Association? 

Round Table Discussion of the Revised Standards Bulletin. 

In addition to their supervision of the county white high 
schools, the three high school supervisors visit and inspect non- 
public secondary schools in their territory which desire to have 
the work of their pupils accredited. Higher institutions desir- 
ing to offer degrees for which approval has not yet been secured 
from the State Board of Education have the work they offer 
evaluated by one of the high school supervisors so that the State 
Board of Education may be advised before action is taken. 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN 



25,328 PUPILS ENROLLED IN COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The Maryland county colored elementary schools enrolled 
25,328 pupils in 1936, a decrease of 580 pupils under the enroll- 
ment in 1935. Montgomery, Wicomico, and Howard were the 
only counties which had higher enrollments in 1936 than in the 
preceding year, while only Anne Arundel, Prince George's, and 
Baltimore Counties enrolled more pupils in 1936 than in 1923. 

The enrollment of 26,863 pupils in the Baltimore City colored 
elementary schools was an increase of 1,162 over the enrollment 
in 1935. In 1936 for the first time the colored elementary enroll- 
ment in the City exceeded that in the counties. Since 1923 the 
colored elementary school enrollment in Baltimore City has in- 
creased by 11,188 pupils as compared with a decrease of 5,742 
pupils in the counties over the same period. The migration of the 
colored population from surrounding states as well as from the 
counties has undoubtedly had its influence on the increasing col- 
ored enrollment in Baltimore City. (See Table 96.) 

TABLE 96 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, for Years End- 
ing June 30, 1923, 1935 and 1936 



County 



Total Counties . 

Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. . . 

Somerset 

Charles 

Worcester 

Dorchester. . . . 

Wicomico 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 



Number Enrolled in 




Number Enrolled in 


Colored Elementary 




Colored Elementary 




Schools 








Schools 










County 








1923 


1935 


1936 




1923 


1935 


1936 


*31,070 


*25,908 


*25,328 


Talbot 


1,373 


933 


884 




1,150 


884 


874 


2,853 


2,967 


2,966 


Kent 


1,188 


832 


796 


2,781 


2,885 


2,845 


Harford 


916 


847 


781 


1,942 


2,024 


2,008 


Caroline 


] .188 


791 


729 


1,898 


1,627 


1,653 


Queen Anne's 


1.093 


761 


703 


2,255 


1,619 


1 . 575 




848 


584 


605 


1,803 


1,590 


1,503 




.548 


388 


374 


2,088 


1,480 


1.381 


Carroll 


440 


376 


372 


1,947 


1,422 


1,366 


Allegany 


267 


267 


262 


1,675 


1.356 


1,366 




377 


267 


259 


1,405 


1,153 


1,145 








1,343 


1 ,152 


1.101 


Baltimore City 


*15,675 


*25,701 


*26,863 








Total State 


*46,745 


*51,609 


*52,191 



* Total excludes duplicates. 

For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 308. 

A comparison of the colored enrollment in the counties and in 
Baltimore City in elementary and secondary public and non- 
public schools from 1927 to 1936 indicates very clearly the change 
which has come about. In 1927 the colored enrollment in the coun- 
ties was greatly in excess of that in the City. Because the county 



156 



Baltimore City Colored Enrollment Exceeds that in Counties 157 

enrollment has remained quite constant and the City enrollment 
has increased, since 1935 the City enrollment has exceeded the 
county enrollment. For the public schools the excess for the 
City did not appear until 1936. County colored public school en- 
rollment has been decreasing each year since 1933, while the City 
enrollment has shown steady annual gains for the period from 
1927 to 1936. The City enrollment in Catholic and in recent years 
in non-Catholic non-public schools for colored children has greatly 
exceeded the county enrollment. (See Table 97.) 

TABLE 97 



Comparison of Colored Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City in Public 
and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1936 



Year 


Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Catholic 
Non-Public Schools 






Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


29,736 


17,479 


29,244 


16,454 


492 


1,025 






1928 


29,492 


18,659 


28,994 


16,958 


498 


1,184 






1929 


29,495 


23,165 


28,937 


22,018 


558 


1,147 






1930 


29,466 


24,391 


28,712 


22,978 


633 


1,334 


121 


' 79 


1931 


29,667 


24,776 


28,910 


23,452 


653 


1,254 


104 


70 


1932 


29,758 


26,377 


29,047 


25,083 


658 


1,234 


53 


60 


1933 


30,120 


27,546 


29,458 


26,028 


651 


1,439 


11 


79 


1934 


29,781 


28,789 


29,166 


27,202 


607 


1,449 


8 


138 


1935 


29,473 


29,901 


28,927 


28,353 


543 


1,403 


3 


145 


1936 


29,372 


31,071 


28,872 


29 , 504 


497 


1,438 


3 


129 



The phenomenon of declining elementary school enrollment 
throughout the country is generally explained by the fall in the 
birth rate. Data are given on these rates by counties from 1920 
to 1935. Children born in 1929 and 1930 were entrants to school 
in the school year 1935-36. With a very few exceptions, the 
birth rates for individual counties were lower in 1929 and 1930 
than they were in preceding years. 

The Bureau of Vital Statistics of the State Department of 
Health has in the past recorded births within the borders of the 
county in which they occurred. For 1935, however, births were 
reclassified according to the residence of the mothers. Probably 
because many mothers from the counties have their children 
born in hospitals located in Baltimore City, Washington, D. C, 
and counties other than those of their residences, the revised birth 
rates for sixteen counties are higher and those for only four 
counties, Cecil, Charles, Talbot, and Wicomico, and Baltimore 
City, are lower according to the residence of mother than accord- 
ing to county in which the birth occurred. Compare the last two 
rows of figures in Table 98. 



158 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of 



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Colored Birth Rates; Length of Session" in Colored Schools 159 



COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OPEN 167 DAYS 

The dates for the opening of colored elementary schools in 1935- 
36 ranged from September 3 to October 1, while closing dates 
covered the period from May 11 to June 19. (See Table 99.) 

In 1936 the county colored elementary schools were open an 
average of 167 days, ranging from 160 days in Queen Anne's and 
Kent to 190 days in Baltimore and Allegany. The colored elemen- 
tary schools were in session over 180 days in six counties. In 
Baltimore City the colored schools were open 190 days. (See 
Table 99.) 

TABLE 99 

Length of Session in Colored Elementary Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



County 



County Average . . . 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Washington 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Harford 

Prince George's . . . 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Wicomico 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



167.0 

190.1 
190.0 
186.3 
184.6 
184.2 
180.3 
168.5 
165.1 
164.7 
164.0 
162.9 
162.0 



School Year 
1935-36 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/9 

9/4 

9/3 

9/5 

9/5 

9/10 

9/9 

9/9 

9/3 

9/30 

9/16 

9/11 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/19 

6/19 

6/9 

6/10 

6/11 

6/5 

5/29 

5/22 

5/14 

6/8 

5/20 

5/14 



County 



St. Mary's 

Caroline 

Howard 

Dorchester. . . 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Charles 

Worcester .... 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. 

Baltimore City 

Total State. . . 



Average 
Days 

in 
Session 



161.8 
161.7 
161.3 
161.1 
160.8 
160.7 
160.5 
160.4 
160.0 
160.0 

190.0 

179.0 



School Year 
1935-36 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



10/1 
9/17 
9/30 
9/23 
9/4 
9/16 

10/1 
9/16 
9/30 

10/1 

9/5 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/5 

5/22 

6/2 

5/22 

5/11 

5/15 

5/29 

5/15 

5/29 

5/29 

6^8 



As a result of the enactment of Chapter 552 of the Laws of 
1937, after September 1, 1939, the minimum session required in 
colored schools will be 180 days. 

TABLE 100 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Fewer Than 160 
Days, the Number of Days Required by Law, by Year and by 
County for 1936 



Year Number County Number 

1929 53 St. Mary's al 

1930 41 Calvert aabS 

1931 34 Worcester abcS 

1932 12 Dorchester aabd4 

1933 32 Howard ddef4 

1934 10 Montgomery bbbddS 

1935 17 

1936 20 



a 159 days, 
b 157 days. 



c 156 days, 
d 158 days. 



e 155 days, 
f 152 days. 



160 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 20 colored schools in 6 counties in 1936 that were 
open fewer than 160 days, the minimum number of days required 
by law. This was an increase of 3 schools, but a decrease of 2 
counties from corresponding figures for the preceding year. Of 
the 20 schools, which had short sessions, none was open fewer 
than 152 days. Most of schools with short sessions missed meet- 
ing the minimum requirement bv from 1 to 5 days. (See Table 
100.) 

ATTENDANCE IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The average attendance in the county colored elementary 
schools was 84 per cent in 1936, just .5 lower than in 1935. Ten 
counties had a higher percentage of attendance in 1936 than in 
the preceding year. Among the counties the percentage of at- 
tendance ranged from 73 in Calvert to over 90 in Queen Anne's, 
Washington, and Allegany. (See Table 101.) 



TABLE 101 



Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years 
Ending in June, 1923, 1934, 1935 and 1936 



County- 


1923 


1934 


1935 


1936 


County 


1923 


1934 


1935 


1936 


County Average 


76 


2 


84 





84 


5 


84 







79 


9 


85 


1 


84 


4 


84.4 


















Cecil 


74 


4 


85 


5 


88 


2 


83.9 




87 


4 


89 


9 


91 


9 


92 


6 




80 


8 


83 


9 


84 


4 


83.4 


Washington 


81 


7 


92 


9 


89 


6 


90 


4 


Caroline 


76 


4 


84 


7 


85 


4 


83.3 




73 


1 


87 


6 


90 


1 


90 


2 


Carroll 


72 





86 


2 


83 


7 


82.1 




75 


4 


86 


8 


87 
90 


4 


88 


7 


Charles 


66 


8 


78 



6 


78 


9 


79.4 


Talbot 


84 


3 


90 


5 


2 


87 


9 




80 


1 


80 


82 


7 


78.7 




84 


8 


87 


9 


89 
86 


2 


87 


3 




71 





79 


6 


78 


6 


78.1 




84 


6 


89 


2 


8 


86 


5 




74 


2 


81 


5 


81 


3 


77.8 


Somerset 


80 


5 


85 


7 


87 


5 


86 


2 


Calvert 


65 


3 


72 


2 


72 


4 


73.1 


St. Mary's 


62 


9 


83 





83 





85 


6 










Prince George's .... 


76 


4 


85 


1 


84 


7 


85 


3 


Baltimore City. . . . 


87 





86 


7 


87 


3 


86.8 


Anne Arundel 


71 


2 


83 


3 


84 


6 


85 





















Kent 


73 


4 


84 


9 


83 


7 


84 


4 


State 


79 


9 


85 


3 


85 


9 


85.4 



























In Baltimore City the average per cent of attendance in the 
colored elementary schools in 1936 was 86.8 as against 87.3 in 
1935. The average per cent of attendance for the State as a whole 
was 85.4 in 1936. {See Table 101.) 

The average enrollment in the county colored elementary 
schools reached its maximum in December with 24,446 pupils, 
while in the county colored high schools the maximum enrollment 
of 3,385 pupils was found in November. The highest percentages 
of attendance in the colored schools were reached in September 
and June while the lowest percentages were reported in February. 
(See Table 102.) 



Schools Open under 160 Days; Attendance in Colored 161 
Elementary Schools 

TABLE 102 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1936 



MONTH 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


September 


*16,572 


t2,748 


95.1 


95.5 




23,712 


3,352 


92.0 


94.4 


November 


24,439 


3,385 


87.6 


93.2 


December 


24,446 


3,342 


85.5 


91.8 


January 


24,311 


3,281 


75.1 


88.5 


February 


24,152 


3,221 


69.1 


86.4 


March 


24,084 


3,168 


83.0 


91.3 


April 


23,776 


3,102 


85.4 


91.5 


May 


23,622 


3,050 


88.2 


93.4 


June 


t4,045 


°1,261 


93.5 


95.8 


Average for Year 


23,847 


3,206 


84.0 


91.8 



* For elementary schools attendance was not reported in September by Charles, Howard, 
Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's and Talbot Counties. 

t For high schools attendance was not reported in September by Queen Anne's and St. 
Mary's Counties. 

t For elementary schools attendance was reported in June in Allegany, Baltimore, Carroll, 
Cecil, Harford and Washington Counties and for a few schools in Charles County. 

° For high schools attendance was reported in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, 
Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Harford, Talbot and Washington Counties. 

There were 3,907 pupils or 16 per cent of the enrollment in the 
county colored elementary schools who were present under 100 
days, a decrease in number but a slight increase in the percentage 
over the four years immediately preceding. There were 6,370 
pupils, 26 per cent of the county colored elementary school enroll- 
ment, who attended school fewer than 120 days in 1936. The per- 
centage showed an increase over corresponding figures for four 
preceding years. Decreases under 1935 in the per cent of colored 
elementary pupils present under 100 days were found in 9 coun- 
ties in 1936, and for pupils who attended school fewer than 120 
days in 8 counties. (See Table 103.) 

The percentage of pupils present under 100 days in the individ- 
ual counties varied from none at all in Queen Anne's and 2 and 
6 per cent, respectively, in Allegany and Baltimore, to nearly 39 
per cent in Calvert. For pupils who attended less than 120 days, 
the percentages ranged from 4 in Allegany to 54 in Calvert. One 
would not expect to find the results of instruction similar in coun- 
ties differing so greatly in school attendance of pupils. (See 
Table 103.) 



162 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 103 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 
100 and 120 Days, by Year, 1926 to 1936, and by County, 1936 





Number Present 


Per Cent Present 


Year and County 












Under 


Under 


Under 


Under 




100 Days 


120 Days 


100 Days 


120 Days 


Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by Year 


1926 


8,078 


11,295 


29.5 


41.3 


1927 


7,643 


10,836 


29.0 


41.1 


1928 


6,610 


9,563 


24.8 


35.9 


1929 


5,987 


9,045 


22.9 


34.6 


1930 


4,937 


7,842 


19.3 


30.6 


1931 


4,342 


7,039 


16.7 


27.1 


1932 


3,807 


6,139 


14.8 


23.8 


1933 


3,609 


6,074 


13.9 


23.4 


1934 


4,070 


6,603 


15.9 


25.9 


1935 


3,968 


6,391 


15.8 


25.5 


1936 


3,907 


6,370 


16.0 


26.0 



Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by County, 1935-36 



Allegany 


6 


10 


2.3 


3.9 


Baltimore 


115 


182 


6.0 


9.5 


Queen Anne's 




67 




10.7 


Washington 


■ '21 


34 


'8^7 


14.1 


Cecil 


34 


68 


9.6 


19.2 


Harford 


77 


144 


10.3 


19.3 


Frederick 


95 


173 


11.2 


20.4 


Carroll 


47 


76 


13.1 


21.1 


St. Mary's 


149 


242 


13.5 


21.9 


Prince George's 


349 


608 


12.8 


22.3 


Wicomico 


178 


295 


13.6 


22.5 


Talbot 


129 


203 


14.8 


23.3 


Anne Arundel 


439 


717 


15.3 


24.9 


Caroline 


82 


175 


12.0 


25.5 


Somerset 


232 


388 


15.7 


26.2 


Kent 


110 


212 


14.3 


27.5 


Montgomery 


321 


486 


19.9 


30.2 


Dorchester 


313 


463 


23.7 


35.1 


Charles 


326 


518 


22.7 


36.0 


Howard 


128 


216 


22.2 


37.5 


Worcester 


337 


512 


26.0 


39.5 


Calvert 


419 


581 


38.9 


53.9 



FEWER COLORED PUPILS ENTER SCHOOL LATE 

The number and per cent of late entrants after the first month 
in 1936 in the county colored elementary schools because of negli- 
gence, indifference, or employment decreased to 962 or 3.7 per 
cent, the lowest figures reported during the period from 1926 to 



Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 120 Days 163 
AND Late Entrants 

1936. The per cent of late entrance due to negligence or indif- 
ference decreased from 3.2 in 1935 to 2.3 in 1936. Late entrance 
because of employment for pupils 14 years old or more increased 
slightly to .9 of one per cent, while late entrance due to illegal em- 
ployment of children under 14 years affected one-half of one per 
cent of the county colored elementary school enrollment. (See 
Table 104.) 



TABLE 104 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School after the First Month Because of Employment, Indifference, 
or Neglect, by Year and by County for 1936 



Year and 


Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons 


County 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 



Late Entrants by Year 



1926 


5,393 


18.1 


6.9 


8.3 


2.9 








1927 


5,204 


17.8 


7.5 


7.9 


2.4 








1928 


4,739 


16.5 


7.8 


6.5 


2.2 








1929 


3,280 


11.6 


5.3 


5.1 


1.2 








1930 


3,148 


11.4 


5.8 


4.5 


1.1 








1931 


2,505 


9.0 


5.0 


3.1 


.9 








1932 


1,891 


6.9 


4.5 


1.6 


.8 








1933 


1,279 


4.6 


3.3 


.9 


.4 








1934 


1,067 


3.9 


2.5 


.9 


.5 








1935 


1,202 


4.5 


3.2 


.8 


.5 








1936 


962 


3.7 


2.3 


.9 


.5 









Late Entrants by County, 1936 



Allegany 


















1 


1 


1 


Cecil 


4 


1 









i 


6 




1 


16 


1 


Queen Anne's. . . 


8 


1 


1 




1 




7 


.3 


5 


11 


12 


Kent 


9 


1 


1 




1 




5 


.5 


4 


6 


15 




30 


1 


5 




9 




4 


.2 


9 


3 


8 


Caroline 


12 


1 


6 






1 


5 


.1 


1 


18 


6 


St. Mary's 


19 


1 


6 




8 




6 


.2 


6 


9 


11 


Wicomico 


23 


1 


7 




9 




8 




7 


13 




Somerset 


29 


1 


8 


1 









" .'i 


10 


10 


5 


Frederick 


23 


2 


6 




9 


1 


5 


.2 


8 


19 


10 


Howard 


16 


2 


6 


1 


9 




5 


.2 


14 


5 


9 


Carroll 


10 


2 


6 


2 


1 




5 




15 


8 


1 


Montgomery. . . . 


54 


3 


2 


1 


7 




9 


".6 


13 


14 


16 


Worcester 


49 


3 


4 


1 


6 


1 





.8 


12 


15 


19 


Washington 


9 


3 


4 


3 









.4 


18 


1 


14 


Charles 


53 


3 


5 


2 


7 




5 


.3 


17 


4 


13 


Prince George's . 


105 


3 


5 


2 


2 




5 


.8 


16 


7 


17 


Talbot 


37 


4 





1 


4 


1 




.9 


11 


20 


20 


Anne Arundel. . . 


157 


5 


2 


4 


3 




8 


.1 


21 


12 




Dorchester 


83 


5 


8 


3 


9 


1 


1 


.8 


20 


17 


18 


Harford 


53 


6 


7 


3 


9 


1 


8 


1.0 


19 


21 


21 


Calvert 


179 


15 


7 


11 


5 


2 


3 


1.9 


22 


22 


22 



Arriong the counties the percentage of late entrants in the col- 
ored elementary schools for negligence or indifference or employ- 
ment ranged from none at all in Allegany and 1 per cent in Cecil 



164 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



to almost 16 per cent in Calvert. In Allegany, Cecil and Caroline, 
no pupils entered late because of indifference or neglect, in Alle- 
gany and Washington there were no late entrants due to legal 
employment, and in Allegany, Cecil, Wicomico, and Carroll, no 
colored pupils were reported as late entrants because of illegal 
employment. (See Table 104.) 

WITHDRAWALS FROM COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

TABLE 105 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools 
by Year and by County for 1935-36 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment, 
or Death 


Withdrawals for Following Causes 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


Per Cent Withdrawing for 


Number 


Per Cent 


Employ- 
ment 


Poverty 


Mental 

and 
Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Over and 

Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Year 



1926 


2,446 


8 


2 


2,697 


9 


9 


4 


9 


1 


9 


1 





1 


5 


.6 


1927 


2,340 


8 





2,489 


8 


5 


4 


3 


1 


5 


1 


2 


1 


1 


.4 


1928 


2,130 


7 


4 


2,231 


7 


8 


4 


1 


1 


2 


1 





1 


1 


.4 


1929 


2,109 


7 


5 


2,171 


7 


6 


3 


7 


1 


5 


1 


1 




9 


.4 


1930 


2,100 


7 


6 


1,717 


6 


2 


2 


9 


1 


2 


1 







8 


.3 


1931 


1,883 


6 


8 


1,405 


5 





2 


2 


1 







9 




6 


.3 


1932 


1,719 


6 


3 


1,146 


4 


2 


1 


2 


1 





1 







6 


.4 


1933 


1,652 


6 





1,069 


3 


9 


1 


5 


1 











5 


.2 


1934 


1,773 


6 


5 


980 


3 


6 


1 


2 




9 




7 




6 


.2 


1935 


1,746 


6 


5 


996 


3 


7 


1 


4 




9 




7 




6 


.1 


1936 


1,809 


6 


9 


927 


3 


5 


1 


4 




9 




6 




5 


.1 



Withdrawals by County, 1936 



Queen Anne's 


92 


12 


8 


3 




4 




2 


.2 










Frederick .... 


52 


5 


8 


16 


1 


8 




7 


.5 




4 


.2 




Caroline 


78 


10 


2 


14 


1 


8 




6 


.5 




3 


.4 




Carroll 


23 


6 





8 


2 


1 


1 


8 








.3 




Baltimore . . . 


117 


5 


8 


43 


2 


1 




9 


' ' .2 




3 


.6 


' ".i 


Dorchester . . 


114 


7 


9 


31 


2 


2 




8 


.4 




4 


.6 




Allegany .... 


10 


3 


7 


6 


2 


2 


1 


4 






4 


.4 




Anne Arundel 


165 


5 


4 


74 


2 


4 




7 


' ' ^3 




4 


.9 


'".i 


Howard 


45 


7 


3 


15 


2 


4 


1 


1 






5 


.8 




Pr. George's. 


242 


8 


2 


84 


2 


8 


1 


2 






6 


.8 


' ".i 


Kent 


34 


4 


2 


25 


3 


1 


1 


3 


^4 


1 


2 


.2 






47 


5 


9 


28 


3 


5 




4 


2.2 




5 


.4 




Worcester . . . 


135 


9 


4 


57 


4 





2 


4 


.6 




4 


.5 


' ".i 


St. Mary's. . . 


70 


6 





49 


4 


2 


2 


1 


.3 




9 


.9 




Washington . 


22 


8 


4 


11 


4 


2 




8 


1.5 


1 


1 


.8 




Charles 


84 


5 


5 


72 


4 


7 


1 


9 


1.3 




9 


.5 


".i 


Montgomery 


98 


5 


7 


83 


4 


9 


1 


9 


1.5 




6 


.7 


.2 


Cecil 


31 


8 





20 


5 


2 


1 


8 


1.3 


1 


8 


.3 




Wicomico . . . 


83 


6 





74 


5 


3 


1 


5 


2.2 


1 


3 


.3 




Calvert 


66 


5 


8 


61 


5 


3 


1 


7 


2.1 




5 


1.0 




Somerset .... 


145 


8 


9 


96 


5 


9 


1 


2 


3.1 


1 


2 


.2 


' ■ .2 


Talbot 


56 


6 





57 


6 


1 


4 


4 


1.0 




2 


.2 


.3 



There were 1,809 pupils, 6.9 per cent of the total colored ele- 
mentary school enrollment in 1936, who withdrew from school 



Colored Late Entrants, Withdrawals, Grade Enrollment 1G5 



because of removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institu- 
tions, an increase of .4 over the percentage of withdrawals for 
these causes reported in 1935. In the individual counties, these 
withdrawals comprised from approximately 4 per cent of the col- 
ored enrollment in Allegany and Kent to 10 per cent in Caroline 
and nearly 13 per cent in Queen Anne's. (See Table 105.) 

The total number of withdrawals for causes other than those 
mentioned included 927 colored elementary pupils or 3.5 per cent, 
a decrease of .2 under similar figures for 1935, a smaller number 
and per cent than ever before reported. These withdrawals in- 
cluded 1.4 per cent for employment, .9 per cent due to poverty, .6 
per cent because of mental or physical incapacity, .5 per cent who 
were over or under the compulsory school attendance age, and .1 
per cent for other causes. (See Table 105.) 

In individual counties these withdrawals ranged from .4 per 
cent in Queen Anne's to more than 5 per cent in Cecil, Wicomico, 
Calvert, and Somerset, and over 6 per cent in Talbot. Carroll, 
Allegany, and Howard reported no colored pupils withdrawn be- 
cause of poverty and Queen Anne's and Carroll reported no with- 
drawals for mental or physical incapacity. (See Table 105.) 

ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 
TABLE 106 



Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools, School Years 
Ending in June, 1933, 1935 and 1936, and as of October, 1921 



GRADE 


Number in Each Grade, 
1936 


Number in Each Grade 


Increase 
1921 to 
1936 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1935 


1933 


1921 


1 


2,483 


2,216 


4,699 


4,990 


5,279 


9,804 


*5,105 


2 


1,982 


1,702 


3,684 


3,781 


4,082 


4,237 


*553 


3 


1,879 


1,721 


3,600 


3,709 


3,803 


3,741 


*141 


4 


1,867 


1,755 


3,622 


3,625 


3,821 


3,126 


496 


5 


1,649 


1,631 


3,280 


3,278 


3,406 


2,011 


1,269 


6 


1,314 


1,449 


2,763 


2,964 


2,938 


1,348 


1,415 


7 


1,291 


1,506 


2,797 


2,683 


2,582 


859 


1,938 


8 


23 


15 


38 


31 


33 


170 


*132 


I 


644 


871 


1,515 


1,326 


1,072 


168 


1,347 


II 


394 


559 


953 


754 


801 


98 


855 


Ill 


223 


328 


551 


507 


506 


51 


500 


IV 


tl69 


233 


1402 


367 


337 


6 


396 


Grand Total 


13,918 


13,986 


27,904 


28,015 


28,660 


25,619 


2,285 



* Decrease. 

t Includes one post-graduate. 



166 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Enrollment by Grades in Colored Schools; Elementary Graduates 167 



The enrollment in the county colored elementary schools in 
1936 was lower in every grade except the fifth, seventh, and 
eighth than for the preceding year. On the other hand, the enroll- 
ment in every year of high school showed increases in 1936 over 
corresponding figures for 1935. (See Table 106.) 

When the 1936 grade enrollment is compared with that for 
1921, it will be evident that there has been a marked reduction in 
enrollment in grades 1 to 3, and grade 8, in contrast with a notice- 
able gain in enrollment in grades 4 to 7 and every year in high 
school. This grade persistence through school is the result of 
more effective instruction resulting from improvement in the 
many elements which make for a good school system. 

It will be noted in comparing the first two columns in Table 
106 that the boys exceed the girls in grades 1 to 5, inclusive, and 
grade 8 and in all other upper grades and high school years there 
are more girls than boys. (See Table 106.) 

The enrollment by grade in 1936 is given in detail for the in- 
dividual counties in Table 107. Allegany, Caroline, Dorchester, 
and Washington were the only counties in which the colored en- 
rollment in the first grade was exceeded by that in any grade above 
the first. (See Table 107.) 

INCREASE IN GRADUATES OF COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

TABLE 108 



Colored County Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 




Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


350 


637 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 


1924 


427 


706 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1925 


487 


705 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1926 


483 


820 


1,303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1927 


542 


909 


1,451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1928 


542 


984 


1,526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1929 


733 


1,077 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1930 


728 


993 


1,721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1931 


884 


1,101 


1,985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 


1932 


835 


1,134 


1,969 


6.4 


8.9 


7.6 


1933 


805 


1,105 


1,910 


6.1 


8.6 


7.4 


1934 


861 


1,136 


1,997 


6.7 


9.0 


7.8 


1935 


874 


1,190 


2,064 


6.9 


9.7 


8.2 


1936 


929 


1,244 


2,173 


7.4 


10.4 


8.9 



* Per cent of total elementary enrollment, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, 
commitment, and death, graduated. 



168 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 2,173 graduates from the county colored elementary 
schools in 1936 who comprised 8.9 per cent of the total elementary 
school enrollment, an increase of 109 in number and .7 in per cent 
over corresponding figures for 1935. The graduates included 929 

CHART 20 



County 



PER CENT OF GRADaATES IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT - 1936 

Number 
Boys Girls I 



Total and 9?9 
Co. Average 



Allegany 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Frederick 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 
Washington 

Baltimore 
Worcester 
Harford 
Cecil 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Wicomico 

Pr. George's 

Anne Arundel 

Charles 

Somerset 

Calvert 



20 
19 
46 
?8 
51 
29 
71 
15 
65 
56 
?1 
19 
43 
66 
34 
19 
45 
91 
99 
40 
43 
29 



■ Per Cent Boys FTTTl Pt^r Cent Girls 

1,2441 104 ^^^^^^^ ////////A 

38 1^ 

40 




52 li^5 y///////////////////////////A 



37rToT 



~//////A 



53 [ 9.9 W/// ^^^^^^^ 




30 [114 
63^ 



122 rTE 



125 leT 

^^^9^^M//////////777Z^ 



72 



7119:9 

^^^!^^^7777777\ 



44 



Colored Elementary Graduates and Non-Promotions 169 



boys or 7.4 per cent of the boys and 1,244 g-irls, 10.4 per cent of the 
girls enrolled in the county colored elementary schools. (See 
Table 108.) 

In the individual counties the percentage that boys graduated 
were of the boys enrolled in colored elementary schools varied 
from less than 6 per cent in Dorchester, Calvert, Charles, and 
Somerset to 15 per cent in Allegany. For girls the percentages 
ran from less than 9 per cent in Cecil, Calvert, Washington, and 
Anne Arundel to 15.3 per cent in Allegany. In every county ex- 
cept Caroline, Frederick, Washington, and Cecil there was a 
higher percentage of girls graduated than of boys. (See Chart 20.) 

NON-PROMOTIONS IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 4,672 colored elementary pupils who were not pro- 
moted in 1936 or 19.1 per cent of the colored elementary school 
enrollment, a smaller number than for any year preceding, but 
the same percentage as was reported in 1931 when the lowest 
percentage of failures was shown. The non-promotions in 1936 
included 2,768 boys or 22.2 per cent of the boys and 1,904 girls 
or 15.9 per cent of the girls enrolled in county colored elementary 
schools. (See Table 109.) 

TABLE 109 



Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary 

Schools* 



Year Ending 
IN June 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


5,722 


4,616 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


1924 


5,173 


4,104 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


1925 


4,800 


3,700 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


1926 


4,359 


3,334 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


1927 


4,015 


3,091 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


1928 


3,647 


2,657 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


1929 


3,230 


2,361 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


1930 


3,311 


2,343 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


1931 


2,929 


2,022 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 


1932 


2,977 


1,983 


4,960 


22.9 


15.5 


19.2 


1933 


3,041 


2,230 


5,271 


23.2 


17.4 


20.3 


1934 


3,133 


2,184 


5,317 


24.3 


17.3 


20.8 


1935 


2,848 , 


1,959 


4,807 


22.4 


15.9 


19.2 


1936 


2,768~ 


1,904 


4,672 


22.2 


15.9 


19.1 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institutions. 



170 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 21 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY PUPILS NOT PROMOTED - 1936 



County 

Total and 
Co. Average 

Queen Anne's 

Allegany 

V.'ashington 

Talbot 
Carroll 
Cecil 
Montgomeiy 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Pr, George's 

Frederick 

Howard 

Kent 

Dorchester 
Baltimore 
Somerset 
Harford 
St. Gary's 
Anne Arundel 
Caroline 
Calvert 



Nvunbei 
Boys Girls 
2,768 E 

42 
15 



Per Cent Boys 



1,904 115.9 y/7///////////////////\ 

12 



14 
58 
30 
32 
140 
126 
125 
143 
297 
79 
57 
81 
140 
231 
195 
101 
156 
409 
103 
194 



9 
15 

50 [UT 
21 
21 
112 



.......... ..A A 



105 iJ4.6r /////////////7a 



.......... 



12.7 



175 1 13.2 V/V///////////A 

6e ^j^^j^B^BBiy 



149 



.r./,/,,,,/„^^^^^ 



mm 

5.8 X// 



y//////////////////A 



134 UH 
99 



VZm Per Cent Girls 



y//////A 



///////////////// 



y//\ 



18.5- 



^.//////////////////////A 



299 



69 



E^QiiiiimiiiHiiinmiiiiiiiiiiiii 



i 



^o.l //////////////Y/////////////^ 



131 1 24.3 ////////////////// 



Among the counties the percentage of non-promotions for boys 
varied from 10.5 per cent in Washington to over 30 per cent in 
Caroline and 36 per cent in Calvert. For girls the percentage of 
failures ranged from nearly 4 per cent in Queen Anne's and 7 
per cent in Allegany to more than 20 per cent in Caroline, Anne 
Arundel, and Calvert. Calvert is the county which had a large 



Colored Elementary Non-Promotions by County and Grade 171 



per cent of colored elementary pupils present fewer than 100 and 
120 days. Washington was the only county in which the per- 
centage of failures for boys was lower than that for girls. In 
11 counties the percentage of failures for both boys and girls in 
1936 was lower than for the preceding year. (See Chcui 21.) 

The chief causes of non-promotion for colored elementary pupils 
reported by teachers were unfortunate home conditions and lack 
of interest, and irregular attendance not due to sickness. Per- 
sonal illness, mental incapacity, and employment were also im- 
portant factors in causing faikires among colored elementary 
pupils. 

NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADE 

In 1936 the highest percentage of non-promotion in colored ele- 
mentary schools was found in the first grade, 32.8 per cent for the 
boys and 30.2 per cent for girls. The next highest percentage of 
failure occurred in the seventh grade with 28.4 per cent of the 
boys who failed to make the grade and 17.3 per cent of the girls. 
The third grade had the lowest percentage of boys who were re- 
tarded (16.7) while the fifth grade showed the minimum per- 
centage of retardation for colored girls (9.7 per cent) . Decreases 
in the number and per cent of failures in 1936 under corresponding 
figures for 1935 were found in the first and fourth grades for 
boys and in the third, fourth, and fifth grades for girls. (See 
Chart 22.) 

CHART 22 



1936 NON-PROMOTIONS BI GRADES* 

COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Number 

Grade Boys Girls Hi Per Cent BoyB P^ Per Cen-t Girls 



814 
374 
314 
375 
296 
226 
366 



669 \30.Z y//////////////////////////y 




187 |io-^ y/////////A 

247 ^^^^^^^///A 

159 r^^^^^ 

153 R^^^^ 



261 117.3 V///////////////////A 



* Excludes eighth grade non-promotions in Howard and Washington Counties. 



172 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

STATE-WIDE TESTS 

The Unit Scales of Attainment, Form A, a battery of eleven 
tests, were given to colored elementary pupils in grades 4 to 7 
in 20 counties in the spring and fall of 1936. 



COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
Enrollment in Colored High Schools 

The steady increase in the county colored high school enroll- 
ment apparent since 1921 continued in 1936 with 3,544 pupils en- 
rolled, 525 more than were on roll in 1935. There was an increase 
of 503 in average number belonging and 441 in average atten- 
dance in 1936 over corresponding figures for the preceding year. 
The total number of graduates, 369, was 47 more than were re- 
ported in 1935. (See Table 110.) 

TABLE 110 



Colored Enrollment, Attendance and Graduates in Last Four Years of High 
School in 22 Counties and Baltimore City, 1921 to 1935 







22 Counties 


Baltimore City 




Year 








Four- 








Four- 


Ending June 30 








Year 








Year 








Average 




High 




Average 




High 






Total 


No. 


Average 


School 


Total 


No. 


Average 


School 






Enroll- 


Belong- 


Atten- 


Grad- 


Enroll- 


Belong- 


Atten- 


Grad- 






ment 


ing 


dance 


uates 


ment 


ing 


dance 


uates 


1921 , 




251 




189 




801 


795 


722 


135 


1922 




368 


* 


292 


" "5 


1,065 


1,029 


935 


123 


1923 




447 


400 


357 


30 


1,355 


1,336 


1,185 


147 


1924 




620 


541 


480 


30 


1,557 


1,503 


1,373 


139 


1925 




862 


741 


662 


32 


1,745 


1,681 


1,527 


246 


1926 




974 


850 


769 


58 


1,783 


1,783 


1,643 


378 


1927 




1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1,858 


1,849 


1,648 


315 


1928 




1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1,957 


1,923 


1,731 


230 


1929 




1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


2,053 


2,028 


1,832 


283 


1930 




1,953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 


2,149 


2,114 


1,931 


283 


1931 




2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 


2,323 


2,247 


2,047 


285 


1932 




2,489 


2,253 


2,069 


288 


2,427 


2,362 


2,155 


312 


1933 




2,750 


2,494 


2,299 


297 


2,685 


2,562 


2,334 


364 


1934 




2,819 


2,478 


2,260 


318 


2,553 


2,483 


2,266 


329 


1935 




3,019 


2,703 


2,502 


322 


2 , 652 


2,600 


2,406 


391 


1936 




3,544 


3,206 


2,943 


369 


2,641 


2,629 


2,445 


375 



* Figures not reported before 1923. 



In Baltimore City there were 2,641 pupils enrolled in the last 
four years of high school in 1936, a slightly smaller enrollment 
than was found in 1935. However, the average number belonging, 
2,629, and the average attendance, 2,445, were larger than in 1935. 
The counties continue to have a larger high school enrollment 
than Baltimore City, but the number of high school graduates in 
the City, 375, was greater than the number reported in the coun- 
ties. (See Table 110.) 



Colored High School Enrollment and Length of Session 173 



There were 3 colored high school pupils at Princess Anne Acad- 
emy in 1936 and 14 in Catholic parochial and 21 in a Seventh Day 
Adventist School in Baltimore City. (See Tables III, V, pages 
309, 311-12.) 

In December, 1935, the National Youth Administration made 
available six dollars a month to 345 needy county colored high 
school pupils in 18 schools in 13 counties at a cost of $7,437, and 
to 299 Baltimore City day high school pupils in 5 schools at a cost 
of $11,212. In return these pupils were asked to render service 
to the school or community. For details of pupils and expendi- 
tures by county and services rendered, see Table 163A, pages 253 
and 254. 

Length of Session in Colored High Schools 

The colored high schools were open on an average of 171.3 days 
in 1936. The length of session in the individual counties varied 
from 160 days in Calvert, Worcester, and Somerset to 190 days 
in Allegany County. Baltimore City high schools which are at- 
tended by Baltimore County pupils were in session 190 days. 
Eleven counties kept the colored high schools open more than 
180 days, the minimum session required for approved high schools. 
According to the provisions of Chapter 552 of the Laws of 1937, 
the county colored schools will be required to have a session of 
at least 180 days beginning September 1, 1939. 

TABLE 111 

Length of Session in Colored High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 


School Year 
1935-36 


County 


Average 
Days 
in 
Session 


School Year 
1935-36 


First 
Day 
of 
School 


Last 
Day 
of 
School 


First 
Day 
of 
School 


Last 
Day 
of 
School 


171.3 






Dorchester 


171.0 


9/23 


6/5 








Prince George's. . . . 


168.1 


9/9 


5/29 


190.0 


9/9 


6/19 


Montgomery 


165.0 


9/16 


5/20 


190.0 


9/5 


6/18 


Caroline 


163.0 


9/17 


5/22 


188.0 


9/5 


6/11 




162.1 


10/1 


6/5 


186.9 


9/3 


6/9 




162.0 


9/11 


5/14 


186.0 


9/9 


6/19 


Queen Anne's 


161.1 


10/1 


5/29 


184.0 


9/5 


6/10 




160.5 


9/16 


5/15 


181.0 


9/9 


6/10 




160.0 


9/16 


5/14 


180.3 


9/10 


6/5 


Calvert 


160.0 


9/4 


5/11 


180.0 


9/3 


6/12 










180.0 


9/3 


5/29 




190.0 


9/5 


6/18 


180.0 


9/9 


6/4 














Total State 


179.8 







* Pupils attend schools in Baltimore City. 



Six counties, Allegany, Cecil, Carroll, Harford, Dorchester, and 
St. Mary's, had a longer session in the colored schools in 1936 
than during the preceding year. (See Table 111.) 



174 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Opening dates for the county colored high schools covered the 
period from September 3 to October 1, 1935, while closing dates 
in 1936 varied from May 11 to June 19. The colored high schools 
in Baltimore City started the session on September 5, 1935, and 
ended on June 18, 1936. (See Table 111.) 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools 

In 1936 the average attendance in the county colored high 
schools was 91.8 per cent, a decrease of .7 under the correspond- 
ing figure for 1935. The range among the counties was from 85.6 
per cent in Kent to over 95 in Montgomery and St. Mary's. Eight 
counties had a higher percentage of attendance in their colored 
high schools in 1936 than in the preceding year. The attendance 
in the last four years of high school in Baltimore City, 93 per 
cent, was higher by .5 than for 1935. (See Table 112.) 



TABLE 112 



Per Cent of Attendance in County Colored High Schools, for School Years 
Ending in June, 1923, 1934, 1935 and 1936 



County 


1923 


1934 


1935 


1936 


County 


1923 


1934 


1935 


1936 


County Average .... 


89.3 


91 


2 


92.5 


91 


8 


Harford 




86 





90 


8 


91.1 










89 
88 


4 


91 


2 


90.8 
89.6 


St. Mary's 








90.6 


95 


7 


Prince George's. . . 






7 


89 


9 


Montgomery 




89 


i 


93.8 


95 


1 




90 


5 


91 


2 


90 


9 


89.2 


Carroll 




92 


1 


94.6 


94 


8 


Charles 


88 


4 


92 


4 


90 


9 


87.9 






92 


3 


96.5 
93.9 


94 


7 


Caroline 


85 


6 


89 


5 


90 


6 


87.4 


Wicomico 


90.5 


93 


4 


94 


2 


Calvert 




87 


4 


89 


7 


87.0 
86.6 




88.9 


95 


3 


94.2 


94 


1 


Cecil 




86 



3 


89 





Washington 


91 


2 


93.4 


94 


1 

8 


Kent 


86 


3 


94 


94 


2 


85.6 




87.4 


92 


6 


94.3 


93 










Allegany 


93.5 


88 


6 


92.1 


93 


8 


Baltimore City .... 


88 


8 


91 


3 


92 


5 


93.0 


Queen Anne's 




93 


3 


92.2 


93 


6 


















Talbot 


87!3 


92 


4 


93.8 


93 


6 


State Average 


88 


9 


91 


2 


92 


5 


92.3 

















Ratio of High School Enrollment to Total Colored Enrollment 

The ratio between the number belonging in the county colored 
high schools and the number belonging in colored elementary and 
high schools combined was 12.2 in 1936 as against 10.3 in 1935. 
In Baltimore City this ratio has remained fairly constant — 9.2 in 
1924, 1934, and 1936 and 9.3 in 1935. Pupils in Baltimore County 
who complete the last four years of high school work in Baltimore 
City schools at the expense of Baltimore County have been in- 
cluded with the figures for the counties. (See Table 113.) 

Among the counties the ratio of colored pupils in high school 
to total enrollment ranged from none in Howard and 5.5 for Balti- 
more County, which sends its pupils to high schools in Baltimore 



Colored High School Attendance and Graduates 



175 



City to over 20 per cent in Caroline and Wicomico and 28.5 in Alle- 
gany. St. Mary's was the only county which had a smaller pro- 
portion of pupils in high school in 1936 than in 1935. (See Table 
113.) 

TABLE 113 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in Colored High Schools to "Number Belong- 
ing" in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined, for School 
Years Ending in June, 1924, 1934, 1935 and 1936 



County 


1924 


1934 


1935 


1936 


County Average .... 


2.0 


t9.2 


no. 3 


tl2.2 




11.9 


23.0 


23.5 


28.5 


Wicomico 


6.0 


16.7 


19.7 


22.3 


Caroline 


2.3 


19.6 


19.2 


21.0 


Washington 




13.6 


15.1 


19.7 


Carroll 


'4'6 


12.5 


14.2 


18.0 


Cecil 




14.2 


15.6 


17.2 




'4.7 


13.3 


13.1 


16.3 


Queen Anne's 


2.0 


10.6 


13.3 


14.7 


Kent 


3.0 


9.7 


11.7 


14.1 


Frederick 


6.7 


10.4 


10.9 


13.7 






6.6 


9.6 


13.7 



1934 


1935 


1936 


11 





11.5 


12.9 


8 


1 


9.7 


11.8 


11 


3 


11.2 


11.4 


10 


1 


10.6 


11.2 


8 





5.3 


11.2 


8 


5 


8.6 


10.7 


6 





8.0 


9.4 


7 


1 


7.9 


8.3 






7.9 


7.5 


t3 


2 


t4.3 


t5.5 


*9 


2 


*9.3 


*9.2 


9 


2 


9.8 


10.7 



County 



Somerset 

Montgomery ... 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Charles 

Prince George's. 

Calvert 

Anne Arundel . . , 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore 



Baltimore City 
State 



1924 
1.6 



1.8 
1.5 



2.5 



9.2 
4.7 



t Includes Baltimore County pupils in last four years of high school who attended Balti- 
more City schools at the expense of the county. 

* Excludes Baltimore County pupils in last four years of high school who attended Balti- 
more City schools at the expense of the county. 



369 County Colored High School Graduates 

There were 369 graduates from county colored high schools in 
1936, of whom 161 were boys and 208 girls. There was an in- 
crease of 19 boys and 28 girls over corresponding figures for 
1935. Among the counties the number of boys graduated varied 
from 1 in Calvert and 3 each in Frederick and Cecil to 15 in Prince 
George's, 16 in Somerset, and 22 in Wicomico. For girls, the range 
was from 3 in Calvert to 20 in Prince George's and 30 in Wicomico. 
There were 141 boys and 234 girls graduated in Baltimore City. 
(See Table 114.) 

Of the 302 boys graduated from Maryland colored high schools 
in 1936, one boy from Prince George's, 2 from Montgomery, and 
5 from Wicomico entered Bowie Normal School in the fall of 1936. 
Of the 442 girls who graduated from colored high schools in 1936, 
Bowie Normal School received 1 entrant each from Wicomico, 
Somerset, Kent, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, 2 each from 
Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Charles, and Talbot, 
and 3 from Baltimore City. (See Table 114.) 



176 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 114 

Graduates of Four-Year Maryland Colored High Schools 



High 



Boys Graduated in 



IN 


1934 


1935 


1936 


Total Counties. 




**142 


********2gj 




**20 


*12 


****.*22 




13 


12 


16 


Prince George's 


12 


tl5 


*15 


Anne Arundel . . 








Dorchester .... 


16 


14 


12 




g 




1 n 

Iv 


Montgomery . . . 




10 


**io 


Charles 


t8 


2 


9 


Queen Anne's. . 


2 


4 


8 


Talbot 


6 


t5 


8 




5 


1 


7 


Washington 


2 


4 


6 


Carroll 


1 


2 


5 


Kent 


3 


5 


5 




3 


4 


4 


Harford 


1 


7 


4 


Cecil 


2 


4 


3 


Frederick 


t3 


6 


3 


Calvert 


1 


t2 


1 


Baltimore City 


116 


**145 


141 


Entire State . . . 


1******244 


****287 


********3Q2 



High 
Schools 
in 



Girls Graduated in 



1934 



1935 



1936 



Total Counties. 

Wicomico 

Prince George's 
Anne Arundel . . 
Dorchester. . . . 

Somerset 

Kent 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Charles 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Montgomery . . . 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's. . 
Washington .... 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Harford 

Calvert 

Baltimore City 

Entire State . . . 



^190 

*****25 
******25 
19 
t*23 
**16 
7 

*20 
2 

tt*io 

3 

t*7 
*****9 
1**9 
*3 

3 
*3 
3 

"t3 
tt****213 
J403 



°180 

t*****26 
*14 

tl2 
20 
10 
6 

*16 
10 

**5 

tt6 
10 
*7 
1**9 

9 
1 

3 

t*4 
**5 

7 

1****246 
+426 



°208 

*30 
**2o 
**18 
**14 
*14 
*13 
12 
10 

**io 

**10 
*9 
9 
9 
8 
6 
*5 
4 
*4 

3 

***234 
J442 



* Each asterisk represents a graduate who entered Bowie Normal School in the fall follow- 
ing graduation from high school. 

t Each dagger represents a graduate who entered normal school one or more years after 
graduation. 

° The following county girls entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following graduation 
from high school: 1934-26; 1935-15; 1936-16. 

}The following entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following graduation from high 
school : 1934-30 ; 1935-19 ; 1936-19. 

For graduates of individual schools in 1936, see Table XXXIII, pages 340-345. 



Occupations of 1935 Colored High School Graduates During 1935-36 

Of 142 boys graduated in 1935 from county colored high schools, 
there were 39 or 27.4 per cent who continued their education in 
colleges, normal schools, college preparatory and trade or profes- 
sional schools during 1935-36. In addition to these. 41 or 28.9 
were either working or staying at home, 20 or 14.1 per cent were 
farming, and 17 or 11.9 per cent were in business, hotel work, or 
employed as chauffeurs, janitors, or porters. Of 180 girls gradu- 
ated in 1935, 45 or 25 per cent were enrolled in colleges, normal 
schools, trade or professional schools and in hospitals in 1935-36, 
the year following their graduation. Besides those continuing 
their education. 111 or 61.6 per cent were working or staying at 
home, 10 or 5.6 per cent were married, 2 were employed in offices, 
and 1 was doing beauty parlor work. (See Table 115.) 



Colored High School Graduates of 1936 and Occupations of 177 
Those of 1935 



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178 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Colored High School Enrollment by Subject; Baltimore City 179 
Colored Schools 

The Colored High School Program 

In 1936 the academic course was the only one offered in 12 of 
the 28 county colored high schools and in 12 county high schools 
the general course was the only one given. The colored high 
schools at Annapolis, Denton, Cambridge, and Salisbury, however, 
offered both the academic and general courses. Academic, com- 
mercial, and technical courses were given in the Baltimore City 
colored senior high schools. (See Table XXXIII, pages 340 to 
345.) 

Practically every county colored high school pupil was enrolled 
in English, 98 per cent took courses in social studies, 95 per cent 
were enrolled in mathematics classes, and 90 per cent received 
instruction in science. All the colored high school pupils in 15 
counties had courses in the social studies, in 10 counties every 
pupil was given instruction in mathematics, and in 9 counties all 
the pupils were enrolled in science classes. Courses in Latin were 
taken by 92 boys and 159 girls enrolled in 7 county colored high 
schools, and instruction in French was received by 94 boys and 
125 girls in 6 counties. The Annapolis High School was the only 
colored high school which offered courses in both Latin and 
French. (See Table 116 and Table XXXIV, pages 346-351.) 

Industrial arts was taken by 57 per cent of all county colored 
boys enrolled. It was offered in 14 county high schools. In addi- 
tion to industrial arts, vocational agriculture was taken by 26 
boys at Denton and by 84 boys at Salisbury. Vocational agri- 
culture was also taken by 47 boys at Pomonkey High School in 
Charles County and by 43 boys at the Douglass Colored High 
School in Prince George's County. Courses in general or voca- 
tional home economics were taken by 78 per cent of girls enrolled 
in all counties in which colored high schools are established, ex- 
cept Calvert, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's. Instruction in music 
was received by 507 boys and 752 girls in 7 counties. Commercial 
arithmetic and geography were taught to 24 boys and 33 girls at 
the Elkton and Easton Colored High Schools. (See Table 116.) 

THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were 29,504 pupils enrolled in the Baltimore City colored 
schools in 1936, which included 23,634 in the elementary schools, 
535 in vocational schools, 3,651 in the junior high schools (grades 
7-9) , and 1,684 in the senior high schools. Schools were in session 
for 190 days during which the attendance was 86.1 per cent, in 
the elementary schools, 87.3 in the vocational schools, 91.2 per 
cent in the junior high schools, and 94.1 per cent in the senior 
high schools. The colored vocational school enrolled 321 boys 
and 214 girls in classes in trades and industries which included 
auto mechanics, carpentry, tailoring, shoe repairing, and painting 
and decorating for boys, and training in cooking, dressmaking. 



180 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



and personal hygiene for girls. There were 172 physically handi- 
capped colored children enrolled in 10 special classes and 1,293 
in 53 centers for the mentally handicapped, and 24 physically 
handicapped pupils were taught in their homes. (See Table 23, 
page 43.) 

Six schools in which 52 teachers were employed were open dur- 
ing the summer of 1935 for the instruction of 2,749 colored pupils. 
Of these 2,330 completed the work attempted, 2,156 having taken 
review work and 174 having done advanced work. (See Table 
138, page 220.) 

The Baltimore City evening schools enabled those employed 
during the day to continue their education after working hours. 
The evening school colored enrollment included 1,472 in elemen- 
tary schools, 711 taking academic work in secondary schools, 354 
enrolled in commercial courses, and 854 who received training 
in industrial work, home economics, and parent education. (See 
Tables 140 and 142, pages 222 and 223.) 

TRAINING OF THE COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

The effectiveness of a school system is fundamentally dependent 
on the fitness and training of the members of its teaching staff. 
Although the success of inexperienced teachers can not be deter- 
mined until their abilities have been tried out, it is possible to 
insure that all vacancies are filled with teachers who have been 
well-trained at accredited normal schools and colleges. Expe- 
rienced teachers should keep in touch with recent developments in 
educational theory and methods through attendance at summer 
school. 

The minimum requirements for a first grade certificate in Mary- 
land are graduation from a two-year normal school or the equiva- 
lent, valid for three years and renewable for four years upon evi- 
dence of successful experience and professional spirit and com- 
pletion of a six-week summer term, and renewable subsequently 
for four-year periods on the same conditions. 

In May, 1935, the following special regulations regarding sum- 
mer school attendance in 1936 were passed by the Maryland State 
Board of Education : 

On account of general salary reductions, teachers' certificates 
which expire in 1936, may, upon recommendation of the super- 
intendent concerned, be extended for two years without sum- 
mer school attendance. If, on the other hand, summer school 
credits are presented in 1936, the renewal will extend over six 
years. 

In October, 1936, of the 699 colored teachers employed in the 
county elementary schools, 686 or 98.1 per cent held regular cer- 
tificates of first or higher grade, a decrease of .6 per cent under 
corresponding figures for the preceding year. Twelve of these 
teachers held the Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary 



Baltimore City Program; Teacher Certification and Summer 181 
School Attendance 



Education, which means graduation from a four-year teachers' 
college or the equivalent. The advanced first grade certificate 
awarded upon completion of a three-year course in a standard 
normal school, or the equivalent, was held by 51 colored teachers. 
There were 11 teachers holding second grade certificates and 2 
substitutes. In 12 counties every colored teacher held at least a 
regular first grade certificate. (See Table XIII, page 320.) 

Of 117 county colored high school teachers employed in October, 
1936, all but 17 had regular high school certificates. (See Table 
XIII, page 320.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COLORED TEACHERS 

Of the colored teaching staff employed in October, 1936, 24.3 
per cent, which included 169 elementary and 29 high school teach- 
ers, attended summer school in 1936. This was the same per- 
centage of summer school attendants reported for the preceding 
year. The percentage of summer school attendants in the indi- 
vidual counties comprised from 5.6 per cent of the teaching staff 
in Howard to over 33 per cent in Carroll, Caroline, and Baltimore 
Counties, and nearly 40 per cent in Worcester. (See Table 117.) 



TABLE 117 

County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1936, Reported by County 
Superintendents and/or Colleges as Summer School Attendants in 1936 



County 



Teachers Employed Oct. 

1936, Who Attended 
Summer School in 1936 





Ele- 
mentary 


High 


Per 
Cent 


Total and Average . . 


al69 


29 


24.3 




17 




39.5 




17 


.... 


38.6 




*8 




36.0 


Carroll 


3 


2 


33 . 3 


Kent 


8 




29.6 


Prince George's 


23 


' "3 


29.2 


Charles 


*12 


2 


28.6 


Washington 


2 


1 


27.3 


Frederick 


*7 


1 


26.7 


St. Mary's 


*8 


1 


24.3 




4 


2 


24.0 


Harford 


6 


1 


22.6 




10 


1 


21.2 




18 




20.7 


Allegany 




■ ■ 2 


20.0 


Talbot 


■ ■ 4 


3 


20.0 




9 


1 


19.2 


Wicomico 


4 


4 


17.4 




6 


1 


15.2 


Cecil 


1 


1 


11.8 


Calvert 


1 


2 


11.1 


Howard 


1 




5.6 



Summer Schools 
Attended 



Total 

Morgan College 

Hampton Institute 

Temple University 

Virginia State College 

University of Pennsylvania . . 
West Chester State Teachers 

College 

Columbia University 

Montclair State Teachers 

College 

other 



Number 
of 

Colored 
Teachers 



Ele- 
mentary 



ttl73 


29 


t93 


3 


t45 


9 


9 


4 


7 


4 


4 


1 


3 




1 


"2 


1 


1 


10 


5 



* Each asterisk represents one supervisor excluded, 
a Excludes 4 supervisors. 



t Includes 2 supervisors. 



182 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

As in the previous year, Morgan College attracted the largest 
number of colored teachers from the Maryland counties, 91 ele- 
mentary and 3 high school teachers and 2 supervisors in the sum- 
mer of 1936. Hampton Institute enrolled 43 county elementary 
and 9 high school teachers and 2 supervisors. Temple University 
9 elementary and 4 high school teachers, while 7 elementary and 
4 high school teachers attended Virginia State College. (See 
Table 117.) 

TEACHER TURNOVER IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 

There were 68 resignations from the county colored elementary 
schools from October, 1934, to October, 1935, a reduction of 10 
under the number reported for the preceding year. These fig- 
ures exclude 25 who transferred to another county and 2 who re- 
ceived positions in high schools. (See Table 118.) 



TABLE 118 



Estimated Causes for Resignation of Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Elementary and High Schools for the School Years 1934-35 with 
Comparative Figures for Preceding Years 





Elementary School 


High School 


Cause of Resignation 














1932-33 


1933-34 


1934-35 


1932-33 


1933-34 


1934-35 


Inefficiency 


27 


23 


22 


9 


5 


4 


Voluntary 


9 


14 


17 




1 


4 


Illness 


8 


5 


7 






1 


Retired 


4 


3 


5 








Marriage 


6 


15 


4 


'i 


'i 




Teaching in Baltimore City. . 


2 


4 


3 




1 


i 


Death 


1 


6 


3 








Teaching in another state . . . 




3 


2 






2 


Abolished positions 


11 


1 


1 






2 


Dropped for low certificate 














or failure to attend summer 














school 


2 


1 


1 




2 




Left to study 




1 




*i 




*i 


Moved away 


i 












Supervisory position 




"i 










Other and unknown 


9 


1 


3 








Total 


80 


78 


68 


11 


10 


15 


Leave of absence 


5 


3 




2 




2 


Transfer to another county . . 


19 


16 


25 


7 


1 


7 


Transfer to high school 


1 




2 









Resignations and Turnover in County Colored Schools 183 

Inefficiency continued the chief cause of dismissal of county 
colored teachers, 22 teachers having been dropped for this rea- 
son. Seventeen teachers resigned voluntarily, 7 left because of 
illness, 5 retired, 4 married, 3 received teaching positions in Bal- 
timore City, and 2 in states outside of Maryland, and 3 teachers 
died. (See Table 118.) 

The 70 appointments new to the county colored elementary 
schools for the school year 1935-36 were a smaller number than 
reported for previous years, and included 9.7 per cent of the total 
number of colored elementary teachers employed. This was a de- 
crease of 26 teachers or 3.5 per cent under the corresponding 
figures for the preceding year. These figures exclude teachers 
who transferred between the counties. Of the number of new 
appointments, 57 were inexperienced, 9 had had experience in 
the counties, but were out of service the preceding year, 2 had 
taught outside of Maryland, and 2 were substitutes. (See Table 
119.) 

In the individual counties the turnover in the colored elementary 
schools varied from none at all in Allegany and Cecil, and less 
than 10 per cent in Harford, Wicomico, Prince George's, Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore, and Queen Anne's to over 35 per cent in How- 
ard. Eight counties — Baltimore, Frederick, Kent, Montgomery, 
Caroline, Dorchester, Carroll, and Howard — had a higher per- 
centage of turnover in 1936 than in 1935. 

Teacher Turnover in the Colored High Schools 

There were 15 resignations from county high schools, five more 
than for the year preceding. Of these withdrawals, 4 teachers 
were dismissed from the county colored high schools for ineffi- 
ciency, 4 left voluntarily, 2 took positions outside of Maryland, 
and one took a position in Baltimore City, 2 teachers were dropped 
because their positions were abolished, and one left to study. In 
addition to these, 7 teachers were transferred to other counties 
and 2 were on leave of absence. (See Table 118.) 

There were 25 teachers or 22.3 per cent of the teaching staff 
new to the county colored high schools in 1935-36, compared with 
20 new appointments or 19.4 per cent in 1934-35. The increase 
in the turnover in the county colored high schools is due chiefly 
to the increase in the teaching staffs in Calvert, Dorchester, Har- 
ford, Montgomery, St. Mary's, and Worcester Counties. (See 
Table 119.) 



184 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 119 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Teachers New to Maryland Counties 
for School Year 1935-36, Showing TJiose Inexperienced, Experienced and 
from Other Counties, with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



County 


New to County 


Change 
in 

Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 


New to County, Who Were 


Ele- 
mentary 


High 


Inexper- 
ienced 


From 
Other 
Counties 


Experi 
enced 

in Md. 
Counties 

but not 
Teaching 

Preced- 
ing Year 


Experi- 
enced 
but 

to 
State 


Substi- 

*^nd^ 
Others 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Total and 






















Average 






















1930-31 . . . 


x201 


26.4 


x26 


30.2 


+ 13 


tl76 


33 


*33 


***14 


4 


1931-32 . . , 


xll5 


15.4 


x35 


38. 5 


+ 3 


tll3 


*25 


**24 


alO 


3 


1932-33. . . 


xl03 


13.9 


x28 


29.5 


— 4 


t99 


***i4 


J22 


*7 


3 


1933-34. . . 


x73 


10.2 


xl5 


15.8 


— 12 


t59 


°26 


12 




*6 


1934-35. . . 


x96 


13.2 


x20 


19.4 


+ 16 


t91 


*14 


*21 


*2 


*2 


1935-36. . . 


x70 


9.7 


x25 


22.3 


+ 3 


172 


°32 


*10 




a7 


































.... 












Harford 


i 


4.2 


1 


20.0 


+ 2 


i 








*i 




2 


5.6 


2 


20.0 


— 1 












Prince George's 


5 


6.5 


6 


37.5 


+ 3 


*5 








i**4 


Anne Arundel. . 


7 


8.5 






+ 1 


7 










Baltimore 


4 


8.9 


. . . . 




+ 1 




■ ■ "4 








Queen Anne's. . 


2 


9.5 




33^3 




" ' i 


*2 








"Washington 


1 


10.0 






■ • ■ " 




. ... 










o 


11.1 


. . . . 




— 2 


■ ■ 2 










Kent 


3 


13.0 




25^6 




*3 


1 








Montgomery. . . 


7 


14.3 


3 


60.0 


'+4 


**4 


3 


' ' 2 


"*1 




St. Mary's 


5 


14.3 


3 


100.0 






**3 


2 


1 


*i 




7 


16.7 


2 


40.0 


' +2 


**5 


3 




1 




Talbot 


5 


16.7 


2 


28.6 


—1 


4 


*2 








Somerset 


8 


17.0 


1 


14.3 


—1 


*8 


1 








Calvert 


5 


20.0 


3 


100.0 


+ 1 


**4 


*2 






. . 


Caroline 


4 


20.0 


3 


42.9 


—2 


*4 


**2 








Dorchester. . . . 


8 


20.0 


2 


28.6 


—4 


*7 


*2 








Worcester 


8 


21.1 


2 


40.0 


+ 1 


**7 


3 








Carroll 


3 


27.3 


1 


33.3 




2 


1 




■ ■*! 




Howard 


6 


35.3 






—1 


3 


2 








Baltimore City: 


38 


5.5 


1 


1.6 


+ 30 


30 


1 


5 


2 


1 


El. and Prevoc. 


27 


4.9 






+ 20 


23 




4 


" 1 




Vocational 


1 


5.0 






+ 1 








" i 


Junior High . . 


10 


8.3 






+ 6 


' "6 


" i 


* "i 


1 


Senior High . . 






' " 1 


i.e 


+ 3 


1 










Entire State . . . 


107 


7.7 


26 


14.8 


+ 33 


bl02 


°33 


*15 


****8 


a8 



* Each asterisk represents one high school teacher. 

X Total number and per cent new to counties as a group exclude transfers from other counties, 
t Includes 22 high school teachers for 1930-31, 28 for 1931-32, 21 for 1932-33, 11 for 1933-34, 
17 for 1934-35, and 15 for 1935-36. 

° Includes 7 high school teachers for 1933-34, and 8 for 1935-36. 
t Includes 6 high school teachers, 
a Includes 5 high school teachers, 
b Includes 16 high school teachers. 



SCHOOLS IN WHICH NEWLY APPOINTED COLORED TEACHERS 
RECEIVED THEIR TRAINING 

Of the 57 inexperienced teachers who received appointments 
in the county colored elementary schools in 1935-36, there were 
33 or 58 per cent who were graduates of the Bowie Normal School. 



Turnover, Training of Inexperienced Colored Teachers 



185 



Of the remaining 42 per cent, 9 graduated from Cheyney Normal 
School, and 3 each from Miner Normal School and Storer College. 
(See Table 120.) 

TABLE 120 

Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who Were 
New to Maryland Counties during the School Year 1935-36 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Bowie Normal School 

Cheyney Normal School, Pa 

Miner Normal School, Wash., D. C. 
New Jersey State Normal School . . 

Storer College, W. Va 

West Chester S. T. C, Pa 

Other Pennsylvania Schools 

Morgan College, Baltimore 

Wilberforce University, Ohio 

St. Paul's School, Va 

A. and M. Normal, Alabama 



experienced 
Elementary 
School 
Teachers 



**59 
33 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Morgan College, Baltimore 

Hampton Institute, Va 

Virginia State Teachers College. . 

Virginia Union University 

Howard University, Wash., D. C. 

West Virginia S. T. C 

University of Rochester 

Boston University 



experienced 
High 
School 
Teachers 



tl9 

*6 
5 
2 
2 
*1 
*1 
1 

*1 



* Each asterisk (*) represents one teacher with experience outside the state, 
t Includes four teachers with experience outside the state. 



Of the 19 newly appointed colored high school teachers, 6 were 
trained at Morgan College, 5 were graduates of Hampton Insti- 
tute, and 2 each received their training at Virginia State Teach- 
ers College and Virginia Union University. (See Table 120.) 



EXPERIENCE OF COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

The median experience of 699 colored teachers in county elemen- 
tary schools in service in October, 1936, was 7.6 years. In the 
individual counties, the median years of experience ranged from 
4.5 years in Caroline and Carroll and 4.6 years in Talbot to 14 
years in Harford and Washington Counties. Of the 699 colored 
members of the teaching staff in the county elementary schools, 
only 34 were inexperienced in the fall of 1936. (See Table 121.) 

For colored high school teachers the median experience in Octo- 
ber, 1936, was 4.1 years. Among the counties the range was from 
1 year in Charles and Howard to 9.5 in Anne Arundel and 14 years 
in Washington. The teaching staff in the county colored high 
schools included 22 inexperienced teachers and 16 with 1 year of 
experience. (See Table 121.) 



186 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Experience of Teachers; Pupils per Colored Elementary Teacher 187 



SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 

The average class in the county colored elementary schools in- 
cluded 33.2 pupils in 1936 as compared with 34 in 1935 and 35 in 
1934. This decrease in average size of class is due largely to the 
decreased elementary school enrollment. In the individual coun- 
ties the average number of pupils belonging per teacher in the 
colored elementary schools varied from approximately 25 pupils 

CHART 23 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED ELEMENTARY TEACHER 



County 1934 1955 1956 
Co. Average 55.0 54.0 



Baltimore 
Allegany 
Calvert 
Anne Anindel 

Wicomico 

Pr. George's 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Charles 

Howard 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Harford 

Queen Anne ' s 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Washington 



45.3 
43.9 
43.5 
37.4 
36.5 
37.0 
52.4 
37.7 
37.5 
30.6 
35.9 
32.7 
35.7 
29.5 
28.2 
31.6 
32.8 
32.6 
29.8 
32.0 
27.4 
27.1 



45.4 
41.5 
42.9 
35.6 
54.2 
56.5 
52.4 
55.5 
35.9 
51.3 
53.7 
51.6 
52.8 
32.5 
28.6 
32.9 
31.9 
31.0 
29.6 
50.5 
25.6 
25.4 



Balto. City 39.2 58.0 






State 



56.8 55. 



* Excludes 30.2 pupils for junior high and 24 pupils for vocational schools, 



188 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in Washington and Cecil to over 40 pupils in Calvert, Allegany, and 
Baltimore. Only 5 counties, Wicomico, Caroline, Howard, St. 
Mary's, and Frederick, had larger classes in 1936 than in the pre- 
ceding year. (See Chart 23.) 

In Baltimore City the average number of colored elementary 
pupils per teacher and principal was 37.3 pupils, making the av- 
erage for the State as a whole, 35 pupils. (See Chart 23.) 

Colored High Schools 
CHART 24 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER 



County 1934 1935 1956 
Co. Average 26.3 26.5 



Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Pr. George's 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington 

Talbot 



35.3 
41.0 
25.6 
55.2 
26.4 
33.5 
38.8 
28.0 
52.3 
20.7 

26.6 
19.0 
26.0 
20.0 
20.9 
21.0 
23.2 
17.1 
19.8 



40.9 
34.5 
28.1 
35.8 
16.6 
44.5 
39.6 
29.7 
27.5 
24.5 
45.8 
27.0 
20.5 
24.1 
20.7 
20.6 
21.8 
19.8 
18.8 

18.8 IS 





Balto. City 29. 25.8* 
State 27.5 26.2 




Includes Baltimore County pupils whose tuition in Baltimore City is paid by the county. 



Pupils and Average Salary per Colored Teachei? 



189 



The average number belonging per county high school princi- 
pal and teacher was 29.8 colored pupils in 1936, an increase of 3.3 
pupils over the average in 1935. Among the counties the ratio 
of pupils to teachers ranged from 18.6 pupils in Talbot to 41.2 
pupils in Montgomery. In four counties, Calvert, Worcester, St. 
Mary's, and Talbot, the number of pupils per colored high school 
principal and teacher was lower than in 1935. Baltimore City had 
a ratio of 25.1 pupils to each teacher and principal in the colored 
senior high schools. In all but four counties the average ratio 
of high school pupils to teachers and principal was higher than 
that in Baltimore City. (See Chart 24.) 

AVERAGE SALARY PER COLORED PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 
Elementary Schools 

CHART 25 

Average Salary per Colored Elementary Teacher, 1921 to 1936 

$800 



S 600 



400 



$ 200 



1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1951 19c3 1935 



190 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average salary per colored elementary teacher, which de- 
creased from 1933 to 1934 as a result of the cut of 10 per cent in 
the minimum salary schedule made by the 1933 legislature, in- 
creased by $7 in 1935 and by $34 to $636 in 1936. The 1936 in- 
crease is due chiefly to the restoration in the Equalization Fund 
counties of 25 per cent of the 1933 cuts in the fall of 1935 made 
by the Board of Public Works as a result of paragraph 6 in Chap- 
ter 477 of the Laws of 1935. The average salary of $636 in 1936 
was approximately the same as the average salary received by a 
county colored elementary school teacher in 1930. (See Chart 
25 and Table 122.) 

TABLE 122 



Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1917-1936 



Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 


1917 


$228 
279 
283 
359 
442 
455 
513 
532 
546 
563 


1927 


$586 
602 
621 

635 
643 
653 
657 
595 
602 
636 


1918 


1928 


1919 


1929 


1920 


1930 


1921 


1931 


1922 


1932 




1933 


1924 


1934 


1925 


1935 


1926 


1936 







In the individual counties the average salary per colored ele- 
mentary teacher and principal varied from $497 in Dorchester and 
$501 in Somerset to $1,139 in Baltimore County and $1,287 in Al- 
legany, depending on the salary schedule in effect and the length 
of the school year. 

All of the counties paid higher average salaries in 1936 than in 
1935. In Allegany, Baltimore, Washington, Harford, Anne Arun- 
del, Montgomery, Frederick, Wicomico, and Carroll Counties, the 
increase was due to restoration of from 50 to 100 per cent of the 
cuts made in 1933. (See Chart 26.) 

Since salaries of colored teachers are paid on a monthly basis, 
the counties having the highest salaries are those which keep 
their schools open the longest time. The minimum length of ses- 
sion required is 8 months or 160 days; but Allegany, Baltimore, 
Carroll, Cecil, and Washington keep the colored schools open as 
long as the white schools and in Harford the session is consider- 
ably longer than the minimum required. According to Chapter 
552 of the laws of 1937, after September, 1939, all colored schools 
must be kept open at least 180 days. 



Average Salary per Colored Elementary Teacher 191 



CHART 26 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1933 


1934 


1955 


Co. Average 


Z 657 $ 595 $ 602 


Allegany 


1223 


1131 


1180 


Baltimore 


1139 


1071 


1085 


Washington 


907 


739 


714 


Cecil 


726 


735 


757 


Harford 


703 


655 


664 


Pr. George's 


744 


667 


677 


Anne Arundel 


661 


634 


621 


Montgomery 


649 


569 


631 


Frederick 


590 


535 


542 


Calvert 


593 


522 


530 


Wicomico 


566 


527 


521 


Carroll 


587 


528 


537 


Charles 


578 


519 


544 


St. Mary's 


570 


518 


514 


Kent 


Oo<C. 




525 


Queen Anne's 


561 


499 


511 


Caroline 


534 


495 


501 


Howard 


566 


499 


501 


Talbot 


562 


503 


504 


Worcester 


559 


498 


498 


Somerset 


539 


487 


486 


Dorchester 


541 


488 


485 


Balto. City 


1614 


1584 


1586 


State 


1056 


1018 


1037 




t Excludes $1,846 for junior high and $1,949 for vocational teachers. 

The average salary per colored elementary teacher and princi- 
pal in Baltimore City in 1936 was $1,612, an increase of S26 over 
the average salary paid in 1935. For the State as a whole the 
average salary paid a colored elementary teacher and principal 
was $1,076. (See Chart 26.) 

High School Salaries 

The average salary for county colored high school teachers and 
principals was $817 in 1936, an increase of $27 over 1935. Among 
the counties average salaries varied from under $700 in Somerset, 



192 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



St. Mary's, Calvert, Worcester, and Queen Anne's to $1,065 in 
Washington and $1,501 in Allegany. The length of session af- 
fects the salary paid because the salary schedule is set up on a 
monthly basis. Counties having higher salaries have a longer 
school year. Seven counties — Montgomery, Kent, Charles, Wor- 
cester, Calvert, St. Mary's, and Somerset — paid on the average 
less in 1936 than in the preceding year. In most cases this was 
due to the addition of inexperienced teachers to the staff or to the 
replacement of experienced teachers by inexperienced ones. The 
average salary paid to a colored senior high school teacher and 
principal in Baltimore City was $2,116, an increase of $132 over 
1935. The average salary for 1936 in the State as a whole was 
$1,290. (See Chart 27 and Table XV, page 322.) 

CHART 27 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 


1933 


1934 


1935 


Co. Average 


$ 837 $ 784 $ 790 


Allegany 


1377 


1311 


1311 


Washington 


832 


1055 


1020 


Anne Arundel 


984 


984 


958 


Frederick 


1082 


836 


882 


Cecil 


994 


818 


924 


Pr. George's 


854 


773 


807 


Montgomery- 


832 


769 


859 


Caroline 


795 


755 


757 


Harford 


777 


718 


756 


Kent 


866 


785 


754 


Talbot 


794 


700 


716 


Wicomico 


751 


664 


660 


Charles 


875 


804 


811 


Carroll 


782 


729 


695 


Dorchester 


700 


657 


676 


Queen Anne's 


803 


720 


680 


Worcester 


701 


703 


702 


Calvert 


720 


723 


720 


St. Mary's 






709 


Somerset 


693 


609 


605 


Balto. City 


1793* 


1794* 


1984* 


State 


1197 


1150 


1246 



1501 


10G5 






* These teachers instruct Baltimore County pupils whose tuition is paid by the county. 



AvEiRAGE High School Salary; Cost per Colored Elementary Pupil 193 

COST PER PUPIL IN COLORED SCHOOLS INCREASES 
Elementary Schools 
CHART 28 



rOST PER PUPIL BELOMGIMG IN COLORED ELEffiNTAKY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



1935 





1?34 


1935 


Co. AY-rage 


.? 23 


$ 24 ! 


Cecil 


44 


45 


Allegany 


0*. 


36 




36 


35 


Baltimore 


32 


33 


Harford 


25 


28 


Frederick 


."7 


27 


Montgoner^/ 


25 


27 


Carroli 


28 


28 


Kent 


24 


24 


Caroline 


22 


25 


Pr. George's 


24 


26 


Talbot 


24 


25 


Queen Anne ' 3 


21 


23 


Anne Arundel 


20 


23 


Charles 


18 


21 


St. Marv's 


21 


22 


Wicomico 


20 


21 1 


Somerset 


18 


19 1 


Howard 


21 


20 1 


Dorchester 


20 


20 1 


Calvert 


17 


17 


Worcester 


17 


19 


Balto. Ci te- 


49 


53 1 


state 


35 


38 




t Excludes $78 for junior high and $11!) for vocational schools. 

In 1936 the average cost per pupil belonging for current ex- 
penses in the county colored elementary schools increased from 
$24.19 in 1935 to $26.73 in 1936.* Among the counties costs 

* Approximately one dollar of this increase is due to inclusion of estimated expenditures 
on public colored elementary school children by county health offices from State and county 
funds. These figures are included in 1936 for the first time. 



194 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ranged from $20 in Worcester and $21 in Calvert, Dorchester, and 
Howard to $41 in Allegany and $47 in Cecil. The first four coun- 
ties at the top of the list with the longest school term pay the 
highest salaries to colored teachers and Washington and Cecil 
also have the smallest classes. These items are the most signifi- 
cant in determining per pupil costs. A comparison of Charts 23 
and 26 with Chart 28 indicates the effect of size of class and aver- 



CHART 29 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
for current expenses excluding general CONTROL 



County 
Co. Averar^e 

Baltimore 

Allficrany 

Vk'ashington 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Kent 

Pr. George's 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Tv'icomico 

Somerset 

Vv'orcester 



19?4 1935 1956 
* $48 * $49 

»109 ->tll4 
88 87 
70 
79 
51 
50 
42 
45 
5J> 
76 
50 
45 
42 

35 
46 
48 
46 
54 
22 
24 



Baltimore City -"-SO 
State 60 66 




* Average tuition payment to Baltimore City for 151 Baltimore County pupils attending 
Baltimore City junior and senior high schools, excluded from Baltimore City, shown above 
separately for Baltimore County. 



Cost per Colored High School Pupil 



195 



age salary on current expense costs per pupil. In no county was 
the current expense cost per colored elementary pupil in 1936 less 
than for the preceding year. 

In Baltimore City, the average cost per colored elementary pupil 
increased by $2.44 to $55.16 in 1936. The current expense cost 
per colored elementary pupil for the entire State was $40.33. (See 
Chart 28 and Table XXXI, page 338.) 

High School Cost Per Pupil 

In 1936 the average current expense cost per county colored 
high school pupil was $51.62 as against $46.10 for the preceding 
year. Costs per high school pupil for current expenses ranged 
from $29 in Worcester to $69 in Cecil and Washington, $72 in Al- 
legany, and $127 in Baltimore County. The average tuition pay- 
ment to Baltimore City for 151 Baltimore County pupils attending 
Baltimore City junior and senior high schools has been computed 
to represent the average cost to Baltimore County per high school 
pupil. It exceeds the average current expense cost per senior high 
school pupil in Baltimore City — $104 — by $23. It must be re- 
alized, however, that the charge to the County includes an amount 
for the building. Seven counties — Allegany, Caroline, Cecil, 
Charles, Harford, Montgomery, and Prince George's had lower 
current expense costs per colored high school pupil in 1936 than in 
1935. (See Chart 29 and Table XXXII, page 339.) 



GROWTH IN COUNTY COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

A comparison of enrollment, teaching staff, and salaries in col- 
ored high schools in 1936 with corresponding figures for previous 
years shows the great strides which have been taken. In 1936 
the counties enrolled 3,544 colored high school pupils for whom 
108 teachers were employed at a salary cost of $88,798, while in 
1935, 3,019 pupils were enrolled with a staff of 102 teachers cost- 
ing $80,376 for salaries. In 1925 there were only 862 pupils 
taught by 43 teachers whose salaries totalled $33,587. (See 
Table 123.) 

All but two counties, St. Mary's and Worcester, had more pupils 
enrolled in the colored high schools in 1936 than in 1935. Wicom- 
ico was the only county which reported a smaller teaching staff 
in 1936 than in 1935 due to the discontinuance of the Nanticoke 
High School and transportation of its pupils to Salisbury. Talbot, 
which enrolled 13 fewer pupils in 1936 than in 1932, reduced its 
staff by 1.2 teachers during this period. Charles was the only 
county which had a perceptible decrease in 1936 below its salary 
budget in 1935. Talbot and Worcester spent less for salaries of 
high school teachers in 1936 than in 1932, due to salary reduction 
as well as reduction in staff in the case of Talbot. (See Table 123.) 



196 



1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Growth in County Colored High Schools; Pupil Transportation 197 



TRANSPORTATION OF COLORED PUPILS AT PUBLIC EXPENSE 

The 1,328 county colored elementary pupils transported to 
school in 1936 at public expense represented 5.4 per cent of the 
total county colored elementary enrollment. These elementary 
pupils transported were found in all counties having colored pupils, 
except Anne Arundel, Howard, and Talbot. Only 5 colored ele- 
mentary pupils or .4 of the enrollment were transported at public 
expense in Worcester. At the opposite extreme, Caroline paid for 
the transportation of 21.2 per cent of its colored elementary pupils. 
(See Table 124.) 



TABLE 124 



Pupils Transported, Expenditures for Transportation and Cost Per Pupil 
Transported to County Colored Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1936 



County 


Colored Elementary Schools 


Colored High Schools 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Cost of 
Trans- 
portation 


Cost 
per 

Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Cost of 
Trans- 
portation 


Cost 
perl 

Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average . 


ttl,328 


5.4 


$25,480 


$19.19 


1,795 


50.3 


$36,792 


$20.50 




6 


2.3 


131 


21.81 


11 


9.9 


219 


19.91 




t 
















Baltimore 


303 


15^8 


5;. 517 


18^21 


'*94 


*62'.3 


*1 !045 


*ii!i2 


Calvert 


64 


5.9 


1,097 


17.14 


103 


97.2 


3,681 


35.73 


Caroline 


145 


21.2 


2 , 633 


18.16 


161 


81.7 


2,943 


18.28 


Carroll 


62 


17.2 


788 


12.72 


66 


78.6 


1,136 


17.21 


Cecil 


69 


19.4 


2,214 


32.09 


49 


62.0 


1,227 


25.03 


Charles 


41 


2.9 


820 


20.00 


156 


81.7 


3,493 


22.39 


Dorchester 


91 


6.9 


2,008 


22.07 


175 


66.0 


4,437 


25.36 


Frederick 


124 


14.7 


2,245 


18.11 


75 


52.1 


2 , 049 


27.32 


Harford 


33 


4.4 


502 


15.20 










Howard 


















Kent 


' '77 


i6!6 


2,067 


26! 84 


"94 


68^6 


2^618 


27! 85 




31 


1.9 


1,243 


40.11 


181 


80.1 


x2,447 


X13.52 


Prince George's . . . 


19 




100 


11.11 


43 


12.9 


1,551 


36.07 


Queen Anne's 


60 


'9;6 


700 


11.66 


84 


95.5 


3,259 


38.79 


St. Mary's 


90 


8.1 


1,150 


12.78 


86 


88.7 


1,637 


19.04 


Somerset 


27 


1.8 


75 


2.78 


124 


52.1 


1.358 


10.95 


Talbot 


















Washington 


' 13 


'5^4 


\',0S2 


79^40 










Wicomico 


78 


6.0 


824 


10. -^6 


252 


65^8 


3,iso 


12^62 


Worcester 


5 


.4 


334 


66.89 


41 


23.4 


512 


12.49 



t Excludes 35\j)upils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at Statue expense. 

t Excludes 26 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 

* Pupils from Baltimore County transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-senior hiprh 
schools at county expense for 116 days from January to June, 1936. In addition each pupil 
paid 10 cents per day. 

X In addition each pupil paid $15.00 a year. 



The expenditures for transporting county pupils to colored ele- 
mentary schools in 1936 amounted to $25,480 or $19.19 per pupil 
transported. Costs per colored elementary pupil transported in 
the individual counties varied from nearly $3 in Somerset, $11 
in Wicomico, and nearly $12 in Prince George's to $67 in Wor- 
cester and $79 in Washington. The total cost of transporting 



198 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



colored elementary pupils was |3,044 higher in 1936 than in 1935. 
(See Table 124.) 

There were 1,795 county colored pupils transported to high 
schools at public expense in 1936, an increase of 657 pupils over 
the number transported the preceding year. These pupils com- 
prised 50.3 per cent of the total county colored high school enroll- 
ment. Among the counties the percentage of pupils transported 
at county expense ranged from none* in Anne Arundel, Harford, 
Talbot, and Washington and less than 13 per cent in Allegany and 
Prince George's to over 80 per cent in Montgomery, Caroline, 
Charles, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, and Calvert. (See Table 124.) 

The cost to the public of transporting pupils to county colored 
high schools was $36,792 in 1936, an increase of $17,286 over the 
corresponding amount spent in 1935. The cost to the public per 
pupil transported to colored high schools averaged $20.50, ranging 
from $10.95 in Somerset to over $35 in Calvert, Prince George's, 
and Queen Anne's. For 116 days during 1936 Baltimore County 
paid the cost of transportation over ten cents per day for 94 Bal- 
timore County colored pupils who attended junior arid junior- 
senior high schools in Baltimore City at a cost of $11.12 per pupil. 
(See Table 124.) 

COLORED SCHOOL LIBRARIES AIDED BY ROSENWALD FUND 

TABLE 125 

Colored Schools Receiving Libraries Through Aid from the Rosenwald Fund 



County and School 



Anne Arundel 

Brown's Woods . 

Annapolis El. . . . 

Camp Parole ... 

Annapolis High . 

Churchton 

Bristol 

Furnace Branch . 

Jones 

Galilee 

Queenstown .... 

Freetown 

Conway 

Eastport 

Galesville 

Calvert: 

Prince Frederick 

Mt. Hope 

Caroline: 

Federalsburg .... 

Lockerman High 

Ridgely 

Denton 

Carroll: 

Westminster. . . . 

Robert Moton El. 

Johnsville 

Union Bridge . . . 

Parrsville 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1929 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1936 
1936 

1929 
1931 

1928 
1936 
1936 
1936 

1929 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 



County and School 



Cecil: 

Elkton 

Charles: 

Pomonkey 

Dorchester: 

Cambridge. . . . 

Pine Street 

Frederick: 

Frederick 

lyincoln 

Bentz Street. . . 
Harford: 

Bel Air 

Havre de Grace 

Kalmia 

Howard: 

Cooksville 

Dorsey 

Ellicott City. . . 

Highland 

Kent: 

Coleman 

Chestertown. . . 
Montgomery: 

Sandy Spring . . 

Rockville 

Takoma Spring 
Prince George's: 

Marlboro 

Berwyn 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1929 

1929, 1936 

1932 
1936 

1928 
1931, 1936 
1935 

1928, 1936 
1931 
1935 

1936 
1936 
1936 
1936 

1928 
1930 

1928 
1929 
1930 

1928 
1929 



County and School 



Prince George's(con.) 

Brentwood .... 

Highland Park. 
Queen Anne's: 

Corsica 

Starr 

St. Mary's: 

Abel 

Hollywood 

Mechanicsville . 

Scotland 

Jarboesville .... 

Great Mills 

Banneker 

Oakville 

Milestown 

Piney Point. . . . 

Clements 

Somerset: 

Princess Anne . . 

Crisfield 

Mt. Vernon .... 
Talbot: 

Easton 

St. Michael's. . . 
Wicomico: 

Sharptown .... 

Nanticoke 

Salisbury 

Rockawalkin . . . 



* Howard had no colored high school until the fall of 1936. 



Colored High School Pupils Transported; Rosenwald Libraries; 199 
Capital Outlay 

During the school year 1935-36, the Rosenwald Fund distrib- 
ted a number of well-selected sets of library books valued at $36 
and $15 to the colored schools of the South. The county or school 
paid two-thirds of the cost of each set, while the Rosenwald Fund 
paid one-third of the cost plus transportation charges. The more 
expensive sets were received by 12 schools in six counties, while 
the less expensive ones went to 9 schools in six counties in 1936. 
One school received one set of each kind. The list of colored 
schools which have received libraries through the Rosenwald 
Fund from 1928 to 1936 is given in Table 125. Colored schools 
in Howard and Queen Anne's appear in the list for the first time 
in 1936. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR COLORED SCHOOLS IN 1936 

Capital outlay for county colored schools totalled $80,019 in 
1936, as against $93,844 in 1935, a decrease of $13,825. In 1936 
Prince George's invested nearly $27,000 and Harford $22,000 
in colored schools. Baltimore City's capital outlay of $22,148 
for colored schools in 1936 made the total for the State as a whole 
$102,167. (See Table 170, page 262, and Tables XXXI-II, pages 
338-9.) 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED PUPILS 

School property used by county colored pupils was valued at 
$1,581,247 in 1936, a decrease of $49,328 under corresponding 
figures for the preceding year, due chiefly to revaluation of school 
buildings in Baltimore County. The average value of school prop- 
erty per county colored pupil was $59 in 1936 as against $60 in 
1935. In the individual counties the range in value of school prop- 
erty was from $20 in St. Mary's and $21 in Kent to $151 in Wash- 
ington and $171 in Allegany. Nine counties showed a decrease in 
value of school property per colored pupil belonging. The revalu- 
ation of school property in Baltimore County reduced the value 
per colored pupil from $128 in 1935 to $90 in 1936. (See ChaH 
30 and Table 175, page 267.) 

School property used by colored pupils in Baltimore City was 
valued at $7,260,832 in 1936 or $263 per pupil belonging, a de- 
crease of $4 per pupil under similar figures for the preceding 
year. For the State as a whole the valuation of school property 
was $162 per colored pupil belonging. (See Chart 30 and Table 
lid, page 267.) 



200 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 30 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY PER COLORED PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



1934 1955 1936 
$53 $ 60 



County 
Co. Average 

Allegany 

Washington 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Pr. George's 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

Caroline 

Charles 

Harford 

Queen Anne's 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Worcester 

Howard 

Carroll 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Kent 

St. Mary's 



Balto. City 265 267 
State 157 164 




* A revaluation of buildings brought about the decrease. 



SIZE OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Of 466 colored elementary schools in the Maryland counties in 
1935-36, 310 employed one teacher, 116 two teachers, 19 three 
teachers, 11 had four teachers, and 10 had five or more teachers. 
The largest county colored elementary school with a teaching staff 
of 13 was located at Annapolis, while the next largest with a staff 
of 10 teachers was found in Salisbury. The number of county 
colored elementary schools varied from 2 in Allegany and 5 in 
Washington to 40 in Anne Arundel and 43 in Prince George's. (See 
Table 126.) 



Value of School Property; Size of Colored Elementary Schools 201 

There were 9 fewer elementary schools in operation in 1936 than 
in the preceding year. With the exception of one two-teacher 
school in Frederick, the reduction was in one-teacher schools. 
There were fewer one-teacher schools to the number of four in 
Dorchester, two in Caroline and Frederick, and one in Prince 
George's. Worcester had one more colored elementary school 
than in 1935. (See Table 126.) 

TABLE 126 



Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools, 
Year Ending June 30, 1936 



Num- 
ber 
of 

Teach- 
ers 


Total No. Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Harford 


1 Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total . 


466 


2 


40 


24 


20 


14 


9 


10 


31 


31 


18 


18 


13 


18 


32 


43 


17 


25 


29 


22 


5 


19 


26 


*1. . . 


t310 


1 


18 


13 


17 


11 


7 


6 


22 


t27 


12 


14 


10 


15 


19 


19 


14 


17 


16 


18 


4 


12 


18 


*2. . . 


116 




17 


7 


2 




2 


4 


7 


3 


4 


3 


2 


2 


11 


20 


2 


8 


10 


3 




4 


5 


*3. . . 


19 




3 




1 


3 






2 




1 




1 






1 


1 




1 






2 


2 


*4. . . 


11 




1 


2 
















i 




i 


1 


2 






1 








1 


*5. . . 


4 






2 






























] 




1 






*6. . . 


2 


i 




































1 








*7. . . 


2 


















1 












1 
















*10. . . 


1 














































*13. . . 


1 




1 











































* Indicates that this number of teachers was employed the entire year or part of the year, 
t Indicates a one- teacher school having the sixth and seventh grades only, counted elsewhere 
as a graded school. 



Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 

During the school year 1935-36 there were 309 county colored 
elementary teachers or 43.6 per cent of the colored elementary 
staff giving instruction in one-teacher schools. This was a de- 
crease of 9 under the number of teachers in one-teacher schools 
in 1935 and of 113 under the corresponding number in 1920. (See 
Table 127.) 

In the individual counties the number and per cent of colored 
elementary teachers working in one-room schools ranged from 1 
or 16.1 per cent of the colored elementary teaching staff in Alle- 
gany to 26 or 65 per cent in Dorchester. The 17 teachers em- 
ployed in Calvert one-room schools represented 71 per cent of the 
colored elementary teaching staff. (See Tabic 128.) 



202 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 127 

Decrease in Colored O'ne-Teacher Schools, 1920-1936 



School Year Ending June 30 



1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 



Colored Elementary Teachers 



Total 



683 
694 
708 
712 
728 
721 
728 
725 
734 
734 
733 
739 
727 
718 
708 
714 
709 



In One-Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



422 
408 
406 
403 
395 
397 
394 
382 
378 
372 
363 
353 
344 
334 
331 
318 
309 



61.8 
58.8 
57.3 
56.6 
54.4 
55.1 
54.1 
52.7 
51.5 
50.7 
49.5 
47.7 
47.3 
46.5 
46.7 
44.5 
43.6 



TABLE 128 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



County 



County and Average 

/Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

, Somerset 

Montgomery 

■Cecil 

Frederick 

Washington 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



309 

1 
18 
19 
13 
12 
16 
19 

6 
12 

4 



43.6 

16.1 
23.1 
24.9 
28.9 
33.3 
33.5 
39.6 
42.9 
44.4 
44.4 



County 



Worcester . . . 
St, Mary's. . . 

Charles 

Caroline 

Harford 

Howard 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 
Dorchester. . 
Calvert 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



18 
17 
22 
11 
14 
10 
18 
7 
15 
14 
26 
17 



47.4 
51.5 
52.4 
55.0 
58.3 
58.8 
61.6 
63.6 
65.2 
66.7 
65.0 
70.8 



f NUMBER OF APPROVED COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 28 county colored approved high schools in 1936 of 
which 25 were first group and 3 were second group schools. Be- 
tween 1935 and 1936 the approved list shows a second colored high 
school in St. Mary's and the discontinuance of the Nanticoke 
School in Wicomico, since pupils in the latter school were trans- 
ported to Salisbury. Prince George's had three first group schools, 
while St. Mary's, Somerset, and Talbot each had two. There was 



Colored One-Teacher Schools; Approved Colored High Schools 203 



one first group school in each of the remaining counties, except 
Howard and Baltimore. Baltimore County continued paying the 
tuition fees of its qualified elementary school graduates in Balti- 
more City secondary schools. In the fall of 1936 Howard organ- 
ized a two-year high school. All of the high schools approved in 
1935-36, except one in Harford and two in Worcester, which were 
two-year schools, offered four years of work. Baltimore City had 
two junior-senior high schools, one with grades 7-12, the other 
with grades 7-10, and 2 junior high schools with grades 7 to 9. 
(See Table 129, and Chart 15, page 132.) 



TABLE 129 



Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 
with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



1936 



County 



Total Counties 
1920 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Total 



Group 



*11 
*12 
*13 
14 
14 
17 
21 
23 
24 
24 
25 
25 

1 
1 
1 
1 



t2 



County 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



Total 



Group 



12 



t First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enroll- 
ment of 15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. They give a two-year course. 

♦ Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

X Junior high schools with grades 7 to 9, one having grades 7 to 10. 
° Junior-senior high school, grades 7-12. 
For individual schools see Table XXXIII, pages 340 ta 345. 



SIZE OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

The 28 county colored high schools employed from 1 to 10 
teachers and enrolled from 22 to 360 pupils. There were 10 teach- 
ers employed at Salisbury, 9 at Annapolis, and 7 each at Cam- 
bridge and Denton. The median county colored high school em- 
ployed 3.9 teachers and enrolled 97 pupils. (See Table 130 and 
Table XXXIII, pages 340 to 345.) 



204 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 130 



Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment in County Colored High 
Schools for Year Ending June 30, 1936 



No. of 

Teachers 


Total 




ndel 












t-. 








>> 

0) 


jr. 
'a; 
bt 

o 


ne's 


03 






c 

o 






Average 


No. 
High 


Allegany 


Aru 


alvert 


.s 






M 
0) 


q; 
ai 
0) 


rederick 


u 




E 
o 
be 


0; 

a 

0) 


< 
c 


*>» 


rset 






o 
■p 


u 

(U 

CO 
O) 


No. 

Belonging 


Schools 


nne 


arol 


"o 


'o 

0) 


harl 


t> 
u 

o 


O 


*^ 
c 

0) 


-tJ 
C 

o 


rine 


aj 
cu 
3 


■4-5 


a; 
E 
o 


c 


Wash 


Wicoi 


Worci 




< 


O 


O 


o 


O 


O 


C 




X 


i4 




Cm 


C? 




(/I 


Eh 



Size of Teaching Staff 



All Schools 


28 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1* 


4 
2 
9 
6 
3 

2 
1 




















1 










1 
1 










2 


2 




























i 
1 


1 
1 






3 


i 




1 




1 


1 








1 


1 


1 


1 
1 
1 


1 


1 




1 


4 






1 


5 












1 










7 








1 






1 






















9 




1 


































10 


































1 











































Size of Enrollment 



22- 40. . . 


3 




















1 










1 




1 








41- 50. . . 


3 






























1 










2 


51- 75. . . 


3 












1 
























1 




1 


76-100. . . 


6 










1 










1 






2 






1 


1 








101-125. . . 


5 


1 




1 
















1 






i 




1 










126-150. . . 


2 


















1 








1 
















176-200. . . 


2 








1 


































201-225. . . 


1 
























1 


















251-275... 


2 




1 












1 


























351-375. . . 


1 






































1 





* Mid point of interval. 



THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS* 

In 1936 there were 27,595 individual participations of colored 
pupils in the badge tests, games, track and field events scheduled 
in connection with the spring county meets held in all of the coun- 
ties having colored schools through the cooperation of the Play- 
ground Athletic League. These figures represent gross partici- 
pation and include duplicates, since any one individual who was 
included for a badge test may also have appeared and been counted 
for one game, one track, and one field event. (See Table 131.) 

Prior to the county meets there were 6,581 colored boys and 
7,769 colored girls who tried the preliminary badge tests at their 
schools under the supervision of their teachers who carried out 
the program of the Playgound Athletic League. At the county 



* Data furnished by staff of Playground Athletic League. 



Size of Colored High Schools; Physical Education for 205 
Colored Pupils 

TABLE 131 



Colored Participation In County Meets — 1936 





Badge 


Tests 


Games 


Track and Field 


Grand 


Total 


COUNTY 


















Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1936 


1935 


Allegany 


67 


70 


59 


36 


64 


45 


341 


389 


Anne Arundel 


286 


384 


124 


225 


298 


214 


1,531 


1,404 


Baltimore 


245 


354 


96 


114 


255 


344 


1,408 


1,338 


Calvert 


189 


256 


135 


142 


327 


234 


1,283 


1 , 073 


Caroline 


129 


276 


125 


141 


287 


233 


1,191 


1,189 


Carroll 


98 


123 


75 


71 


176 


148 


691 


590 


Cecil 


88 


97 


77 


78 


203 


143 


686 


521 




299 


386 


216 


227 


365 


324 


1 817 


1 273 




220 


340 


137 


181 


373 


249 


l!500 


1^250 




O'i'7 


OLO 


97 


116 


423 


262 


1 , 450 


1 , 224 


Harford 


191 


240 


119 


112 


297 


206 


1,165 


1,028 


Howard 


82 


79 


74 


65 


144 


62 


506 


547 


Kent 


132 


168 


93 


92 


202 


120 


807 


724 


Montgomery 


375 


463 


206 


204 


483 


402 


2,133 


1,834 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


401 


568 


247 


265 


482 


553 


2,516 


2,159 


130 


159 


81 


81 


224 


157 


832 


989 


St. Marv's 


263 


356 


187 


199 


554 


400 


1,959 


1,567 


Somerset 


189 


313 


140 


156 


387 


320 


1,505 


892 


Talbot 


111 


213 


138 


133 


285 


185 


1,065 


1,101 


Wicomico 


285 


482 


117 


139 


472 


439 


1,934 


1,760 




184 


247 


121 


133 


312 


278 


1,275 


1,335 


Totals, 1936. . 


4,201 


5,889 


2,664 


2,910 


6,613 


5,318 


27,595 




Totals, 1935. . 


4,012 


5,867 


2,225 


2,752 


5,540 


3,791 


24,187 


24,187 



Bowie Normal 1936. 12 49 



meets, 4,201 of these boys and 5,889 of these girls who had passed 
the tests at their schools entered the badge tests. There were 
1,871 boys and 3,023 girls, 28.4 per cent of the original number 
of boys and 38.7 per cent of the original number of girls who 
tried the tests, who won the bronze, silver, gold, or super-gold 
badges. In 1936, in 10 counties more boys entered the badge 
tests and in 15 counties a larger number won their badges than 
in 1935. Corresponding figures for girls showed a larger number 
of entrants in 1936 in 11 counties and a larger number of winners 
in 12 counties. (See Table 131 and Table XIX, page 326.) 

Every county having colored schools, except Washington, had 
pupils who participated in the county athletic meets held in 1935- 
36. The entrants engaged in track and field events, dodge, speed 
and volley ball, and flag, block, run and catch relays, hit and run 
the bases, and egg and spoon races. Entrants from 468 or 94.7 
per cent of the colored schools participated in the meets. Every 
school in eleven counties was represented in the contests. (See 
Table XX, page 327.) 

WORK OF STATE AND COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS AFFECTING COLORED 

CHILDREN 

The number of colored children given a complete medical ex- 
amination or inspected in connection with the control of communi- 
cable diseases in the schools is included in the totals reported by 
the County Health Officers for all schools. (See Table 38, page 
69.) 



206 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Child health conferences for the examination of colored chil- 
dren approaching school age, in preparation for their admission to 
school, were held in all of the counties having colored schools, ex- 
cept Caroline, Dorchester, and Frederick, under the joint direction 
of the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the State Department of Health 
and the County Health Departments. 

Of the 1,373 colored children examined in these pre-school clin- 
ics, 244 or nearly 18 per cent gave evidence of faulty nutrition. 
Throat conditions were unfavorable in 378 or 27 per cent, and 558 
or 41 per cent needed dental attention. Defects of vision were 
listed for 11 and of hearing for the same number, and faulty pos- 
ture was observed in 45. 

Vaccination against smallpox had been neglected for 656, nearly 
half of the children examined, and 634 or 46 per cent had not been 
immunized against diphtheria. Parents were urged to have their 
children protected against diphtheria, and were reminded that 
the State law requires every child to he vaccinated before he or 
she may be enrolled in any public school in the State. 

National Negro Health Week 

Colored communities in all parts of the State took an active 
part in the annual observance of Negro Health Week. The ar- 
rangements in each county were under the direction of the county 
health officer, with the public health nurses, the superintendents 
of schools, teachers, ministers, and other community leaders, as- 
sisting. The programs included exercises in the schools and 
churches, conferences at which the health needs of all age groups 
in the family were considered, health pageants and health ex- 
aminations, clinics for immunization against smallpox, typhoid 
and diphtheria, chest clinics, venereal disease clinics and neigh- 
borhood improvement campaigns. 

Health clubs were started in a number of sections and commun- 
ity sanitation projects were developed in others. High school 
pupils in a number of the counties took part in a health poster con- 
test sponsored by the National Negro Health Week Committee. 
Special emphasis was laid in all of the programs and in the plans 
for year-round activities on the ''Child and the School as Factors 
in Community Health." 

Certificates of merit for Negro Health Week activities were 
awarded by the National Negro Health Week Committee of the 
United States Public Health Service, to the Departments of 
Health of Cecil, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George's, and Wicom- 
ico. A class ''A" certificate was also awarded to the Health Club 
of Wetipquin, Wicomico County, and the colored high school at 
Salisbury, paired with a school in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in the health 
poster contest. 



Medical Examination of Colored Children; Negro Health 207 
Week; P.-T.A.'s 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

In 1936 there were 386 active parent-teacher organizations in 
82 per cent of the county colored schools. This was an increase of 
2 organizations or 2 per cent over the number and per cent of 
schools having P.-T. A.'s in 1935. Kent and St. Mary's had a par- 
ent-teacher association in every school. On the other hand there 
were no P.-T. A.'s in the colored schools of Washington County, 
and only 15 per cent of the colored schools in Calvert had organi- 
zations. Eleven counties organized additional parent-teacher 
associations in the colored schools in 1936 over the number and 



CHART 31 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS, 1935 AND 1935 



County- 



Number 



1935 1936 

Total and 
Co. Average <-o4 

Kent 17 

St. Ji^ary's 24 

Anne Arundel 58 

Baltimore 22 

Pr, George's 41 

Wicomico 18 

Harford 18 

Queen Anne's 18 

Somerset 29 

Talbot 21 

Charles 29 

V'orcester 19 

Caroline 15 

Montgomery 24 

Dorchester 19 

Howard 7 

Cecil 5 

Carroll 4 

Allegany 1 

Frederick 10 

Calvert 5 

Washington 





208 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



percentage shown in 1935. Because such groups can assist in im- 
proving conditions for children through the cooperation of parents 
and teachers, their functioning should be encouraged by teachers 
and supervisors. (See Chart 31.) 

RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN 
COUNTY FUNDS 

The nine counties which sent in reports of receipts of colored 
schools from other than public funds showed gross collections of 
$8,974. In Anne Arundel the total amount ($1,002) was con- 
tributed by P.-T. A.'s. In Baltimore County P.-T. A.'s contrib- 
uted the largest amount, $955, while there was a balance on hand 
of $427. Caroline and Dorchester reported sales, parties, and 
dances as the major sources of their total gross receipts of $1,123 
and $1,834, respectively. In Montgomery parents furnished the 
total gross receipts of $1,623. In St. Mary's and Somerset, P.-T. 
A.'s contributed $545 and $211, respectively, toward the amount 
of gross receipts. Athletics proved to be the chief source of total 
receipts in Washington County, while in Wicomico the total gross 
receipts came from other sources. (See Table 132.) 

Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Caroline, Dorchester, and St. Mary's 
used the largest portion of receipts from other than county pub- 
lic funds for the physical education program. Montgomery 
parents used all of their funds to provide the payment required 
from each high school pupil transported, viz., $15. Social affairs 
and trips, improving buildings and grounds, regular classroom 
instruction and the library were other uses to which extra funds 
raised in the counties were devoted. (See Table 132.) 

SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 
The State Supervisor, of Colored Schools is responsible for the 
supervision of all the county colored schools. He spends most of 
his time in the field visiting schools with the county supervisors 
of colored schools and working with the high school principals 
and teachers. At a series of conferences held for county colored 
high school principals and teachers during 1935-36, standard 
tests, attendance of high school pupils, lesson plans, and school 
libraries were discussed. 

The State Supervisor visited the Bowie Normal School during 
the year to study the quality of instruction and to confer with 
both faculty and students. Much of his time at the office is de- 
voted to interviewing prospective county teachers in order to 



Receipts of and Expenditures from Other than County Funds 209 



OOlUIOOl^ 



uo^jSui 



ppuTUV 
auuy 



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Oi-( • CO t> U5 Tj< lO 00 



05 lo • ^ CO «D c<i -into -o 
Tf • t> t-H o -co • — I 



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cciirtcooiiocooo«D(Moomi-i-<s< 



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210 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

make suggestions regarding desirable colored teachers to the 
county superintendents. The salary and expenses of the State 
Supervisor of Colored Schools are paid by the General Education 
Board. 

Each of 15 counties received $750 from the State as reimburse- 
ment toward the salary of a full-time colored supervisor. Five 
of the supervisors employed were women and ten were men. In 
Carroll, Frederick, and Harford, the supervisor devoted some time 
to instruction in home economics and manual training. The atten- 
dance officers in Cecil, Howard, Queen Anne's, Somerset, and 
Wicomico spent part of their time in supervising the colored 
schools, and the Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Baltimore 
County had the supervision of the colored schools as a part of his 
duties. In Allegany and Washington, supervision of the colored 
schools is given by the white elementary school supervisors and 
the county superintendent. 

BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 
Enrollment 

There were 93 students enrolled at the Bowie Normal School 
during the school year 1935-36, a decrease of 2 under 1934-35. 
In the fall of 1936, the enrollment was 113, of whom 44 were 
freshmen, 32 juniors, and 37 seniors. The 1936 fall enrollment 
included 85 girls and 28 boys. There was an increase of 9 in the 
number of freshmen, a decrease of 5 in juniors, and an increase 
of 16 in seniors in comparing enrollment in the fall of 1936 with 
that in the fall of 1935. (See Table 133.) 

TABLE 133 



Enrollment and Graduates, Bowie Normal School 



Year Ending 
June 30 


Enrollment 


Graduates 


Total 


Freshmen 


Juniors 


Seniors 


1924 


*11 




11 






1925 


*26 




16 


"io 


"io 


1926 


*36 




24 


12 


12 


1927 


*80 




58 


22 


22 


1928 


*109 




55 


54 


50 


1929 


128 




76 


52 


46 


1930 


119 




46 


73 


56 


1931 


113 




59 


54 


41 


1932 


112 




56 


56 


54 


1933 


123 




71 


52 


49 


1934 


96 




36 


60 


56 


1935 


95 


■ 46 


2 


47 


t46 


1936 


93 


35 


37 


21 


t21 


Fall of 1936 


113 


44 


32 


37 





* Excludes enrollment in high school classes. 

t Includes 31 graduates of the two-year course and 15 of the three-year course. Of the 15 
graduates of the three-year course, 11 had previously graduated from the two-year course. 

t Includes 3 graduated in January, 1936. Of the 21 three-year graduates there were 6 
previously graduated from the two-year course in 1935 and 2 graduates of the three-year 
course in 1935 who had to return to make up time. 



Supervision of Colored Schools; Bowie Normal School 



211 



The general scholarship and intelligence level of the freshmen 
entrants in the fall of 1936 was above the average of previous 
freshman classes. Of the freshmen 23.9 per cent entered with a 
"B" average or better. 

The high school principals' reports showed 43.5 per cent of the 
1936 entrants in the upper third, 45.7 per cent in the middle third, 
and 10.8 per cent in the lower third of the senior high school 
classes. 

The Graduates 

There were 21 graduates of the three-year normal school course 
at the Bowie Normal School in January and June, 1936. Of this 
number, 15 received teaching positions in the Maryland counties, 
one accepted a position in Virginia, one was rejected by the Medi- 
cal Board, and 4 were not appointed to any teaching position. 
Six of the graduates employed received appointments in their 
home counties and nine were appointed in other counties in Mary- 
land. (See Table 134.) 



TABLE 134 



Home and Teaching County of 1936 Graduates of Bowie 





Home 


Teaching 




Home 


Teaching 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


Total 




15 




cl 


gh2 




Somerset 


*a2 






2 


Talbot 


*hg3 




Caroline 




al 




el 


Carroll 




bl 




dhk4 


m2 






cd2 


Worcester 


kl 




■ ■*2 


1 






Kent 


el 




Baltimore City 


mn2 




Prince George's 


bf3 


. . 







t Includes 15 teaching. 6 in their home counties and 9 in other counties, 1 rejected by the 
Medical Board, 1 teaching in Virginia and 4 not appointed. 

* Each asterisk indicates one not appointed. g One from Talbot teaching in St. Mary's, 
a One from Somerset teaching in Caroline. h One from Wicomico teaching in St. Mary's, 

b One from Prince George's teaching in Carroll, k One from Wicomico teaching in Worcester, 
c One from St. Mary's teaching in Charles. m One from Baltimore City teaching in Wi- 

d One from Wicomico teaching in Charles. comico. 

e One from Kent teaching in Washington Co. n One from Baltimore City teaching in Vir- 
f One rejected by Medical Board. ginia. 



The Faculty and Practice Centers 

In the fall of 1936, the professional staff at Bowie included 16 
persons — the principal, 8 instructors, 2 teachers in the demon- 
stration school, a librarian, a secretary-registrar, a stenographer, 
a secretary, and a dietitian. There were 12 cooperating practice 
teachers in 4 two-teacher and 4 one-teacher schools located in 
rural sections. Each normal school student is given 160 clock 
hours or more of practice teaching during the three-year course. 



212 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Cost Per Student 

Current expenses for the Bowie State Normal School for 1936 
totalled $42,965 of which $22,477 was spent for instruction and 
$20,488 for the dormitory. This wa^ a decrease of $3,852 under 
the expenditure for 1935. 



TABLE 135 



Expenditures, Receipts and Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School, 1935-36 



expenditures 

Instruction 

Administration: 

Salaries $1,838.58 

other than Salaries 441.09 

Instruction: 

Salaries 12,121.32 

Other than Salaries a2 , 394 . 84 

Operation and Maintenance: 

Salaries and Wages 2,105.46 

Other than Salaries, excluding Food c3,576.01 

Food 

Total Expenditures $22 , 477 . 30 

RECEIPTS 

From Students, excluding Refunds: 

Board and Lodging 

Value of Service Rendered by Students 

Laundry and Contingent Fees 

Health Fees 

Registration Fees $502.00 

Athletic Fees 289 . 90 

Special Deposits 

Total Receipts from Students $791.90 

From State $21,685.40 

*COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students *86 

Average Total Cost per Student *$261.36 

Average Payment per Student $9.21 

Average Cost to State per Student *$252.15 

Total Cost to State per Resident Student 



Residence 

$1,589.25 
417.04 



b5, 777.00 
d5, 120.68 
e7,584.13 

$20,488.10 



$8,894.24 
bl,515.57 
823.00 
363.50 



f 1,183. 14 
$12,779.45 
$7,708.65 



83 

$246.84 
$153.97 
$92.87 



*$345.02 



a Excludes $4.50 refunded fees. 

b Includes $1,515.57 estimated as value of services rendered by students, 
c Excludes $8.50 refunded fees. 

d Excludes $573.38 deducted for cost of extra ser vices rendered faculty and students and 
$25.00 refunded fees. 

e Excludes $634.95 deducted for cost of extra services rendered faculty and students and 
$4.75 refunded fees. 

f Includes $313.89 transferred from 1935 budget, but excludes $300.00 transferred to fees 
for board and lodging and $85.98 transferred to 1937 budget. 

* Cost per college student includes the full cost for instruction of an average enrollment of 
G8 pupils in the two-teacher campus elementary school. 



The total instruction cost per student was $261, of which $9 
was paid by each student and $252 by the State. Of the average 
enrollment of 86 students, all but 3 lived in the dormitory. The 
total dormitory expenditure per student amounted to $247. Since 
each student in residence paid on the average $154 in fees or 
service for room, board, etc., the cost to the State per student 
for these purposes was $93. The combined cost to the State for 



Cost per Student at Bowie; Coppin; Physical Education Program 213 



instruction and dormitory expenses amounted to $345 per res- 
ident student in 1936, a decrease of $26 under the corresponding 
amount in 1935. (See Table 135.) 

Certain Bowie Normal School students received $1,620 in stu- 
dent aid from the Federal Government through the National 
Youth Administration under the arrangement by w^hich $15 per 
month could be made available to 12 per cent of the enrollment. 
In return these students rendered service to the school. 



Inventory 

The inventory of the Bowie State Normal School property as of 
September 30, 1936, totalling $217,116 was distributed as follows: 
Land, $11,650; buildings, $153,168; equipment and other, $52,298. 



FANNY COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL 

During 1935-36 there were 38 men and 103 women enrolled 
at the Coppin Training School for Colored Teachers in Baltimore 
City. The average net roll of 136 students was an increase of 28 
students over that of the preceding year. The faculty consisted 
of the principal and 4 assistants. The current expenses for the 
school totalled $16,307, making the average instruction cost $120 
per student. 

The Federal Government through the National Youth Admin- 
istration made available $1,576 to certain students at the Coppin 
Training School in return for services rendered the community. 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE MARYLAND COUNTY SCHOOLS 

The Playground Athletic League continued to plan and coop- 
erate with the State Department of Education and county super- 
intendents of schools in carrying out the program for physical 
.education in the counties of Maryland during 1935-36. The Mary- 
land program exemplified the convictions of the late Dr. Burdick 
regarding the value of team games and mass activities in devel- 
oping character, good behavior, and social responsibility. 

Participation in Spring County Meets* 

An outstanding characteristic of the physical education pro- 
gram in the counties is the participation of a large proportion of 
the pupils above Grade 3. In 1936 there were 74,769 individual 
participations in the badge tests, games, track and field events 
scheduled in connection with the spring meets. These figures 
represent gross participation and include duplicates, since any 
one individual who was included for a badge test may also have 

* Data furnished by the staff of the Playground Athletic League. 



214 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



appeared and been counted for one game, one track, and one field 
event. In 14 counties there was a larger number of individual 
participations in 1936 than in 1935. (See Table 136.) 

TABLE 136 



Participation In County Meets — White — 1936 





Badge 


Tests 


Games 


Track and Field 


Grand 


Total 


<^ VJ U IN 1 I 


















rJoys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1936 


XtfoO 




970 


1 607 


704 


498 


709 


1,045 


5 533 


o , 4Uo 




179 


202 


1 03 


107 


212 


232 


1 ' 035 


1 130 




1 049 


1 259 


493 


349 


666 


750 


4 566 


A "XKQ 

t , ooy 




1*261 


2^682 


t989 


t689 


1 , 686 


1 ,325 


8^632 


8,244 


Calvert 


92 


210 


145 


109 


225 


220 


1,001 


1,061 




292 


571 


219 


213 


455 


423 


2,173 


2,024 


Carroll 


813 


973 


548 


463 


857 


916 


4,570 


4,315 




334 


677 


343 


343 


585 


572 


2,854 


2,741 




219 


371 


222 


227 


524 


444 


2,007 


1,907 




398 


695 


258 


209 


368 


410 


2,338 


2,681 




998 


1,304 


493 


431 


684 


697 


4,607 


4,144 




399 


527 


274 


220 


469 


397 


2.286 


2,046 




648 


841 


458 


387 


461 


494 


3,289 


3,190 




295 


453 


235 


191 


535 


378 


2,087 


2,312 




270 


409 


230 


176 


276 


294 


1,655 


1,800 


Montgomery 


774 


1,449 


886 


792 


1,178 


1,028 


6,107 


6,544 


Prince George's 


809 


1,003 


548 


416 


711 


617 


4,104 


4,090 


Prince George's Rural . 
Queen Anne's 


186 


352 


220 


209 


313 


432 


1,712 


1,468 


199 


311 


204 


190 


292 


295 


1,491 


1,687 


St. Mary's 


173 


277 


167 


164 


401 


293 


1,475 


1,412 




189 


327 


171 


155 


288 


255 


1,385 


1,678 


Talbot 


210 


390 


253 


209 


276 


346 


1,684 


2,041 




786 


971 


552 


419 


610 


741 


4,079 


3,966 




435 


710 


292 


267 


346 


487 


2,537 


2,485 




157 


341 


183 


169 


381 


331 


1,562 


1,682 


Totals, 1936. . 


12,135 


18,912 


9,190 


7,602 


13,508 


13,422 


74,769 


74,410 


Totals, 1935. . 


12,704 


20,298 


8,773 


7,306 


12,598 


12,731 


74,410 





S. T. C, Towson *16 *161 

Tome Institute *24 *49 

Western Maryland 

College *38 — 

S. T. C, Salisbury — *27 



* 1936 t Excludes 110 boys and 210 girls in consolation dodge ball. 

The number of white schools which entered pupils for events at 
the county meets decreased from 858 in 1935 to 844 in 1936, but 
the per cent increased from 86 to over 87 in 1936. Eight coun- 
ties — Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Carroll, Howard, Queen Anne's, 
Talbot, and Wicomico — had entries from every white school; 
seven counties — Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Dorchester, Freder- 
ick, Harford, Kent, and St. Mary's — had entries from between 
95 and 100 per cent of their white schools; Montgomery and 
Prince George's Counties had 94 and 90 per cent of their white 
schools represented. Garrett and Washington Counties, with a 
representation of 39 and 68 per cent, respectively, were the only 
counties having fewer than 80 per cent of their schools participat- 
ing. 



Participation in Meets; Badge Tests for Boys 



215 



The presence of the county superintendent at the meet indicates 
his interest, encourages participation, and gives him an opportu- 
nity to meet large numbers of parents of school children. 

Badge Tests 

The county schools enrolled 46,385 white boys above Grade 3. 
Of these boys, 18,594 or 40 per cent, in the opinion of their teach- 
ers successfully passed the badge tests on their school grounds, 



CHART 32 



PER CENT OF BOYS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TES'"S, 1936, BASED ON 1935-36 ENROLLKlEt^T 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



Number Number 
County Enrolled Entered Won 



Per Cent 
Won Entered 



Total and _pc 
Average 4b, 385 


18,594 


Howard 


884 


555 


Kent 


637 


394 


Carroll 


2,113 


1,129 


Caroline 


879 


464 


Calvert 


302 


158 


Harford 


1,818 


914 


Dorchester 


1,257 


612 


Frederick 


3,029 


1,429 


St. Mary's 


498 


254 


Queen Anne's 


646 


299 


Charles 


645 


294 


Anne Arundel 


2,746 


1,223 


Pr. George's 


3,499 


1,513 


Wicomico 


1,599 


659 


Montgomery 


5,353 


1,328 


Cecil 


1,448 


567 


Talbot 


797 


311 


Somerset 


1,002 


374 


Allegany 


5,416 


1,942 


Garrett 


1,563 


541 


Washington 


4,282 


1,298 


Baltimore 


6,980 


2,102 


Worcester 


1,007 


254 



159 
181 

398 
157 

39 
333 
281 
522 

75 

93 
148 
599 
629 

180 

152 E 

231 



18.0 


62.8 1 







18.8 



17.9 



18.3 



22 



17.2 



15.1 



14.4 



21.8 



18.0 



11.3 



52.3 



50.5 



45- 



44.5 



43-2 



41.2 



39.5 




216 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



which permitted them to enroll for the tests at the meet. Accord- 
ing to Table 136, there were 12,135 boys who were counted at the 
meets as entering the badge tests, 65 per cent of those who had 
passed them at their schools, and of these, 6,305 won their badges. 
Of those who came to the meet, therefore, 51.9 per cent won their 
badges, although the percentage of the county enrollment of boys 
above Grade 3 who won badges was only 13.6. (See Chart 32 
and Table XVI, page 323.) 

CHART 33 



PER CH^T OF GIRLS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1936, BASED ON 1955-36 ENROLLfJETiT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



County 

Total and 
Average 



Number Number 
Enrolled Entered Won 



46,487 25,257 9,177 



Kent 
Caroline 
St. Mary's 
Calvert 
Howard 
Dorchester 
Charles 
Q\ieen Anne's 
Cecil 
Ticomico 
Harford 
Talbot 
Anne Arundel 2,775 
Montgomery ?,283 
Carroll 2,155 
Baltimore 6,825 
Frederick 5,020 
Pr. George's 5,405 
Somerset 947 
Allegany 5,468 
TTorcester 967 
Garrett 1,562 
V.'ashington 4,467 



596 
964 
468 
552 
904 
1,293 
673 
654 
1,473 
1,G18 
1,800 
820 



509 
760 
568 
266 
658 
864 
442 
426 
919 
998 
1,105 
493 
1,662 
1,895 
1,210 
5,725 
1,596 
1,795 
474 
2,628 
450 
646 
1,596 



157 
245 
144 
85 
234 
396 
142 
139 
205 
399 
582 
186 
659 
709 
435 
1,595 
556 
723 
177 
931 
145 
207 
550 



Won 



Per Cent 

Entered 




75.6 







ai.i 


657 1 


21.3 













\ 23.0 


1 59.9 1 


1 21.6 


57.7 1 




.20.2. 


5C.2 1 


20.4 


54.5 I 




52.8 h 




52 7 1 




50.1 1 


17.0 ■ 


48 3 1 




: The badge tests are different for boys and girls, since it is the 
policy in Maryland to plan activities adapted to the special phys- 
ique and interests of the two sexes. Of 46,487 girls above Grade 
3 enrolled in the county public schools, 25,257 or 54.3 per cent, 
tried out the badge tests for girls at their schools. According to 



Badge Tests and Team Games 



217 



Table 136, at the county meets, 18,912 of the girls who had passed 
the tests at their schools, 74.8 per cent, entered for the tests 
at the meets and of these 9,177 or 48.5' per cent won their badges. 
The percentage of county enrollment of girls above Grade 3 who 
won badges was 19.7. (See Chart 33 and Table XVI, page 323.) 

In four counties three-fourths or more of the girls above Grade 
3 tried out and passed the tests for badges at their schools and in 
only four counties, — Allegany, Worcester, Garrett, and Wash- 
ington — was the percentage who successfully passed the tests 
at their schools less than 50. (See Chart 33 and Table XVI, page 
323.) 

The emphasis in the badge tests is on individual attainment of 
physical skills. This is desired before pupils are permitted to 
enter the group activities of the physical education program. 
The games and track and field events set up opportunities for 
cooperation of individuals on teams as representatives of schools 
or groups with which they are identified. It is this phase of the 
physical education program that develops fine character exhibit- 
ed in good behavior and self-control. 

Team Games 

There were 31,642 white boys and girls entered on 2,316 teams 
in the State-wide athletic program of games. Circle dodge ball 
outranked all other games in popularity, having had 10,893 boys 
and girls as entrants on 765 teams. Of these teams, 115 were 
mixed. There were 8,423 boys on 589 speed ball teams. Soccer 
had 2,209 entrants on 117 teams, baseball 656 on 59 teams, and 
boys' basket-ball 703 on 69 teams. Every county, except Calvert 
and Montgomery, had soccer teams. Each county winner of soc- 
cer played the neighboring winner until the Western Shore series 
was won by Bruce High of Allegany County which was the win- 
ner over Crisfield of Somerset County, the champion team of the 
Eastern Shore. All counties, except Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, 
Charles, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's and Howard, had at least one 
boys' basket-ball team. The lack of indoor gymnasiums probably 
accounted for the omission of basket-ball from the athletic 
program in these counties. (See Table XVII, page 324.) 

Outside of dodge ball, the girls showed the greatest support of 
and interest in volley ball, hit ball, field ball, touchdown pass, bas- 
ket-ball, and field dodge ball in the order named. Every county, 
except Calvert, Carroll, and Montgomery, had field ball teams at 
the eighth State-wide tournament, in which 1,977 girls from 104 
high schools participated. Basket-ball was played by girls in 
fifteen counties. Since an indoor gymnasium is needed for prac- 
tice during the winter months, basket-ball is, of course, limited 
to the localities having the necessary facilities. (See Table XVII, 
page 324.) 



218 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Track, Field, and Relay Events 

In addition to team games, the P. A. L. program includes run- 
ning and jumping events for track and field. In the relay races, 
broad jumps, dashes, etc., it is the skill of the individuals who 
make up a team which brings success to the school or county rep- 
resented. In Maryland the number of events in w^hich any one 
participant may enter is limited to one running event for girls 
and one running and one field event for boys. It is thus impos- 
sible for a few good athletes to win the track meet for their 
school. All children who have attained even average ability in 
the events are needed to bring final success to their schools. (See 
Tables XVII and XVIII, pages 324 and 325.) 

The Spring Athletic Meets 

The final badge tests, the games, and the track and field events 
took place generally at the county spring athletic meets. The 
winners of the county meets came to Baltimore to compete for 
State-wide championships. The girls were entertained at the 
State Teachers College at Towson and a majority of the boys 
were cared for in the homes of members of the City Parent-Teach- 
er Associations. The Johns Hopkins University and State Teach- 
ers College at Towson took care of the boys not assigned to homes. 
The county winning the greatest number of points was awarded 
the Sun Trophy. In 1936 the award went to Baltimore County. 
The dodge ball championship was won by Frederick athletes from 
Church Street School, and the championship in volley ball was 
won by Catonsville representatives from Baltimore County. 

State-Wide Group Athletic Meets 

The events for the fall meet were Soccer Accuracy Kick and 
Goal Shooting for boys and Fieldball Throw for Distance and 
Goal Shooting for girls. For the winter meet, the events con- 
sisted of Baskets per Minute and Foul Shooting for boys and 
girls. 

Seven schools sent 204 girls and 175 boys to participate in the 
fall events. In the winter events there were eleven teams of 
1,451 boys and seventeen teams of 1,641 girls participating. 

The winners in each meet were awarded placques suitably in- 
scribed. In the fall meet, Towson High School boys and Kenwood 
High School girls were the winners. In the Winter Meet, Oxford 
High School won both the boys' and girls' placques. 

Expenditures by P. A. L. for the 23 Counties 

Exclusive of any charge for administration of the general P. 
A. L. program, the direction and supervision of school athletics 
in the Maryland counties during the fiscal year October 1, 1935, 
to September 30, 1936, required a total expenditure by the League 



County and State Meets; P.A.L. Expenditures 219 

of $15,000, which was the amount appropriated in the State Pub- 
lic School Budget. In addition, certain services were rendered 
the counties, for which the League received reimbursements to 
the extent of $15,272. Furthermore, materials and supplies worth 
$2,432 were bought for the counties through the P. A. L. The 
actual service rendered the counties, therefore, necessitated a 
budget of more than $32,704. 

The expenditures for salaries pays for the services of field lead- 
ers who conduct the meets and tournaments, and of the athletic 
leaders for boys and girls who act as teachers, referees, and um- 
pires for * 1,966 ''school units." A school unit is defined as any 
school to which assistance is given, and the same school may be 
included a number of times in this figure. 

The amount for tvages takes care of the cost of recording the 
badges and medals won by different pupils. The system of reg- 
istration prevents unnecessary duplication of awards. The 19,- 
309 badges, 1,067 date bars, 4,677 medallions, 8,404 pendants 
awarded to county pupils, and 960 badges for officials were paid 
for through the State appropriation. These incentives to effort 
in the physical education program bring returns out of all propor- 
tion to the amount of money spent for this purpose, $3,485. (See 
Table 137.) 

TABLE 137 

Playground Athletic League Expenditures for State Work 
October 1, 1935, to September 30, 1936 



$4,902.40 
1,561.29 
384.47 
191.30 
136.03 
790.26 
576.06 
5.88 
3,484.65 
2,159.27 
808.76 

$15,000.37 



The amount of $2,159 spent on travel includes transportation 
costs of the leaders who^act as officials at the many county meets 
and athletic tournaments that are conducted during the year. 
(See Table 137.) 

P. A. L. Program for the Works Progress Administration 

The Works Progress Administration enlisted the services of 
the Playground Athletic League in setting up. an emergency pro- 
gram for recreation and physical education in Baltimore City 



* The 1,966 school units included 197 diffL'ient schools to which service was given by the 
P. A. L. 



Salaries 

Wages 

Printing 

Postage 

Telephone 

Auto 

Supplies 

Repairs 

Awards 

Traveling Expenses 
Miscellaneous 



220 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



and the counties which would give employment and training to 
unemployed teachers and provide wholesome and valuable activi- 
ty for unemployed youth and adults. In this program a maxi- 
mum of 21 white and 4 colored teachers were employed to pro- 
vide leadership for 59 groups of 6,936 white and 20 groups of 
6,815 colored youth. The Federal government spent $19,743 on 
this program. (See Table 145, page 225.) 

Of the above amount approximately $2,254 was spent on field 
leaders at the meets for white children held in the counties and 
$1,206 on those for colored children. The remaining amount, 
$16,283, was spent on the Baltimore City physical education 
program. 

BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS 
TABLE 138 



Baltimore City Summer Schools, 1935 







Total 
Enrollment 


Net Roll at End of Term 


Per Cent of Net 
Roll Recom- 


















mended for Pro- 




Type of 
School 


No. 

of 








Taking 


motion Taking 


No. 

of 




Schools 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Review 
Work 


Advance 
Work 


Review 
Work 


Advance 
Work 


Teachers 



WHITE 



Secondary 

Senior 

Junior 

Elementary .... 
Demonstration . 

Total White. 


2 
1 
4 
1 


1,227 
872 
648 
137 


706 
624 
529 
152 


1,775 
1,366 
874 
251 


1,688 
1,209 
841 


87 
157 

33 
251 


92.3 
88.6 
88.5 


96.7 
1 00 . 
1 00 . 
100.0 


30 
14 
20 
12 


8 


2.884 


2,011 


4,266 


3,738 


528 






76 


COLORED 


Secondary 

Senior 

Junior 

Elementary .... 
Demonstration . 

Total Colored 


*1 
*1 
4 
1 


179 
141 

883 
63 


245 
177 
1,370 
126 


367 
267 
1,954 
161 


357 
255 
1,954 


10 
12 

161 


92.1 
81.6 
82.9 


95.8 
92.3 

95^0 


8 
5 
33 
6 


6 


1,266 


1,918 


2,749 


2,566 


183 






52 



ALL SCHOOLS 



1935 


14 


4,150 


3,929 


7,015 


6,304 


711 






128 


1934 


15 


3,728 


3,472 


6,139 


5,324 


815 






120 


1932 


12 


3.644 


3,263 


6,081 


5,393 


688 






107 


1931 


16 


4,399 


4,088 


7,192 


6,354 


838 






154 


1930 


16 


3,865 


3,798 


6,504 


5,592 


912 






145 



* The junior and senior high school are in the same building. 



There were 14 schools open in Baltimore City in the summer of 
1935 with an enrollment of 7,015 pupils, of whom 4,266 were 
white and 2,749 were colored. Except in the demonstration 



Baltimore City Summer and Evening Schools 



221 



school, there were more white boys than girls in the summer 
schools. In all types of summer schools the number of colored 
girls enrolled outnumbered the boys enrolled. (See Table 138.) 

In the summer schools the white enrollment in senior and jun- 
ior high schools was much larger than that in elementary schools, 
while the reverse was the case for the colored enrollment. Of 
the white net roll of 4,266 at the end of the term, 528 had taken 
advance work. The colored net roll of 2,749 included 183 taking 
advance work. The remaining pupils reviewed work to make up 
subjects in which they had failed. (See Table 138.) 

There were 128 teachers for the summer schools, of whom 76 
were white and 52 were colored. (See Table 138.) 

A distribution of expenditures for white and colored schools 
of the different types is given in Table 139. 

TABLE 139 



Expenditures for Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1935 



Type of School 


White 


Colored 


Total 


Elementary 




$6,020.12 


$6,787.20 


$12,807.32 


Junior 




2,523.75 


1,156.50 


3,680.25 


Senior 




5,976.40 


1,373.00 


7,349.40 


Total 1935 




$14,520.27 


$9,316.70 


$23,836.97 


Total 1934 




$11,271.38 


$6,485.64 


$17,757.02 



EVENING SCHOOLS 
Baltimore City 

The regular night schools in Baltimore City in the winter of 
1935-36 had an average net roll of 6,225 white and 2,948 colored 
individuals. The per cent of the average net roll in average at- 
tendance was just over 77 per cent. There was an increase of 
555 in the white enrollment from 1935 to 1936 although there 
was considerable decrease under the enrollment in 1932. The 
colored enrollment in 1936 was 475 higher than in 1935. (See 
Table 140.) 

For white persons the elementary school enrollment was the 
smallest, while the commercial and secondary courses had the 
largest number enrolled. For the colored, the elementary enroll- 
ment was largest, and the secondary and home economics were 
next in size. 

The elementary night schools were kept open 68 nights, the 
vocational 46 nights, the commercial 81, the secondary 93 nights. 



222 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 140 



Baltimore City Night Schools for the Year Ending July 31, 1936 



i YPE OF WORK 


Baltimore City Night Schools 


Number of 
Nights 

in 1935-36 
Session 


White 


Colored 


1936 


1935 


1932 


1936 


1935 


1932 


Net Enrollment 


















701 




1,215 










Academic: 














Elementary 


362 


254 


583 


1,472 


1,095 


1,461 


DO 


Secondary 


2,630 


2,814 


3,181 


711 


549 


540 


93 




2,773 


2,986 


2,704 


354 


306 


350 


81 


Vocational: 






Industrial 


1,246 


1,422 


2,418 


271 


266 


376 


46 


Home Economics 


625 


500 


736 


484 


491 


576 


46 


Parent Education 


1,027 






99 




Average Net Roll 


6,225 


5,670 


7,310 


2,948 


2,473 


2,815 




Average Attendance 


4,804 


4 , 528 


5,920 


2,281 


1,964 


2,359 




Per Cent of Attendance .... 


77.2 


79.9 


80.8 


77.4 


79.4 


83.4 




Number of Teachers 


233 


218 


267.5 


85 


70 


74 





There were 233 white and 85 colored teachers who gave instruc- 
tion in night schools. 

The number of night school students who graduated from high 
school was 289, exceeded only in 1933 and 1935. There were 
176 who completed a three- or four-year vocational course in 1936. 
Completion of from two to ten units was the accomplishment of 
1,586 individuals, while 713 students finished just one unit. (See 
Table 141.) 

TABLE 141 



Number of Baltimore City Night School Students Completing Definite 

Courses or Units 









Completion of 




High 


Vocational 






Year 


School 


3 or 4 Year 








Graduation 


Course 


2-10 Units 


One Unit 


1929 


175 


92 


1,341 


323 


1930 


203 


188 


1,627 


577 


1931 


237 


165 


1,687 


634 


1932 


271 


194 


1,539 


564 


1933 


348 


281 


1,570 


320 


1934 


285 


242 


943 


297 


1935 


339 


332 


1,587 


492 


1936 


289 


176 


1,586 


713 



Baltimore City night school students ranged in age from 14 to 
over 60 years. The median age for individuals in the Americaniza- 
tion classes was 41.8 years with the largest number falling in the 
age group of 40 to 49 years. The median age for white students 



The Baltimore City Night School Program 



223 



taking academic work was 20.9 and for colored 28.6 years. In 
the commercial courses the median age of white persons was 19.8 
years and for colored 22.6 years, while in the industrial classes 
the median age was 20.9 years for the white enrollment and 29.8 
for the colored. (See Table 142.) 

TABLE 142 



Ages of Baltimore City Night School Students 





White 


Colored 


Ages 


















Ameri- 




Com- 






Com- 






canization 


Academic 


mercial 


Industrial 


Academic 


mercial 


Industrial 


14-15 


3 


76 


53 


42 


1 






16-17 


5 


438 


605 


362 


120 


' 25 


' 26 


18-20 


13 


987 


1,221 


550 


287 


113 


57 


21-24 


37 


673 


573 


376 


343 


96 


138 


25-29 


55 


428 


197 


301 


477 


67 


162 


30-39 


187 


310 


107 


181 


549 


45 


232 


40-49 


285 


75 


13 


46 


256 


5 


119 


50-59 


104 


5 


4 • 


12 


122 


3 


20 


60+ 


12 






1 


28 




1 


Total .... 


701 


2,992 


2,773 


1.871 


2.183 


354 


755 


Median . . 


41.8 


20.9 


19.8 


20.9 


28.6 


22.6 


29.8 



The total cost of the night school program, $72,580, is distrib- 
uted for the white and colored schools of the various types in 
Table 143. The largest increases from 1935 to 1936 were for 
Americanization and parent education for white adults and for 
all types of night schools for the colored. 



TABLE 143 



Expenditures for Night Schools in Baltimore City, 1935-36 



Type of Work 


Expenditures 


White 


Colored 


Americanization 


$3,341.25 
3,781.52 
142.50 
9,918.93 

29,321.89 
5,876.97 
2,135.83 




Elementary 


$6,841.51 


Handicapped 


Junior 


2,370.93 
7,425.24 
1,423.55 


Senior 


Vocational 


Parent Education 


1935-36 




$54,518.89 


$18,061.23 


$72,580.12 
$61,423.14 


1934-35 





224 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The Federal government through the National Youth Admin- 
istration made available $3,830 to 80 v^hite and 38 colored stu- 
dents in seven evening high schools. This v^as an average of $32 
per student and in return services had to be rendered the school 
and community. 

In the Counties 

The regular evening school program in the counties was limited 
to vocational w^ork in industries in Allegany, Garrett, and Wash- 
ington, and to home economics in Cumberland. The enrollment 
and expenditures in Allegany v^ere larger in 1936 than in 1935. 
(See Table 144.) 



TABLE 144 

Salary Expenditures for Vocational Education in Maryland County Evening 
Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1936 



County 


Expenditures for Salaries of Teachers of Voca- 
tional Education in County Evening Schools 


Enroll- 










ment 




County Funds 


Federal Funds 


Total 




Industries: 










Allegany 


t$2, 698.25 


t$2,698.25 


t$5,396.50 


t396 


Garrett 


*1,441.00 


*1,441.00 


*2,882.00 


*130 


Washington 


550.00 


550.00 


1,100.00 


84 


Home Economics: 












486.25 


486.25 


972 . 50 


95 


Total 


$5,175.50 


$5,175.50 


$10,351.00 


705 



t Includes $1,253.00 from county and federal funds, respectively, for mining classes en- 
rolling: 162 pupils. 

* Mining classes for which the amount shown as county funds was paid by the Bureau 
of Mines. 



W. p. A. FEDERAL EMERGENCY EDUCATION PROGRAM 

Not only was there the regular evening school program in Bal- 
timore City and the counties, but also the Works Progress Ad- 
ministration carried on the Federal emergency education pro- 
gram in 16 counties, Baltimore City, and several institutions. 
The chief purposes were to provide employment for unemployed 
teachers and recreation leaders and to offer education and recre- 
ation for unemployed youth and adults who wished to use their 
time for education and self-improvement. The nursery schools 
in Hagerstown, Somerset County, Baltimore City, at Bowie Nor- 
mal School, and at the University of Maryland at College Park 
took care of a maximum of 425 white and 287 colored children. 
The mothers, some of whom were on relief, received suggestions 
on child feeding and care, when they came to the classes to ob- 
serve. Baltimore City continued the college centers for white 
and colored high school graduates who could not afford tuition 
payments in college or university. 



County Evening Schools; W. P. A. Emergency Education 225 

Program 

There was a maximum enrollment of 5,640 white and 4,225 
colored in sixteen counties for whom 117 white and 64 colored 
teachers were employed for adult general and nursery school 
classes at a cost of $80,606. The Baltimore City enrollment of 
1,521 white and 2,173 colored, instructed by a maximum of 47 
white and 47 colored teachers, cost nearly $55,000. The recrea- 
tion and physical education program under 21 white and 4 col- 
ored leaders sponsored by the Playground Athletic League cared 
for 6,936 white and 6,815 colored persons in Baltimore City and 
the counties at a cost of $19,743. Of this amount there was 
spent for field leaders at the county meets for white children 
$2,254 and for colored $1,206. Including various institutions 
which had programs the Federal government spent $183,856 for 
the teachers, supervisors, and materials for the Maryland emer- 
gency educational program. (See Table 145.) 

TABLE 145 



Federal Emergency Education Program Under the Works Progress 

Administration 





Maximum Number of 




county 


Teachers 


Classes 


Enrollment 


Expendi- 
ture 




White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 




Total Counties* 


117 


64 


380 


244 


5,640 


4,225 


*$80,606 


]^rince George's 

Anne Arundel 

Carroll 

Allegany 

(iarrett 

Somerset 

Howard 

I )orchester 

Montgomery 

Worcester 

Cecil 

Charles 


13 
17 
9 
6 
21 
14 
11 
6 
8 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 

■ ■ 3 


23 
18 

' " 2 
2 


23 
58 
62 
39 
29 
43 
36 
14 
21 
10 
10 
6 
9 
10 

' 10 


103 
43 

7 
32 

7 

' 29 

" '7 
5 
5 

' 2 
4 


289 
982 
821 
560 
711 
697 
441 
127 
279 
138 
144 
158 
160 
119 

' 14 


2,264 
892 
83 
339 
114 

207 

'i20 
74 
36 

' '22 
74 


16,622 
16,332 
3,796 
4,989 
16,309 
5,371 
5,557 
3,307 
2.598 
682 
1,395 
380 
791 
859 
606 
868 


Baltimore City 


47 


47 


83 


122 


1,521 


2,173 


54.775 


P. A. L.f 

Bowie Normal 

Sheppard Pratt 

Penitentiary 

University of Maryland 

Rehabilitation 

Adniinistration 


21 

■ ■ 2 
19 
3 


4 
8 


59 

' io 

7 
1 


20 
13 

' 17 


6.936 

' '55 
170 
24 


6,815 
321 

452 


19,743 
3,186 
1,199 

15.500 
1,653 
1,949 
5,245 


Total 


209 


125 


540 


416 


14,346 


13,986 


$183,856 



* Includes $144 spent in Talbot and Queen Anne's. 

t Playground Athletic League was responsible foi- physical education and rocroatii)n ac- 
tivities in Baltimore City and the counties. 



226 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Physical education and recreation showed the largest number 
enrolled for the emergency program, nearly 7,000 white and 7,000 
colored. Classes in music appreciation, band, orchestra, and 
choral music interested 1,254 white and 2,292 colored persons. 
The subjects in which instruction was given are listed in order 
of number enrolled in Table 146. 

TABLE 146 



Subjects Taught in the Maryland Emergency Education Program in 1935-36 





Maximum 


Maximum 


Maximum 




No. of Teachers 


No. of 


Classes 


No. Enrolled 


SUBJECT 
















White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Physical Education 




24 


5 


59 


28 


6,936 


6 958 


Sewing 


27 


20 


90 


35 


2 ,' 676 


l!075 


Music, Band, Orchestra 


9 


3 


39 


53 


1,008 


1,559 


General Adult 


26 


20 


94 


128 


517 


989 




3 


6 


12 


19 


246 


733 


Avocational Training 




2 




12 




748 


Nursery Schools 


"5i 


25 


"14 


5 


425 


287 


Parent Education 


2 


4 


13 


25 


182 


314 


Elementary 


6 


4 


19 


14 


238 


207 


Illiteracy 


9 


10 


16 


25 


218 


205 


English 


3 


4 


13 


16 


117 


259 


Home Management 


6 


5 


16 


14 


146 


138 




5 


1 


13 


1 


218 


15 


Commercial 


5 




20 




232 




Americanization 


3 


.... 


14 




176 




Cooking 


2 




9 


i 


152 


" "l2 


History 


1 


2 


5 




41 


87 


Language 


1 


2 


5 


7 


41 


87 


Nursing 


5 




20 




127 




First Aid 


3 




12 




118 




Rug Making, Handicraft, Industrial Arts. 


2 


2 


5 


3 


87 


30 


Arithmetic 


1 


3 


4 


8 


26 


70 


Art 


1 


.... 


8 




89 




Negro History 








■ "6 




' 'si 




■ ■ 2 


1 




1 


■ '67 


11 


Dramatics 


2 


1 


11 




29 


34 


other 


10 


3 


22 


6 


234 


87 


Total 


209 


125 


540 


416 


14,346 


13,986 



TABLE 147 



Baltimore City Federal Emergency Education Project 1935-36t 



TYPE OF WORK 


Enrollment 


Average 


Per Cent of 


Average No. 








Net Roll 


Attendance 


of Teachers 




White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Adult General 


956 


1,096 


627 


687 


73.8 


62.6 


8 


8 




297 


213 


198 


148 


75. 5 


87.6 


19 


14 


Parent Education 


233 


586 


138 


359 


69.1 


67.4 


1 


4 


College Centers 


325 


447 


151 


255 


62.8 


73.6 




13 


Total 


1,811 


2,342 


1,114 


1,449 


72.0 


68.3 


35 


39 



t Excerpts from page 114 of 1936 Report of Baltimore City Board of School Commissioners. 



W. p. A. Emergency Education Program; Vocational 227 
Rehabilitation 

The distribution of the Baltimore City enrollment and teachers 
in the Federal emergency program into the various types of 
classes — adult general, nursery school, parent education, and col- 
lege center — shows employment of 35 white and 39 colored 
teachers on the average. (See Table 147.) . The maximum num- 
ber of teachers employed in any month for Baltimore City was 
reported as 47 white and 47 colored in Table 145. The difference 
between data for Baltimore City in Tables 145 and 147 means that 
classes which did not maintain an adequate enrollment were 
discontinued. (See Table 147.) 



VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 
Service Rendered for the Year Ending June 30, 1936 

TABLE 148 



Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland 
During Year Ending June 30, 1936 













Being 














Training 


Prepared 


Surveyed, 


Closed 


County 


Total 




Being 


Completed 


for 


under 


after 




No. of 


Rehabili- 


Followed 


Awaiting 


Employ- 


Advise- 


other 




Cases 


tated 


on Jobs 


Jobs 


ment* 


ment 


Servicest 


Total Counties . . 


291 


62 


7 


22 


66 


106 


28 


Allegany 


43 


10 


1 


5 


13 


10 


4 


Anne Arundel . . . 


12 


3 


1 


2 


3 


3 






21 


2 






4 


12 


■ ■ 2 


Calvert 


4 








3 


1 






10 


' ' 2 






1 


5 




Carroll 












6 




Cecil 


8 




" "i 




' ' 3 


4 




Charles 


5 


"i 






1 


3 




Dorchester 


10 


o 






1 


4 




Frederick 


27 


5 






4 


12 


5 


Garrett 


24 


5 






6 


5 


6 


Harford 


13 


2 






4 


5 


1 




2 










1 




Kent 


5 


' ' 2 






. . 


1 


i 


Montgomery 


10 


1 






5 


2 




^Prince George's . 


10 


5 






2 


2 




Queen Anne's. . . 


2 


1 






1 


.... 




St. Mary's 


5 


3 






1 










1 






2 


4 




Talbot 


4 










4 




Washington 


36 


"li 


' ' 2 


' ' 2 


' ' 6 


10 


"5 


Wicomico 


19 


3 


2 


2 


4 


8 


.... 


Worcester 




2 






1 


3 




Baltimore City. 


273 


39 


8 


26 


77 


112 


11 


Total State: 
















1936 


564 


101 


15 


48 


143 


218 


39 


1935 


574 


101 


49 


20 


168 


160 


76 


1934 


261 


73 


31 


12 


99 


46 


x82 


1933 


°228 


43 




22 


59 


90 


x35 


1932 


245 


41 




11 


52 


141 


x95 


1931 


246 


18 




12 


29 


137 


50 



* Throuph training, artificial appliances, hospitalization, or otherwise, 
t Cases accepteii and rendered service, but not rehabilitated. 

° Includes 14 cases in Baltimore City where period of employment was not sufficiently long 
to determine whether jobs were permanent. 
X Not eligible or susceptible. 



228 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The number of rehabilitations in 1936 was exactly the same 
as during the previous year, 101, although the total number of 
persons receiving some type of service dropped from 574 to 564. 
This is explained by the assignment of a member of the staff 
to new territory, which left the counties in which he had previ- 
ously worked without service for several months. 

In addition to the number rehabilitated, 143 disabled persons 
were being trained, 48 others were awaiting employment after 
training, and 15 had been placed on jobs but had not been work- 
ing long enough to warrant classifying them as rehabilitated. 
A total of 218 additional cases had been surveyed, i.e., declared 
eligible for service, but not yet inducted into training. Closures 
for the year other than rehabilitations amounted to 39. (See 
Table 148.) 

Rehabilitation service was rendered to persons in every coun- 
ty and Baltimore City, the number of cases in the counties being 
18 more than in Baltimore City. 

The following are some of the vocations for which disabled 
persons were trained during the year 1935-36 : 



Auto mechanic 
Bacteriologist 
Baker 
Barber 

Basket maker 
Beautician 
Clock repairman 
Collector 
Crane operator 
Dairyman 
Doll maker 
Draftsman 
Dry cleaner 
Electric welder 
Glass cutter 
Jeweler 



Key punch operator 
Linotype operator 
Machinist's helper 
Mail carrier 
Milk tester 
Milliner 
Minister 
Painter 
Photographer 
Photo retoucher 
Poultryman 
Press operator 
Repairman, electric 

refrigerators 
Repairman, furniture 



Repairman, power 
machines 

Repairman, radio 

Rug weaver 

Salesman, auto- 
mobile 

Seamstress 

Social worker 

Spray painter 

Stenographer 

Stock clerk 

Tailor 

Teacher 

Telephone operator 
Typewriter mechanic 
Waterman 



Cooperation with Other Agencies 

Contacts have been maintained with the various educational, 
health, social welfare, and civic agencies of the State. Working 
agreements have been in effect between the rehabilitation serv- 
ice and the State Employment Commission, State Industrial 
Accident Commission, Emergency Relief offices, and the Nation- 
al Reemployment office. 

The staff 

The State rehabilitation staff was supplemented during the 
year by the addition of the counselor and placement officer for 
physically handicapped children who had been on the Baltimore 
City staff. Otherwise, the State staff continued with the super- 
visor, rehabilitation assistant, and secretary. 



Vocational Rehabilitation Services 



229 



Emergency Program Under F. E. R. A. 

With the aid of a small balance left in the Adult Education 
Program of the F. E. R. A. when this work was taken over by W. 
P. A. in December, 1935, it was possible to continue the employ- 
ment of two case workers and one clerk during the entire period 
covered by this report, and a third case worker for the period 
from February to June, 1936. These workers had a live roll of 
234 cases at the close of the fiscal year. The cost was $1,949. 

Legislation 

At the special session of the Maryland Legislature held early 
in 1936, that section of the 1929 rehabilitation act which limited 
the annual State appropriations to a maximum of $15,000 was re- 
pealed. It is now possible for any future legislature to appropri- 
ate whatever amount it sees fit for rehabilitation purposes. 

Finances 

Title 5*of Part 4 of the Federal Social Security Act of 1936 
makes provision for a Federal allotment of $25,224.49 for voca- 
tional rehabilitation, whenever this amount is matched with State 
funds. The 1938 and 1939 budgets include $15,000 as the State 
appropriation for vocational rehabilitation. Efforts will be made 
to secure local funds and private contributions to match in part 
additional Federal funds available so that a part of the emergen- 
cy program under F. E. R. A. may be continued on a permanent 
basis. 



230 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



FINANCING THE MARYLAND SCHOOLS 

The amount of $8,847,869 for school current expenses in the 
23 counties of Maryland, including $132,327 estimated as expendi- 
tures by county health offices for school children taken into ac- 
count for the first time in 1936, was an increase of $657,961 over 
the amount shown for 1935. Reviewed over the period since 
1919, county school current expenses grew larger each year until 
they reached their peak in 1932, decreased thereafter each year 
until 1934, since w^hich year there have been increases. Expendi- 
tures for 1936 were exceeded in 1931 and 1932. (See column 1, 
Table 149 and Chart 34.) 



CHART 34 

Total School Current Expenses and Total State Aid in the 23 Counties and 
Baltimore City,* 1919 to 1936 




ISIS '''■i" '^23 1915 lin tt\z<n ,«^3i |<}33 i<\2s 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training teachers in City training school (s), 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 



Expenditures, State and Federal Aid for Maryland Schools 231 



TABLE 149 



Expenditure for School Current Expenses From State and Local Funds and 
Capital Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1919-1936 



Year 
Ending 
July 31, 


CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 


Capital 
Outlay 

i 


Total 


From Stato 
and F(HloraI 
Vocational Funds 


From Local 
Funds 


Total Counties 


1919 


$3,184,351 


22 


$1,230 


181 


60 


$1,954,169 


62 


$311,137 


.08 


1920 


3,703,153 


29 


1,186 


192 


67 


2,516,960 


62 


485.601 


.23 


1921 


5,043,923 


02 


1 , 5.54 


693 


60 


3,489,229 


42 


929,024 


.08 


1922 


5,291,124 


43 


1,545 


695 


85 


3,745,428 


58 


1,121.553 


.98 


1923 


5,964,456 


44 


2,026 


315 


58 


3,938,140 


86 


1.475,268 


.52 


1924 


6,475,802 


93 


2,068 


186 


05 


4,407,616 


88 


949,719 


.78 


1925 


6,743,015 


08 


2,161 


571 


04 


4,581,444 


04 


2,527,823 


.35 


1926 


7,143,149 


65 


2,248 


399 


75 


4,894.749 


90 


2,602,745 


.09 


1927 


7,517,728 


77 


2.329 


031 


35 


5,188,697 


42 


1,023,362 


.25 


1928 


7,787,298 


09 


t°2,246 


541 


47 


5,540,756 


62 


1,532,717 


90 


1929 


8,164,657 


18 


t =2,322 


643 


82 


5,842,013 


36 


1,773,070 


68 


1930 


8,456,414 


05 


t2,349 


030 


19 


6.107,383 


86 


2,450,143 


80 


1931 


8,852,073 


43 


2,387 


238 


76 


6.464,834 


67 


2.172.087 


55 


1932 


8,892,181 


36 


2,726 


405 


04 


6,165,776 


32 


1.650.064 


84 


1933 


8,485,145 


77 


2.597 


044 


97 


5,888,100 


80 


688,497 


49 


1934 


8,010,424 


97 


3.681 


109 


01 


4,329.315 


96 


1,132,432 


95 


1935 


8,189,908 


69 


3,728 


978 


20 


4.460,930 


49 


1,590,879 


02 


1936 


t§8,847,869 


05 


13,714 


578 


64 


§5.133.290 


41 


2.000,321 


41 




Baltimore City* 


1919 


$2,832,543 


59 


$671 


006 


78 


$2,161,536 


81 


.$38,562 


29 


1920 


3,706,641 


51 


713 


287 


02 


2.993.354 


49 


60,741 


25 


1921 


5,394,655 


76 


1,032 


541 


55 


4,362.114 


21 


1,267,636 


20 


1922 


6,631,682 


32 


1,026 


972 


79 


5 , 604 , 709 


53 


1.417,569 


15 


1923 


6,949,793 


45 


1.066 


100 


96 


5,883.692 


49 


3.301,086 


21 


1924 


6,963,332 


47 


1,061 


111 


63 


5,902.220 


84 


5.336.889 


06 


1925 


7,419,638 


99 


1,042 


479 


92 


6.377.159 


07 


3.224.733 


82 


1926 


7,660,787 


84 


1.056 


893 


87 


6,603.893 


97 


3,484.766 


86 


1927 


8,040,694 


93 


1,086 


496 


95 


6,9.54.197 


98 


4.200.037 


45 


1928 


8,503.427 


29 


tl,016 


993 


13 


7.486.434 


16 


1.897.871 


37 


1929 


8,910.245 


11 


tl.037 


490 


92 


7,872,754 


19 


633.631 


71 


1930 


9,340,560 


01 


995 


063 


18 


8,345,496 


83 


1 . 508 , 678 


41 


1931 


9,817,669 


53 


946 


023 


62 


8,871,645 


91 


3.658,046 


55 


1932 


9,542,054 


34 


985 


562 


39 


8,556,491 


95 


2.678,922 


51 


1933 


8,494,508 


42 


1,083 


401 


42 


7,411.107 


00 


1,268.158 


96 


1934 


8,095.588 


20 


958 


666 


94 


7,136.921 


26 


1.087,351 


10 


1935 


8,576,553 


32 


980 


296 


61 


7,596,256 


71 


642.191 


22 


1936 


8,832.151 


05 


972 


758 


92 


7,859,392 


13 


223.668 


45 










Entire 


State* 








1919 


$6,016,894 


81 


$1,901 


188 


38 


$4,115,706 


43 


$349,699 


37 


1920 


7.409,794 


80 


1,899 


479 


69 


5,510,315 


11 


546.342 


48 




10,438.578 


78 


2,587 


235 


15 


7,851.343 


63 


2.196.660 


28 


1922 


11.922.806 


75 


2,572 


668 


64 


9,350.138 


11 


2.539.123 


13 


1923 


12,914.249 


89 


3,092 


416 


54 


9,821,833 


35 


4.776.354 


73 


1924 


13,439.135 


40 


3.129 


297 


68 


10,309,837 


72 


6.286.608 


84 


1925 


14.162.654 


07 


3,204 


050 


96 


10,958,603 


11 


5.752.557 


17 


1926 


14.803,937 


49 


3,305 


293 


62 


11,498.643 


87 


6.087.511 


95 


1927 


15,558.423 


70 


3,415 


528 


30 


12.142.895 


40 


5.223.399 


70 


1928 


16,290.725 


38 


3,263 


534 


60 


13,027.190 


78 


3 . 430 . 589 


27 


1929 


17,074,902 


29 


3,360 


134 


74 


13.714.767 


55 


2.406.702 


39 


1930 


17,796,974 


06 


t3,344 


093 


37 


14.452.880 


69 


3.958.822 


21 


1931 


18,669,742 


96 


3.333 


262 


38 


15,336.480 


58 


5.830.134 


10 


1932 


18,434,235 


70 


3.711 


967 


43 


14,722.268 


27 


4.328.987 


35 


1933 


16.979.654 


19 


3.680 


446 


39 


13,299.207 


80 


1.956.656 


45 


1934 


16.106,013 


17 


4.639 


775 


95 


11,466.237 


22 


2.219.784. 


05 


1935 


16.766,462 


01 


4.709 


274 


81 


12,0.57,187 


20 


2,233.070. 


24 


1936 


t§17. 680.020 


10 


t4,687 


337 


56 


§12.992.682 


54 


2.223.989. 


86 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training school (s), 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund, 
t Excludes receipts from liiiuidation of Free School Fund. 

° Excludes $6,500 to be use<l by Charles County for school building purposes. 

t Includes for the first time estimate of $63,499 State funds expended for public school 
health service throuprh full-time county health offices. 

!) Includes for the first time estimate of $68,828 county funds for public school health 
service expendetl through full-time county health offices. 



232 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



State and Federal vocational aid to the current expenses of 
county school systems which totaled $3,714,579 in 1936, including I 
$63,499 estimated as the amount spent for health work for school I 
children not reported heretofore, was $14,400 less than the maxi- | 
mum for 1935. State and Federal vocational aid for schools has 
been at its maximum since 1934, as a result of 1933 legislation 
(1) which provided the fund for reduction of taxation in the 
counties totalling $1,500,000 in 1934 and 1935 and $1,250,000 in 
1936 to offset the cost of financing the $12,000,000 bond issue 
for the Baltimore City relief program, and (2) which reduced 
the county levy for school current expenses required for participa- 
tion in the Equalization Fund from 67 to 47 cents. (See column 
2, Table 149 and Chart 34, and also Table 151, page 235.) 

The expenditure of $5,133,290 from county levies for school 
purposes, including an estimate of $68,828 levied by county 
health offices for school children shown for the first time, was 
$672,360 more than the 1935 figure, but was low^er than amounts 
levied from 1927 to 1933, inclusive. Until 1933 a 67 cent coun- 
ty levy was required for participation in the State Equalization 
Fund. Since then the minimum county levy required has been 
47 cents. (See column 3, Table 149.) 

Capital outlav in the counties in 1936 aggregated just over 
$2,000,000 which included $671,470 in grants from the Federal 
Public Works Administration. The 1936 capital outlay was larg- 
er than it has been since retrenchment went into effect in 1932. 
(See last column of Table 149.) 

In Baltimore City school current expenses were $8,832,151*, 
larger by $255,598 than in 1935, but less than the expenditures 
from 1929 to 1932. State and Federal vocational aid in Baltimore 
City was $972,759*, less by $7,538 than for 1935. The Balti- 
more City 1936 levy for current expenses of public school chil- 
dren, $7,859,392, was $263,135 more than for 1935. The 1936 
levy was exceeded in the four years between 1929 and 1932, in- 
clusive. These figures for Baltimore City include expenditures 
for training teachers at the Coppin Training School for Colored 
Teachers, but exclude amounts appropriated by the City and 
State on account of teachers in the Baltimore City Employees' 
Retirement System. (See middle section of Table 149 and Chart 
34.) 

Capital outlay for Baltimore City public schools, $223,668 in 
1936 including a grant of $157,500 from the Federal Public 
Works Administration, was less than it had been for any year 
since 1920. (See Table 149.) 

For the entire State the 1936 current expenses for public 
school children were $17,680,020, an increase of $913,558 over 
1935 and more than was spent for three years preceding but 
less than was spent for the three years from 1930 to 1932. 



* Baltimore City figures exclude City and State aid for teachers in the Baltimore City 
Employees' Retirement System. 



Trend of School Costs in Counties and Baltimore City 233 



State and Federal vocational aid to schools for 1936, $4,687,- 
338, was larger than it had been for any year before, except 
1935. Levies from county and Baltimore City funds totaled $12,- 
992,683 in 1936, more than for the two years immediately pre- 
ceding, but less than amounts levied from 1928 to 1933, inclusive. 
These amounts exclude public funds distributed to maintain the 
Teachers' Retirement Fund. (See lower part of Table 149.) 

School capital outlay for Maryland in 1936 totalled $2,223,990, 
very close to the amounts spent for two years preceding, but less 
than the capital outlay for the period from 1922 to 1932, inclu- 
sive. The 1936 total included $828,970 in grants from the Federal 
Public Works Administration. (See last column, lower part of 
Table 149.) 

Causes of Increase in Cost 

From 1920 to 1936 the total current expenses of public schools 
increased approximately 139 per cent in the counties and 138 per 
cent in Baltimore City. The levy in the counties increased by 
103 per cent, while that in Baltimore City increased by 162 per 
cent. State and Federal vocational aid increased 215 per cent 
in the counties and 36.5 per cent in the City. Meanwhile, atten- 
dance in the counties increased by 48.7 per cent and in Baltimore 
City the gain was 40.3 per cent. The difference between per cent 

TABLE 150 



Day School Enrollment and Attendance in Elementary and Secondary Schools 
of Counties and Baltimore City, 1920 to 1936 





23 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Entire State 


School Year 














Ending June 30 
















En- 


At- 


En- 


At- 


En- 


At- 




rollment 


tendance 


rollment 


tendance 


rollment 


tendance 


1920 


*145,045 


99,812 


*96,573 


75,500 


*241.618 


175.312 


1921 


*149,045 


108,178 


*100.092 


81,570 


*249.137 


189.748 


1922 


*147,409 


114,190 


*101.480 


84,208 


*248,889 


198.398 


1923 


152,474 


115,743 


104,072 


86,124 


256.546 


201.867 


1924 


151,538 


117,222 


104,764 


86,540 


256.302 


203.762 


1925 


153,636 


121.665 


107,133 


89,467 


260,769 


211 .132 


1926 


154,969 


123,260 


108.280 


90,844 


263.249 


214.104 


1927 


156,788 


127,018 


111 ,029 


91,925 


267,817 


218,943 


1928 


158,368 


131 ,439 


112,. 532 


94,230 


270,900 


225.669 


1929 


160,217 


131,923 


113.315 


94,731 


273.532 


226.6.54 


1930 


162,209 


137.481 


115,250 


98.074 


277.459 


235.555 


1931 


165,314 


142,397 


116,203 


101 ,064 


281 .517 


243,461 


1932 


168,964 


145.676 


119,205 


103,722 


288.169 


249,398 


1933 


172.745 


150,301 


121,374 


105,627 


294.119 


255.928 


1934 


172,109 


147,239 


121,569 


104.987 


293.678 


252,226 


1935 


172.409 


148. 174 


123,068 


106.443 


295.477 


254,617 


1936 


172,921 


148.398 


125r236 


105.903 


298,157 


2.54.301 


Increase, 1920-36 




48.586 




30,403 




78.989 


Per Cent of Increase 




48.7 




40.3 




45.1 



* Duplicates not excluded as in later years. 



234 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

of increase in cost and in number of pupils is accounted for by 
changes in the purchasing power of the dollar, longer school 
terms for county colored schools, a larger proportion of pupils 
in high and vocational schools (the more expensive part of the 
school system), a larger proportion of trained and experienced 
teachers and school officials who command higher salaries, pro- 
vision for supervision for elementary schools in every county, the 
policy of giving greater State-aid to the financially poorer coun- 
ties through the Equalization Fund which was first available in 
1923, provision for transporting county children at public ex- 
pense to consolidated elementary and high schools, specialized 
provision for handicapped children, and a night and summer 
school program in Baltimore City. (See Tables 149 and 150.) 

It will be noted that the counties spent 50 per cent of the total 
State school current expenses (See Table 149), although they had 
58 per cent of the public school pupils in the State. (See Table 
150.) The greater expenditure in Baltimore City was due to 
higher salary schedules, more specialized provision for vocational 
education and for handicapped pupils, provision for night and 
summer schools, specialized provision for individual and group 
testing programs and educational guidance. On the other hand, 
the counties, because of the territory to be covered, had to have 
many more schools and teachers than Baltimore City, requiring 
many small classes in one- and two-teacher schools and small 
high schools, and had to provide transportation to consolidated 
schools for many pupils living too far to walk to school. (See 
Tables 149 and 150.) 

An analysis of the various items included in State and Feder- 
al vocational aid to the counties in 1935 and 1936 shows the 
increase and decrease in each individual item. Outside of the 
new item of $63,499 for State-aid to the county health service 
for school children included for the first time, only two items, the 
Equalization Fund and fund for reduction of taxation show 
changes of any size. (See Table 151.) 

The increase of $142,784 in the Equalization Fund is accounted 
for in part (1) by the cut of $250,000 in the fund for reduction of 
taxation which had to be made up to the extent to which it af- 
fected the Equalization Fund counties, and in part (2) by the 
restoration by legislative authorization and the Board of Public 
Works of 25 per cent of the cut in the State minimum salary 
schedule which went into effect in the fall of 1933. The Equali- 
zation Fund is the amount of money in addition to other forms 
of State-aid provided in the State Public School Budget so that 
each county may carry the requirements of the State minimum 
program for salaries and other current school expenses on a 
county tax rate of 47 cents for school current expenses. Many 
of the Equalization Fund counties, however, provide more than 
the minimum established! for teachers' salaries, number of teach- 



Explanation of Increased School Costs 



235 



ers employed, number of grades in the elementary course, books 
and materials, transportation of high school pupils, and in con- 
sequence levy more than the 47 cent minimum county levy re- 
quired for school current expenses. 



TABLE 151 



State and Federal Vocational Aid Distributed to the 23 Counties forVarious 
Items Compared for 1935 and 1936 



Distribution of State Aid 
on Basis of 


otate an( 
Vocatio 

1935 


I r eaeral 
nal Aid 

1936 


Increase 


Decrease 


School Census, Ages 6-14 Years and 
Aggregate Days of Attendance! 

Average number belonging for books 

Part payment of salaries of county 

Colored supervisors, home economics, 

Equalization Fund 

1930 Census for Reducing Taxation . . . 

Handicapped Children 

Vocational Education aided by Federal 

funds 

Estimated State-aided health service 

for school children given by full- 
Total 


$1,011,706.86 
483,922.95 

145,561.36 

136,398.00 

27,000.00 
353,325.00 
1,500,000.00 
8,598.84 

61,965.15 

500 ! 66 


$1,019,186.57 
492,256.50 

145,271.58 

137,142.79 

27,000.00 
496,109.31 
1,250,000.00 
14,238.46 

69,374.44 

*63,499.00 
500.00 


$7,479.71 
8,333.55 

744.79 

142,784^31 
5,639^62 
7,409.29 

*63,499.00 


$289.78 
250, 000 166 


$3,728,978.16 


$3,714,578.65 


$235,890.27 


$250,289.78 
14,399.51 



* Included for the first time in 1935-36. t In schools not receiving State high school aid. 



PER CENT OF AID AVAILABLE FROM STATE AND FEDERAL 
VOCATIONAL FUNDS 

The 1936 data on school current expenses, State and Federal 
vocational aid, and receipts from county and other sources by 
amount and percentage show that in the 23 counties 42 per cent 
of the school current expenses came from State and Federal vo- 
cational funds, a decrease of 3.5 under the preceding year. As 
set forth in Table 151 there v^as a slight decrease in State and 
Federal vocational funds, but as is evident in Table 149 there was 
a considerable increase in funds provided from county and other 
sources. (See Table 152 and Chart 35.) 

Among the counties State and Federal vocational aid ranged 
between 26 per cent in Montgomery and 70 per cent in Somerset. 
Nine counties received more than half of their school current ex- 
penses from State and Federal vocational funds. These coun- 
ties were Somerset, Garrett, Calvert, Charles, St. Mary's, Caro- 
line, Dorchester, Carroll, and Worcester. The Equalization Fund 



236 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



I 



distributed to fourteen counties, which accounted for a minimum 
of 2.5 per cent of the aid in Allegany and a maximum of 33.6 per 
cent in Garrett, is that factor in the distribution of aid which 
takes into consideration the financial ability of a county to sup- 
port the minimum State program. The Equalization Fund rep- 
resents the difference between the current expenses for the min- 
imum school program as calculated by the State Department of 
Education and the funds available for school current expenses 
from a county levy of 47 cents on the assessable basis taxable at 
the full rate for county purposes. 

TABLE 152 



Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State and Federal 
Funds for School Purposes for Year Ending July 31, 1936 



County 


Total 
Disbursements 
for Current 
Expenses 


Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 




Per Cent of Current Expense 
Disbursements Received from 


*State and 

Federal 
Vocational 
Aid 


fCounty and 
Other 
Sources 


State & Federal 
Vocational 
Funds 


State & Federal 
Funds Exclud- 
ing Equaliza- 
tion Fund 


State Equaliza- 
tion Fund 


County and 
Other Sources 


Total Counties 


$8,847,869 


05 


$3,714,578 


64 


$5,133,290 


41 


42 





36 


.4 


5.6 


58.0 


Somerset 


203.625 


31 


143,186 


33 


60,438 


98 


70 


3 


43 


.9 


26.4 


29.7 


Garrett 


289,600 


26 


192,476 


79 


97,123 


47 


66 


4 


32 


.8 


33.6 


33.6 


Calvert 


106,744 


65 


70,561 


08 


36,183 


57 


66 


1 


40 


.8 


25.3 


33.9 




178,204 


74 


114,615 


03 


63 , 589 


71 


64 


3 


43 


.1 


21.2 


35.7 


St. Mary's 


120,972 


42 


77,428 


78 


43 , 543 


64 


64 





49 


.3 


14.7 


36.0 




198,655 


53 


120,145 


91 


78 , 509 


62 


60 


5 


39 


9 


20.6 


39.5 


Dorchester 


263,999 


50 


150,476 


88 


113,522 


62 


57 





41 





16.0 


43.0 


Carroll 


397,911 


64 


204,833 


30 


193,078 


34 


51 


5 


36 


.8 


14.7 


48.5 


Worcester 


210.270 


11 


107,706 


15 


102,563 


96 


51 


2 


43 


3 


7.9 


48.8 




294,479 


37 


144,818 


29 


149,661 


08 


49 


2 


40 


7 


8.5 


50.8 


Howard 


154,337 


51 


72 , 306 


46 


82,031 


05 


46 


8 


46 


8 




53.2 


Queen Anne's 


161,846 


96 


75,512 


16 


86,334 


80 


46 


7 


40 


7 


'6.6 


53.3 


Kent 


162,314 


71 


73,287 


90 


89,026 


81 


45 


2 


38 


9 


6.3 


54.8 


Talbot 


184,109 


92 


77,372 


85 


106,737 


07 


42 





42 







58.0 


Anne Arundel 


554,573 


33 


229,297 


39 


325,275 


94 


41 


3 


34 


8 


'6^5 


58.7 




330,341 


05 


133,842 


47 


196,498 


58 


40 


5 


40 


5 




59.5 


Cecil 


264,010 


20 


104,682 


37 


159,327 


83 


39 


7 


39 


7 




60.3 


Prince George's. . . . 


654,460 


88 


246,953 


32 


407,507 


56 


37 


7 


37 


7 




62.3 


Washington 


648,820 


19 


244.514 


37 


404,305 


82 


37 


7 


37 


7 




62.3 


Frederick 


537,828 


31 


198,323 


90 


339 , 504 


41 


36 


9 


36 


9 




63.1 


Allegany 


924,215 


75 


316,064 


35 


608,151 


40 


34 


2 


31 


7 


'2.5 


65.8 


Baltimore 


1,216,239 


31 


409,675 


54 


806,563 


77 


33 


7 


33 


7 




66.3 


Montgomery 


790,307 


40 


206,497 


02 


583,810 


38 


26 


1 


26 


1 




73.9 


Baltimore City 


18,815,844 


16 


1972,758 


92 


t7, 843, 085 


24 


11. 





11 







89.0 


State 


tl7,663,713 


21 


14,687,337 


56 


tl2,976,375 


65 


26. 


5 


23 


7 


2.8 


73.5 



* Excludes Federal aid for 1934-35 received after July 31, 1935, but includes State and 
Federal funds for 193-5-36 received after July 31, 1936. Includes for the first time estimated 
State funds of $63,499.00 for public school health services expended by county health offices. 

t Includes for the first time estimate of county funds for public school health services ex- 
pended by county health offices amounting to $68,828.00. 

t Excludes $887,802.00 for Baltimore City Retirement System, of which $497,945.00 was 
paid by the State. 



Aid Received from State and Federal and Local Funds 237 



CHART 35 



PER CENT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAR ENDING JULY 51, 1936 



Jleceived fronC 



I State and Federal Vocational Funds 
excluding Equalization Fund 
] Equalization Fund 



V/////A County Funds and Other Sources 



County Average 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Howard 

Queen Anne*s 

Kent 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Cecil 

Prince George's 

Washington 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Baltimore Ci-ty 

State 




y//////////////////////////m 



V/////////////////^///////////A 



v///////y//////////A^//////////A 



'///////////////////////////^TTTZy 



y^///////////////////////////////7, 



•y/////////////////////////////////. 





^^'^Y////////////y//. 


////////////////////, 







In Baltimore City, excluding City and State contributions to the 
Retirement System, receipts from State and Federal vocational 
funds represented 11 per cent of the total school current expenses. 
The percentage that State and Federal vocational aid represented 
of school current expenses for the entire State was 26.5. (See 
Table 152 and Chart 35.) 



238 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
EXPENDITURE OF EACH SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR 
TABLE 153 



Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1936 



County 


Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used for 


Per Cent of 
Expenditures 
for Current 
Expenses and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 
Capital 
Outlay 


General Control 


Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Books. Materials 
and Other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary Agencies* 


Fixed Charges and 
Tuition to Ad- 
joining Counties 


County Average 


2.9 


1.7 


66.9 


4.0 


7.1 


3.2 


12.8 


1.4 


18.5 


Allegany 


2.2 


1.6 


70.3 


4.7 


7.3 


2.7 


10.0 


1.2 


39.8 


Anne Arundel 


2.4 


1.5 


64.2 


4.5 


7.2 


3.2 


15.5 


1.5 


1.1 




2.4 


1.3 


71.8 


3.0 


7.7 


2.0 


9.7 


2.1 


9.8 


Calvert 


5.7 


3.2 


47.2 


2.6 


4.9 


2.3 


33.1 


1.0 


.1 


Caroline 


4.2 


2.0 


59.6 


3.2 


6.1 


5.6 


18.3 


1.0 


17.7 


Carroll 


2.8 


1.4 


62.4 


3.9 


5.5 


2.6 


18.5 


2.9 


36.9 


Cecil 


2.5 


1.6 


69.5 


5.1 


6.6 


1.7 


12.0 


1.0 


7.7 




3.2 


2.0 


56.2 


4.0 


6.0 


5.4 


21.8 


1.4 


4.8 


Dorchester 


3.5 


2.3 


62.9 


4.3 


6.0 


3.3 


16.6 


1.1 


37.7 




2.4 


1.6 


66.5 


4.0 


6.2 


1.6 


16.4 


1.3 


4.8 


Garrett 


4.1 


1.2 


58.8 


4.7 


4.1 


3.8 


21.5 


1.8 


2.4 


Harford 


2.9 


1.8 


74.0 


3.8 


6.3 


3.9 


6.5 


.8 


32.8 


Howard 


4.7 


2.0 


63.1 


4.0 


6.3 


1.8 


14.9 


3.2 


33.2 


Kent 


4.7 


2.5 


58.5 


4.2 


7.7 


3.7 


18.2 


.5 


.9 




2.4 


1.7 


67.8 


4.7 


9.7 


3.9 


8.7 


1.1 


22.4 


Prince George's 


2.5 


1.6 


69.6 


4.9 


7.7 


6.3 


6.6 


1.4 


26.6 




4.8 


2.2 


57.7 


1.8 


6.7 


3.5 


21.8 


1.5 


2.8 


St. Mary's 


5.6 


2.9 


56.1 


2.8 


4.3 


2.8 


25.0 


.5 


5.5 




4.1 


1.8 


65.3 


4.3 


5.5 


4.1 


14.2 


.7 


4.3 


Talbot 


4.7 


2.2 


61.3 


3.7 


7.4 


4.3 


15.2 


1.2 






2.1 


1.5 


74.3 


3.8 


7.7 


1.9 


7.7 


1.0 


'3!3 




3.9 


2.0 


66.8 


3.7 


6.2 


5.0 


11.8 


.6 


1.4 




3.9 


1.8 


60.5 


3.1 


8.5 


3.3 


17.8 


1.1 


2.2 




3.3 


1.3 


75.1 


3.5 


10.2 


3.6 


2.7 


.3 


2.5 


State 


3.1 


1.5 


71.0 


3.7 


8.7 


3.4 


7.8 


.8 


11.2 



* Includes for the first time estimated expenditures for public school services by the county 
health offices. 



The county average school current expense tax dollar was 
spent in 1936 for salaries of teachers to the extent of 66.9 cents ; 
for auxiliary agencies, viz., transportation, libraries, health, and 
community activities, including for the first time services ren- 
dered to school children by the county health offices, 12.8 cents; 
for heating and cleaning school buildings, 7.1 cents; for books, 
materials and ''other costs of instruction," 4 cents ; for repairs and 
replacements of grounds, buildings, and equipment, 3.2 cents; 
for administration, including the office of the county superin- 
tendent with its clerical staff and attendance officer and expenses 
of the county board of education, 2.9 cents; for supervision of 
elementary schools in all counties and of high schools in two coun- 
ties, 1.7 cents; and for rent, insurance on buildings, and payments 



How THE School Current Expense Tax Dollar Was Spent 239 



to adjoining counties or states, 1.4 cents. All of these amounts 
were lower in 1936 than in 1935 by from .1 to .5 of one cent, ex- 
cept auxiliary agencies and repairs, which were higher by 1.2 
cents and .3 of one cent, respectively. The increase for auxili- 
ary agencies was due almost entirely to the estimated expenditure 
on health services to school children made by the county health 
offices and included in 1936 for the first time. (See Table 153 
and Chart 36.) 



CHART 36 




* Fixed charges and payments to adjoining counties. 

Among the counties the percentage distributions showed wide 
variation due to size of county, density of population, the stage 
of the program of consolidation, and other factors. For general 
control, or administration, the larger counties, Washington, Alle- 
gany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Frederick, Montgomery, Cecil, 
and Prince George's, spent from 2.1 to 2.5 cents out of each tax 
dollar in contrast with from 4.7 to 5.7 cents in small counties 
such as Calvert, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, Talbot, Kent, and 
Howard. All of the functions of running a county school system 
have to be performed whether the county be large or small. The 
proportionate overhead cost in the small county is necessarily 
much greater than in the large county. 



240 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Variation in per cent of current expense funds devoted to 
supervisory costs was from 1.2 and 1.6 cents in Garrett, Balti- 
more, Carroll, Washington, Anne Arundel, Allegany, Cecil, Fred- 
erick, and Prince George's Counties, which counties employed 
fewer supervisors than the number for whom they w^ere eligible 
to receive State-aid, to from 2.5 to 3.2 cents in Kent, St. Mary's, 
and Calvert in which the number of elementary teachers to be 
supervised is small. Since the supervisory program is a most 
important element in promoting and maintaining the efficiency 
of instruction, every county is required to have at least one sup- 
ervisor. (See Table 153.) 

The per cent of funds used for salaries of principals and teach- 
ers varied from less than 60 in Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles, Queen 
Anne's, Kent, Garrett, and Caroline to more than 70 per cent in 
Washington, Harford, Baltimore, and Allegany Counties. The 
former group of counties pay only the required minimum salaries 
and because of the scattered population transport a high percent- 
age of pupils to school, which means that a large proportion of 
their funds must be set aside for auxiliary agencies. On the other 
hand, the latter group of counties pay salaries above those re- 
quired in the minimum State salary schedule, and transport a 
smaller proportion of their pupils to school, either because of the 
concentration of population in urban or suburban centers or be- 
cause a widespread program of school consolidation has not yet 
been adopted. (See Table 153.) 

Great variation appeared also for auxiliary agencies, — trans- 
portation, libraries, health, evening schools, and community ac- 
tivities. Five counties — Harford, Prince George's, Washington, 
Montgomery and Baltimore — devoted less than 10 per cent of 
their current expenses to these purposes, whereas between 21 
and 33 per cent was used in Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles, Queen 
Anne's, and Garrett, which transport a large proportion of their 
pupils. (See Table 153.) 

Queen Anne's, Calvert, and St. Mary's were the only counties 
which spent less than 3 per cent of their current expenses for 
books, materials, and ''other costs of instruction," and in these 
counties only 1.8 and 2.8 per cent was devoted to these purposes. 
In contrast, Allegany, Garrett, Montgomery, Prince George's, 
and Cecil used between 4.7 and 5.1 per cent of their current ex- 
penditures for these tools and aids to instruction. (See Table 
153.) 

Operation — heating and cleaning buildings — took as little as 
4.1 and 4.3 per cent of current expenses in Garrett and St. Mary's, 
which have a large proportion of one-teacher schools. Schools 
in these counties are kept clean by giving a small allowance to the 
teacher to be expended for this purpose and in Garrett they are 
heated with inexpensive coal available close to the surface. (See 
Table 153.) 



Per Cent Distribution of School Funds; Cost per Pupil 241 



Repairs absorbed between 1.6 and 1.9 per cent of current ex- 
penses in Frederick, Cecil, Howard, and Washington, while in 
Prince George's, Caroline, Charles, and Wicomico between 5.0 
and 6.3 per cent was used for this purpose. (See Table 153.) 

Less than one per cent of the budget was used for fixed charges 
and tuition to adjoining counties in Kent, St. Mary's, Wicomico, 
Somerset, and Harford, while, at the opposite extreme, Howard 
and Carroll spent 3.2 and 2.9 per cent, respectively, for these 
purposes. Both of the latter counties had to pay a considerable 
amount for tuition to adjoining counties and states. (See Table 
153.) 

Per Cent for Capital Outlay 

The per cent of the combined amount for school current ex- 
penses and capital outlay used for the latter averaged 18.5 per 
cent for the counties, but in individual counties varied from less 
than 1 per cent in Talbot, Calvert, and Kent to over 32 per 
cent in Harford, Howard, Carroll, Dorchester, and Allegany, the 
latter counties having available grants from the Public Works 
Administration. (See last column in Table 153.) 

COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL 

It cost on the average $53.71 to provide for the education and 
health service of a county pupil in the day schools in 1936, an 
increase over corresponding amounts spent in 1933 to 1935, in- 
clusive, but less than was spent in 1929 to 1932, inclusive. In 1936 
for the first time is included approximately 44 cents for the 
health service rendered school children through county and State 
funds by the county health offices. These figures, however, ex- 
clude expenditures for home teachers of handicapped children, 
payments to adjoining counties and states, and cost of evening 
schools and adult classes. Also, pupils in the elementary schools 
of the State teachers colleges and Bowie Normal School are ex- 
cluded from the number belonging for the counties in which these 
schools are located, since the cost of their instruction is provided 
for by the State. (See Table 154.) 

The cost per day school pupil varied among the counties from 
$45.66 in Somerset to $67.83 per pupil in Montgomery, and every 
county, except St. Mary's, showed an increase from 1935 to 1936. 
(See Table 154.) 

The proportion of high school pupils, the proportion of col- 
ored pupils, the length of session in colored schools, the propor- 
tion of pupils in small one-teacher schools, the ratio of pupils 
to teachers, the enrichment of the high school curriculum, the 



242 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 154 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
1931, 1933, 1934, 1935, and 1936 



County 


tl931 


tl933 


tl934 


tl935 


11936 


Increase 

1936 
over 1935 


County Average 


$56.44 


$51.89 


$48.74 


$49.90 


$53.71 


$3.81 


Montgomery 


68.29 


59.17 


56.51 


62.14 


67.83 


5.69 


Kent 


61.15 


58.19 


56.56 


52.46 


59.78 


7.32 


Carroll 


68.75 


60.82 


55.40 


57.62 


59.43 


1.81 


Queen Anne's 


57.55 


59.01 


53.92 


55.27 


59.34 


4.07 


Garrett 


69.17 


61.22 


54.41 


55.37 


58.92 


3.55 


Allegany 


61.45 


55.97 


52.15 


51.35 


58.29 


6.94 


Cecil 


60.84 


57.38 


55.05 


56.74 


57.30 


.56 


Talbot 


54.86 


51 .79 


51.47 


52.44 


55.97 


3.53 


Caroline 


57.13 


54.15 


49.58 


51.08 


55.73 


4.65 




58.05 


50.03 


48.20 


48.64 


53.31 


4.67 


Harford 


56.05 


50.26 


49.10 


49.94 


53.23 


3.29 




52.88 


49.03 


49.15 


49.68 


53.16 


3.48 


Calvert 


47.94 


47.07 


44.44 


45.18 


51.39 


6.21 




47.86 


46.03 


44.64 


49.63 


50.76 


1.13 




53.72 


49.47 


45.59 


48.29 


50.05 


1.76 




54.21 


50.68 


46.69 


46.47 


49.80 


3.33 




53.36 


49.36 


44.95 


46.43 


49.44 


3.01 


Wicomico 


46.42 


46.45 


44.70 


45.08 


48.55 


3.47 




51 . 55 


49.87 


44.01 


46.23 


48.34 


2.11 


St. Mary's 


49.59 


49.09 


45.79 


48.28 


48.18 


*.10 




56.02 


51.87 


50.98 


47.66 


47.94 


.28 


Washington 


51.31 


47.41 


43.68 


43.36 


47.85 


4.49 




45.75 


44.57 


39.96 


42.35 


45.66 


3.31 



t In making this calculation salaries and expenses for home teachers of handicapped chil- 
dren, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for evening schools and 
adult classes have been excluded and number belonging at Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury Teach- 
ers Colleges and Bowie Normal Elementary Schools have been eliminated. 

* Decrease. 



proportion of pupils transported to school, the length of trans- 
portation route and type of vehicle used, and the salary schedule 
are some of the factors which aifect the total average cost per 
pupil. In general, the county having a large proportion of pupils 
in one-teacher schools, a small number of pupils per teacher, a 
large proportion of pupils in high school, and an enriched curri- 
culum is likely to have higher costs per pupil. (See Table 154.) 

COST PER PUPIL FOR GENERAL CONTROL 

In 1936 it cost on the average $1.59 per pupil for general con- 
trol w^hich covers administration or management to make it pos- 
sible for teachers to instruct children under good conditions. 
The cost per pupil for general control in 1936 was an increase 
of 4 cents over that in 1935 and of 6 cents over that in 1934, but 
was lower than the corresponding amount spent in any previous 
year since 1923 when the cost of general control per pupil was 
first calculated on this basis. (See Table 155.) 

The counties varied in cost of general control per pupil from 
$1.01 to $2.93. In six of the largest counties the general control 



Cost per Pupil, Total and for General Control 



243 



cost per pupil was under $1.33, while in five of the smallest coun- 
ties it was over $2.65. All of the administrative functions must 
be performed whether a county be large or small and this cost 
per pupil looms larger in the counties with a small school popu- 
lation. An increase in school population tends to lower the cost 
per pupil, while a decrease in school population tends to increase 
the cost per pupil for general control. (See Table 155.) 

TABLE 155 



Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



county 


1934 


1935 


1936 


Increase 
1936 
Over 
1935 


COUNTY 


1934 


1935 


1936 


Increase 
1936 
Over 
1935 


County Average . 


$1.53 


$1 


55 


$1 


59 


$ .04 


Carroll 


$1.55 


$1 


46 


$1.67 


$ .21 
















1.75 


1 


63 


1.62 


*.01 


Calvert 


2.34 


2 


83 


2 


93 


.10 


Montgomery. . . . 


1.65 


1 


75 


1.60 


*.15 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


2.69 


2 


68 


2 


85 


.17 




1.37 


1 


42 


1.55 


.13 


Kent 


2.76 


2 


53 


2 


82 


.29 


Cecil 


1.66 


1 


67 


1.42 


*.25 


St. Mary's 


2.86 


2 


86 


2 


71 


*.15 


Allegany 


1.18 


17 


1.32 


.15 


Talbot 


2.64 


2 


80 


2 


66 


*.14 




1.29 




27 


1.30 


.03 




2.23 


2 


13 


2 


46 


.33 




1.33 


1 


26 


1.27 


.01 


Caroline 


1.70 


2 


34 


2 


37 


.03 


Anne Arundel . . . 


1.30 


1 


55 


1.22 


*.33 


Howard 


2.44 


2 


14 


2 


30 


.16 


Prince George 's . 


1.19 


1 


18 


1.21 


.03 




1.79 


1 


79 


1 


94 


.15 


Washington 


.91 




94 


1.01 


.07 




1.73 


1 


73 


1 


91 


.18 






Somerset 


1.65 


1 


72 


1 


87 


.15 


Baltimore City . . 


2.25 


2 


36 


2.48 


.12 


Dorchester 


1.78 


1 


72 


1 


75 


.03 


























Entire State .... 


$1.83 


$1 


89 


$1.96 


$ .07 



Decrease. 



All of the counties, except six, showed increases in cost per 
pupil for general control. The maximum increase and decrease 
was 33 cents in Garrett and Anne Arundel, respectively. (See 
Table 155.) 

The cost per pupil for general control in Baltimore City, $2.48, 
an increase of 12 cents over 1935, was exceeded in but five of the 
smallest counties. (See Table 155.) 



Comparative Cost per White Elementary and High School Pupil 

Excluding the cost of general control, the current cost of in- 
structing a county white high school pupil in 1936 was $80.48 
while that for a county white elementary pupil was $48.90, the 
cost for the high school pupil being 1.65 times that for the white 
elementary pupil. These were increases over 1935 of $2.90 for 
each high school and $3.74 for each white elementary pupil, the 
excess being accounted for chiefly by the inclusion for elementary 
pupils for the first time of the estimated cost of health service 
rendered school pupils by the county health ofl^ices. (See Table 
156 and Chart 37.) 



244 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 156 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses by Types of 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1936 





pil Belonging 


s 


COST, EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL, PER 
DAY SCHOOL PUPIL IN 






White Elementary Schools 


Colored Schools 




6 
H 




"o 
o 






u 


























t- 






<U 




















S. 


a 

u 


B 


CZl 

s: 

bo 


Teac 


SIOOU 


-Teac 


STOOU 


led 
hools 


emen 
hools 


hools 




lentai 


siooq 




tn 
o 


O 








w 

/} 


1 










MO! 




fc 

<u 


u 




O 









O 








c 








W 




H 




r f A 


$1 


59 


$80 


.48 


$52 


.41 


$48 


.69 


$47 


.20 


$48 


90 


x$51 


62 


$26 


.73 


Allegany 


1 
1 


32 


72 


.77 


53 


.93 


44 


.56 


50 


.85 


51 


81 


72 


33 


40 


.65 




1 


22 


71 


.17 


135 


.69 


57 


.36 


48 


.62 


50 


51 


49 


42 


25 


.30 




1 


30 


69 


.41 






50 


.84 


47 


.70 


48 


69 


xl26 


69 


36 


.82 




2 


93 


115 


10 


62 


.39 


49 


.84 


60 


77 


60 


58 


63 


17 


20 


.61 




2 


37 


92 


!67 


55 


.39 


59 


.60 


44 


.62 


47 


63 


54 


91 


27 


.69 




1 


67 


94 


33 


45 


.63 


44 


73 


46 


39 


47 


14 


59 


39 


28 


.56 


Cecil 


1 


42 


81 


!67 


50 


91 


45 


08 


43 


99 


46 


71 


68 


87 


47 


.35 


Charles 


1 


.62 


105 


.87 


45 


89 


43 


66 


53 


52 


53 


69 


45 


71 


23 


.52 


Dorchester 


1 


.75 


87 


. 80 


48 


73 


48 


04 


44 


09 


47 


02 


45 


84 


21 


35 


Frederick 


1 


.27 


76 


.54 


53 


80 


44 


05 


45 


77 


46 


84 


55 


42 


30 


27 


Garrett 


2 


.46 


87 


.96 


53 


27 


44 


22 


44 


01 


48 


67 










Harford 


1 


.55 


76 


.27 


50 


27 


49 


40 


43 


87 


46 


99 


40 


98 


3i 


.08 


Howard 


2 


.30 


73 


.85 


46 


38 


43 


55 


40 


43 


43 


35 






21 


44 


Kent 


2 


.82 


93 


.78 


64 


32 


52 


76 


56 


14 


59 


07 


54 


30 


28 


14 


Montgomery 


1 


60 


105 


51 


75 


78 


67 


24 


61 


01 


63 


13 


42. 


88 


29 


.70 


Queen Anne's 


1 


21 


74 


89 


51 


43 


50 


63 


41 


74 


44 


04 


52. 


67 


27 


62 


2 


85 


100 


18 


63 


13 


54 


24 


51 


16 


54 


47 


59. 


25 


26 


26 


St. Mary's 


2 


71 


86 


33 


50 


60 


50 


73 


64 


08 


55 


25 


47. 


80 


23 


17 


Somerset 


1 


87 


88 


15 


50 


33 


43 


16 


43 


64 


45 


75 


30 


78 


21 


98 


Talbot 


2 


66 


85 


19 


59 


77 


50 


22 


50 


13 


53 


03 


48. 


40 


26 


34 


Washington 


1 


01 


73 


58 


46 


61 


39 


57 


38 


99 


40 


71 


69. 


36 


39 


10 


Wicomico 


1 


91 


74 


73 


51 


18 


64 


43 


41 


32 


45 


92 


36. 


97 


23 


10 


Worcester 


1 


94 


91 


49 


45 


50 


60 


00 


45 


43 


48 


48 


29. 


18 


20 


46 




2 


48 


96 


80 














t64 


71 


xl03. 


73 


t55 


16 


State 


1 


96 


85 


32 














54 


44 


67. 


55 


40 


33 



t Excludes $85.57 for white junior high and $140.59 for white vocational schools. 
t Excludes $78.45 for colored junior high and $119.45 for colored vocational schools. 
* Excludes cost of supervision. 

X Average tuition payment to Baltimore City for 151 Baltimore County pupils attending 
Baltimore City junior and senior high schools, excluded from Baltimore City, but included 
with county costs. 



The 1936 salary cost per white county elementary school pu- 
pil was $33.62 while that of a white county high school pupil 
was $58.63. These were increases of $2.23 and $2.20 over 1935 
due to restoration in full or in part of salary cuts made in 1933. 
The excess salary cost per high school pupil is due to the higher 
basic salary schedule for high school teachers, who until very 
recently have been required to spend two more years in profes- 
sional preparation than were considered necessary for elementary 
school teachers, to the fact that the ratio of pupils to teachers in 
high school is lower than in elementary school, and to inclusion 



Cost per Pupil by Types of School 245 

of high school supervisory costs with teachers' salaries in the two 
counties which employ supervisors, while in elementary schools 
supervision is reported as a separate item. (See Chart 37.) 

CHART 37 

1936 Cost Excluding^ General Control per County Pupil Belonging 




a Supervision. 

b Books, Materials, and Other Costs of Instruction. 

Auxiliary agencies, including transportation, libraries, and 
health service, cost $7.27 for each white elementary pupil and 
88.65 for each white high school pupil. These were increases over 
1935 of $1.15 per white elementary and 37 cents per white high 
school pupil. The amount per white elementary pupil for 1936 
includes for the first time an estimate of expenditures on health 
services for school children by the county health offices. Since 
most of the communicable diseases are prevalent in the elemen- 
tary schools, and examinations of school children are usually 
made in grades 1, 3, and 7, none of these estimated costs have 
been charged against the high school pupils. Since the number 
of high schools available is smaller than the number of elemen- 
tary schools, there is a larger proportion of high school pupils 
for whom transportation must be provided and the distance these 
high school pupils must travel is greater than for the average 
elementary school pupil. This is offset partially by the fact that 
in four counties each high school pupil transported must pay 
a part of the cost of transportation and the amount paid by the 
pupil is not included in the cost shown. High school pupils need 
to use librarv books to a greater extent than elementary pupils. 
(See Chart 37.) 



246 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The 1936 cost of janitors, fuel, and repairs was $5.34 per coun- 
ty white elementary pupil as against $8.51 per county white 
high school pupil, increases of 40 cents and 10 cents, respectively, 
over 1935 costs. The smaller size of high school sections using 
rooms of ordinary size makes the cost of operating and main- 
taining high schools greater than that for elementary schools. 
The decrease in elementary enrollment and the increase in high 
school enrollment probably account for the fact that the cost per 
elementary pupil increased more than that per high school pupil. 
(See Chart 37.) 

Books, materials, and other costs of instruction cost $1.53 per 
county white elementary school pupil and $4.69 per county white 
high school pupil in 1936, a decrease of 10 cents for each ele- 
mentary pupil and of 23 cents for each high school pupil when 
compared with 1935. The difference between the costs in the 
two types of schools is due to the fact that older, more mature 
pupils need more, larger, and more expensive books than the ele- 
mentary pupils. (See Chart 37.) 

The comparative cost per pupil in white high, white one-teach- 
er, two-teacher, graded, and all white elementary as well as col- 
ored high and colored elementary schools for each county is 
shown in Table 156. These costs are analyzed in detail for the 
counties for white elementary schools on pages 57 to 75, for w^hite 
high schools on pages 143 to 153, for colored schools on pages 
193 to 195. 

FEDERAL AID TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

The allotment to Maryland for 1935-36 from the Federal gov- 
ernment under the Smith-Hughes and George-Ellzey Acts was 
$127,702, the same amount as for the year preceding. Of this 
amount, a maximum of $44,356 was allocated to agriculture, $70,- 
004 to industrial education and home economics, and $13,342 to 
teacher-training and supervision. The amount of Federal funds 
actually spent was $110,751, w^hich meant that $16,951 w^as the 
unexpended balance of Federal money in the State treasury June 
30, 1936. 

Of the $110,751 actually received from Federal funds, $33,585 
was expended for salaries of teachers of agriculture, $20,110 for 
teachers of home economics, $43,484 for teachers of trade and 
industry, and $13,572 for administration, supervision, and teach- 
er-training in these branches. 

Vocational work was further aided in 1936 by State appropri- 
ations amounting to $6,006 for administration and supervision of 
work in agriculture, home economics, and trades and industries. 
In addition, there were expenditures for vocational work from 
county funds and from State funds for high school aid and the 
Equalization Fund aggregating $69,375 and from the University 
of Maryland, $9,358. The total amount spent for salaries of 



Federal Aid to Vocational Education; Baltimore City 247 
Vocational Work 

the vocational program in the Maryland counties in 1936 includ- 
ing Federal funds was $195,490, an increase of $39,728 over 
1935. For the vocational salary expenditures in the various 
counties, see Tables 92 and 144, pages 147 and 224. 

The Vocational Program in Baltimore City 

The 1936 expenditures for salaries of teachers of vocational 
education in Baltimore City w^ere $177,892, an increase of $3,096 
over those for 1935. The City supported the program to the ex- 
tent of $151,529, an increase over the year preceding of $2,646, 
while the Federal reimbursement totaled $26,363, an increase of 
$1,170 over 1935. (See Table 157.) 

TABLE 157 



Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, 
Year Ending June 30, 1936 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enrol 

Boys 


ment 
Girls 


Vocational 
Education 
Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Day Vocational 

Part-time Industrial 

General Continuation 

Evening Industrial 

Evening HomelEconomics 

Total 


$140,597.18 
5,011.40 
1,843.00 
2,265.50 
1,811.88 


$15,711.62 
5,011.40 
1,843.00 
2,265.50 
1,531.62 


$156,308.80 
10,022.80 
3,686.00 
4,531.00 
3,343.50 


1,775 
'600 


519 
81 

120 
59 

752 


$68.14 
123.74 
30.72 
6.88 
4.45 


$151,528.96 


26,363.14 


$177,892.10 


2,375 


1 . 531 


$45.54 



Nearly 88 per cent of the salary expenditures for vocational 
work in Baltimore City went to teachers in the five day vocation- 
al schools which enrolled 1,775 boys and 519 girls at a salary cost 
for vocational teachers of over $68 per pupil. These schools 
include the newly opened General Vocational School for Boys 
which accommodated 497 boys ranging in age from 14^ o to I8I/2 
years. The objective of the school is general training in a num- 
ber of industrial fields, such as commercial art, light machine 
shop practice, sheet metal work, electrical work, general wood- 
working, auto parts assembly, and mechanical drafting. A sec- 
ond school of this type is to be opened iii September, 1936, which 
will offer in addition to some of the above courses painting and 
decorating. Some of the boys from the General Vocational School 
go on to the Boys' Vocational School for further specialization. 
The average length of the course in the General Vocational School 
is two years. (See Table 157.) 

There was a decreased expenditure for part-time industrial 
classes carried on at the Girls' Vocational School, 81 girls bene- 
fiting from the program which cost $10,023 or an average per 
pupil of $124. One-half of the total expenditure came from Fed- 
eral funds. 



248 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

General continuation classes were available for 120 girls in 
four department stores, the cost per pupil instructed being $31. 

Evening vocational courses were available to 600 men and 811 
w^omen at a cost of $7,874.50, the salary expenditure being $6.88 
per evening industrial school student and $4.45 for each evening 
home economics student. (See Table 157.) 

Administration, Supervision, and Teacher-Training in Vocational Education 

For agriculture, the cost of administration, supervision, and 
teacher-training in 1936 required expenditures of $7,747. The 
decrease of $2,466 under the amount for the preceding year was 
due to the resignation of Dr. J. D. Blackwell, Director of Voca- 
tional Education and Supervisor of Agriculture, in April, 1935, 
to become president of the State Teachers College at Salisbury. 
Part of his salary as director was no longer charged against 
agriculture. Dr. Cotterman, who was appointed as part-time 
supervisor of agriculture, did not receive salary for his work in 
this capacity until September, 1935. 

For trades and industries, the expenditure in 1936 of $11,075 
for administration, supervision, and teacher-training was $782 
more than for 1935. The 1936 increase was due to the appoint- 
ment in April, 1935, of Mr. John J. Seidel as Director of Voca- 
tional Education, while he continued in his capacity as Supervisor 
of Trades and Industries. Part of his salary as director was 
therefore charged against trades and industries. 

For supervision and teacher-training in home economics the 
total expenditure of $8,673 in 1936 was an increase of $229 over 
the amount spent the preceding year. Expenditures from State 
Department of Education funds were $573 more in 1936 than in 
1935. The University of Maryland spent for teacher-training 
$295 less in 1936 than in 1935. The Federal funds for adminis- 
tration, supervision, and teacher-training were smaller by $49 in 
1936 than in 1935. (See Table 158.) 

TABLE 158 



Expenditures for Administration, Supervision, and Teacher Training in 
Vocational Education, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



Purpose 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


University 
of Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 

Trade and Industry . . 
Home Economics 

Total 


$1,054.34 
2,308.90 
2,643.06 


$1,054.33 
1,977.04 
2,623.40 


$2,819.37 
3,394.82 
1,703.06 


$2,819.36 
3,394.82 
1,703.04 


$3,873.71 
5,703.72 
4,346.12 


$3,873.69 
5,371.86 
4,326.44 


$6,006.30 


$5,654.77 


$7,917.25 


$7,917.22 


$13,923.55 


$13,571.99 



Vocational Education; Work Relief School Projects 249 



WORK RELIEF PROJECTS AFFECTING SCHOOLS 

The counties reported the estimated value of Federal aid for 
work relief projects affecting school buildings in fifteen counties 
as $184,385 for the school year 1935-36. This amount does not 
include $51,111 spent in reconditioning 93,761 library books, 
which project in seventeen counties was sponsored by the Mary- 
land Public Library Advisory Commission, nor does it include 
$9,925 spent for the 240 sanitary privies installed under the 
supervision of the Maryland State Department of Health. 

TABLE 159 



Work Relief Projects Affecting Schools: Number of Schools Benefited; Type 
of Project; Estimated Value of Federal Aid for School Year 1935-36 





No. of 




































Schools 


o 














u 




















Benefited 


CO 


-o 




tn 






to 
















CO 










o 


c 

3 










"o 




B3 




o 
o 








Estimated 


COUNTY 






'o 


o 




il 






O 




_C 


5 « 




J2 

u 


(» 
1-1 




<a 
o 


Value of 




White 


Colored 


Library Pr 


Grading G 


Repairs 


Constructi 
New Buil 


Painting 


I Alterations 


Building B 
or Walks 


Sanitation 


1 Waterproo 


Cafeteria a 
Free Lun 


Art Projec 


Cleaning S 
Grounds 


Blackboan 


Bleachers 


Bulletin B 


Federal 
Aid 


All Counties . 


t74 


t43 
































t$184,385 


Allegany .... 


2 




X 






















X 








116 


Anne Arundel 






X 
































Baltimore . . . 






X 
































Calvert 






































Caroline 


8 


2 


X 




X 


X 




X 




















28^'786 


















X 




















4,890 


Cecil 






























































X 












2;68'7 


Dorchester . . 






X 
































Frederick .... 


3 




X 


X 










X 


















26^626 


Garrett 






































Harford 






X 
































Howard 


15 


10 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 








X 






11^630 


Kent 


10 


10 


X 




X 




X 






















10,251 


Montgomery 


X 


X 




























2,000 


Pr. George's . 


5 




X 


X 










X 


















17,801 


Queen Anne's 


3 


i 


X 






X 








X 




X 


X 










27,200 








































Somerset .... 


2 


4 


X 














X 
















11^555 


Talbot 






X 




X 




X 


X 






X 












X 


12,488 


Washington . 
Wicomico . . 
Worcester . . . 


26 


15 
1 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 












X 




3,276 
19,734 
5,951 



t Excludes number of schools affected by library projects and the cost of the library pro.iects 
for individual counties since these projects were planned and sponsored by the Maryland 
Public Library Advisory Commission. 

+ See Table 163 for school sanitation projects carried on under the supervision of the 
Maryland State Department of Health. 

° See Table 162 for Library projects supervised by Maryland Public Library Advisory 
Commission. 

The projects reported by superintendents included grading 
grounds, building roads, repairing, altering, and constructing 
buildings, painting, sanitation, waterproofing, art, operation of 
cafeteria and free lunches, cleaning school grounds, installation 
of blackboards, bleachers, and bulletin boards. 



250 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Caroline, Queen Anne's, and Frederick valued the aid ren- 
dered by the Federal projects as between $26,000 and $29,000; 
Wicomico and Prince George's estimated the value of Federal 
aid as between $17,800 and $19,750; while in Talbot, Somerset, 
Howard, and Kent, this amount was reported as between $10,250 
and $12,500. Calvert and Cecil had no projects of any kind, Bal- 
timore had only the library project, and St. Mary's only the 
sanitation project. Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Garrett, and 
Harford had both the library and sanitation projects. (See 
Table 159.) 

Baltimore City received the following allotments and made the 
following expenditures on work relief projects financed by the 
Federal government through the Works Progress Administration : 



TABLE 160 

Allotment and Expenditures for Baltimore City Schools from 
Federal Works Progress Administration* 

Expenditures 
Allotment to June 30, 1936 

1. Checking police census against school en- 

rollment $8,391 $7,776 

2. Betterment of school administration 91,912 35,607 

3. Reconditioning, rehabilitation, and improve- 

ment of school buildings, grounds, and 

equipment 1,269,385 618,975 



$1,369,688* $662,358= 



* Excerpt from page 29 of 1936 Report of Baltimore City School Commissioners. Excludes 
Federal emergency education project, included in Table 145, page 225. 



The second item in Table 160, betterment of school administra- 
tion, included the following types of activities : 

a. Inventory check on repair shop, warehouse, and school storage 

b. Marking or branding tools and equipment 

c. Preparation of maps and tracings in connection with a study of 

school population 

d. Typing catalogue cards for school library 

e. Assorting, salvaging, and reconditioning textbooks 

f. Reorganization of business office files 

g. Setting up a central office inventory of all typewriters, mimeographs, 

adding machines, sewing machines, etc., in the schools 

h. Checking school records to determine the number of cases yet re- 

quiring assistance of the Division of Special Education 

The third item in Table 160 is expanded to show various ac- 
tivities accomplished in maintaining and improving Baltimore City 
school buildings and grounds with aid from the W. P. A. Through 
this project a maximum of 1,174 W. P. A. workers received em- 
ployment, the minimum number employed being 225, and the 



Work Relief School Projects in Counties and Baltimore City 251 



average number 766. Over one-third of the 364 pianos in the 
schools were repaired and tuned by four expert piano tuners, and 
there was a clerk who routed the men and ordered, checked, and 
distributed the necessary materials which were supplied by Balti- 
more City. (See Table 161.) 



TABLE 161 



Work Completed in Baltimore City on W. P. A. Project for Reconditioning, 
Rehabilitating, and Improving School Buildings, Grounds, and 
Equipment October 1, 1935 to June 24, 1936* 







XT t TT 

Wo. oi Units 


Buildings 


Item 


Unit 


Completed 


Completed 


Painting, interior 


Classrooms 


1,289 


32 


Painting, exterior 


sq. ft. 


481,871 


30 


Plaster repaired 


sq. yds. 


11,466 


35 


Pointing of exterior brick and stone 


sq. yds. 


1,205 


2 


Refinishing blackboards 


sq. ft. 


31,750 


10 




sq. ft. 


2,778 


8 


Bulletin boards 


sq. ft. 


40,007 


20 


Sheet metal repairs 




14 


Repairs to woodwork, prior to painting 






9 


Flooring, wood, new (maple) 


bd. ft. 


111,994 


12 


Flooring, concrete, new 


sq. ft. 


54,916 


19 


Floor hardening treatment 


sq. ft. 


88,351 


12 


Flooring, sanding and sealing 


sq. ft. 


107,794 


9 


Molding 


lin. ft. 


7,879 


5 


Shelving 


sq. ft. 


9,707 


14 


Improving grounds and athletic fields. . . 




5 


Electrical work, miscellaneous 






112 


Heating installations 






9 


Reconditioning furniture, equipment . . . . 


pieces 


28,871 


34 


Miscellaneous 




14 








* Excerpt from page 34 of 1936 Report of Baltimore City Sch 


ool Commissioners. 


W. P. A. Library Projects 




• 



The county library projects sponsored by the Maryland Public 
Library Advisory Commission required expenditures of $51,111 
from funds of the Works Progress Administration. The distribu- 
tion by counties is shown in Table 162. 



There were 24 groups of workers active in 17 counties and the 
Baltimore City office of the Library Commission. Six counties 
had no projects because suitable workers were not available. A 
total of 93,761 volumes were reconditioned and put back in use 
in 144 elementary and high schools and in 19 public libraries in 
the counties. (See Table 162.) 

The National Youth Administration project for book repair 
under the supervision of the Maryland Library Advisory Commis- 
sion cost $547. 



252 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 162 

Expenditures of W. P. A. Funds for Library Projects Sponsored by 
Maryland Public Library Commission, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



County Expenditure County Expenditure 



Montgomery $6,567 

Frederick 3,840 

Allegany 3,217 

Anne Arundel 3,178 

Wicomico 2,859 

Somerset 2 , 646 

Prince George's 2 , 550 

Dorchester 2,481 

Washington 2,415 



Caroline $1 ,657 

Queen Anne's 1,394 

Talbot 1,075 

Kent 1,029 

Worcester 882 

Baltimore 554 

Harford 351 

Garrett 323 

Baltimore Office of Com- 
mission 14,093 



W. P. A. County School Sanitation Projects of State Department of Health 

Up to and ending July 31, 1936, under the supervision of the 
Maryland State Department of Health there were 1,703 sanitary 
earth pit privies constructed for county rural schools. Of this num- 
ber, 240 were constructed during 1935-36 at a total cost of $9,925. 

TABLE 163 



School Sanitation Projects, August 1, 1935 to July 31, 1936 















Cost of 








COUNTY*°: 


Number 


Number 


Labor 




Source of 


Materials 


Total 






Privies 


Schools 


Cost 




Funds 


Local 




Cost 








Sanitatedt 








Sources 














$3,123 


62 


W.P.A. ] 












Total Counties. . . 


240 


a 123 


< 1.412 


00 


Local '■ 


$4,920 


50 


$9 


925 


12 








1 469 


00 


F.E.R.A..I 












Allegany* 


6 


3 


131 


52 


W.P.A. 


120 


00 




251 


52 


Anne ArundeU • • 


27 


tl4 


;'345 
1152 


99 
00 


W.P.A. 1 

Local ( 




621 


00 


1 


118 


99 


DorchesterJ 


10 


5 


160 


00 


Local 


180 


00 




340 


00 


Garrett* 


9 


15 


189 


00 


F.E.R.A. 


180 


00 




369 


00 


Harford: 


6 


3 


90 


00 


Local 


102 


00 




192 


00 


Howard t 


51 


t26 


r399 
510 


00 
00 


W.P.A. 1 

Local 




1,071 


00 


1 


.980 


00 








280 


00 


F.E.R.A.l 














Prince George 'sj. 


55 


t28 


<500 


00 


Local 




1,210 


00 


2 


.659 


92 






1669 


92 


W.P.A. 
















15 


t8 


291 


45 


W.P.A. 


247 


50 




538 


95 


Somerset* 


10 


5 


254 


30 


W.P.A. 


210 


00 




464 


30 


Washington: • • • • 


46 


23 


942 


54 


W.P.A. 


874 


00 


1 


.816 


54 


Wicomico* 


5 


13 


88 


90 


W.P.A. 


105 


00 




193 


90 



* School privy projects completed in Allegany, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil. Charles, Frederick, 
Garrett, Kent, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Wicomico and Worcester. 

t School privy projects working toward completion in Anne Arundel, Calvert, Dorchester, 
Harford, Howard, Prince George's, Talbot and Washington. 

° School privy project contemplated in Baltimore County. 

t At one school either a boys' or girls' privy was sanitated. 

a At six schools either a boys' or girls' privy was sanitated. 



Work Relief Library and Sanitation Projects; N. Y. A. Projects 253 



The Federal Emergency Relief Administration contributed $469 
for the cost of labor, the Works Progress Administration $3,124 
for labor; the County Boards of Education and Parent-Teacher 
Associations provided $1,412 for labor and $4,920 for materials. 
With the completion of this work, 89.8 per cent of the county pub- 
lic and private schools in Maryland are provided with approved 
types of sewage disposal. (See Table 163.) 



National Youth Administration Work Projects 

The National Youth Administration carried on 50 projects for 
which $81,907 was requisitioned in order that opportunities for 
work might be given youth between the ages of 18 and 25 years. 
They were employed for 46 hours a month for w^hich they received 
$16.50. 

Typical of the county projects which brought about school im- 
provement were the following : 

Constructing and setting up roadside shelters for pupils waiting 
for school buses : 

No. of No. of 

County Shelters Cost County Shelters Cost 

Wicomico 100 $1,965 Cecil $842 

Kent 41 1,375 Worcester 40 831 

Somerset 43 1,059 Garrett 20 710* 

* Also includes grading Kitzmiller high school athletic field. 

Improving school grounds, buildings, and recreation facilities : 

Slate Ridge $1,364 

Arbutus 628 

Allegany High School 410 

Oakland schools, Garrett County 52 

Bruce High School, flood damage repairs 243 

Cumberland schools, flood damage repairs 180 

Pocomoke and Snow Hill, improvement of school grounds 111 



Improving public recreational parks : 

Chambers Paik, Federalsburg, landscaping, building, and improving 

cabin, $746 
Scoutland Park, Crisfield 
Scout Haven, Princess Anne 



Aid to Students by National Youth Administration 

In December, 1935, the Federal government, through the Na- 
tional Youth Administration, made available funds so that six 
dollars a month could be given to needy high school students, fif- 
teen dollars to undergraduate college students and thirty dollars 
to graduate students in return for services to be rendered the 
school and community. The number of high school students who 
received the aid and the amount expended in each county are 
shown in Table 163A. 



254 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 163-A 



Aid to High School Pupils from National Youth Administration, 1935-36 



PnTTMTV 
^ U In i I 


No. of Schools 


Pupils Aided 


Aid Received by Pupils in 


Public 


Private 


Public Schools 


Private 
Schools 


Public Schools 


Private 
Schools 


w nite 


L/Oloreci 


w nite 


ooloreci 


w nue 


r< 1 A 
colored 


Total County 


89 


18 


11 


706 


345 


155 


$24,427 


$7,437 


$10,407 




8 


1 


3 


68 


52 


7 


2,476 


252 


2,253 


Anne Arundel 


4 






19 






763 






Baltimore. . . 


7 
t 




* i 


38 




' "46 


1 348 




2460 


Caroline 


A 


1 




25 


10 




1 014 


336 




Carroll 


A 

4 


1 
i 




1 1 
i i 


13 




240 


314 




Cecil 


4 


1 


' 3 


39 


32 


' '42 


918 


1,023 


1*656 


Charles 


3 


1 


1 


29 


3 


4 


1,086 


60 


216 


Dorchester 


1 


1 




16 


26 




450 


680 




Frederick .... 


3 


1 




15 


10 




547 


312 




Garrett 


4 






61 






1,798 








5 


* "i' 




19 


' '26 




653 


''786 




Howard 


1 


.... 




3 






84 






Kent 


3 




.... 


16 


■ 23 




450 


'480 




Montgomery 
Pr. George's . 


7 






85 






3,213 




*984 


6 


■ "3 




83 


' 62 




1,205 


1 ', 69i 




QiiGGn AnriG s 


1 






1 






36 






St. Mary's. . . 


1 




' " '2 


24 






620 




l'.666 


Somerset .... 


4 


' ■ "3 




42 


"57 




1,906 




1,472 


Talbot 


5 


1 




35 


17 




922 


'822 




Washington . 


6 






80 






3,009 






Wicomico . . . 


4 






24 






900 






Worcester . . . 


4 


■ ■ 2 




23 


' '26 




789 


'687 




Balto. City. . 


26 


8 


6 


419 


511 


77 


13,435 


19,028 


2,383 


Day High . 


14 


5 


6 


261 


299 


77 


9,215 


11,212 


2,383 


Vocational 


6 


2 




78 


174 




2,097 


6,108 




Night , . 


6 


1 




80 


38 




2,123 


1,708 




Entire State . 


115 


26 


17 


1,125 


856 


232 


37,862 


26,465 


12,790 



Aid given to 1,444 students in 28 colleges totalled $132,942. 

The high school pupils who received aid averaging $35 in 1935- 
36 did clerical work in the school offices, worked in the school li- 
braries and laboratories, assisted teachers in reading and grading 
papers, in home economics, and the school cafeteria, in the shop, 
assisted in custodial and janitorial work and on the school play- 
ground and gymnasium, in repairing furniture and equipment and 
in making new furniture and equipment, cared for the books and 
athletic equipment, and miscellaneous activities. 



THE TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM IN THE COUNTIES 

In 1935-36 the counties transported over 49,000 pupils to school 
at an expenditure to the public of $952,598. This was an increase 
of 4,475 in number transported and $60,176 in cost over corres- 
ponding figures for 1935. The increase is due in part to the exten- 
sion of the transportation program to colored pupils attending 
high school. The gradual growth of transportation since 1910, 



Aid to Pupils and Students from N. Y. A.; Pupil Transportation 255 



when it cost $5,210 and was found in four counties, to the exten- 
sive program of the present time, is shown in Table 164. In 1923, 
when the number was first reported, only 4,344 county pupils 
were transported at public expense. During the period from 1923 
to 1936, the number transported has increased to more than 11 
times the earlier number. The average cost to the public per pupil 
transported, except for the year 1926, has decreased steadily from 
$30.59 in 1923 to $19.48 in 1936. (See Table 164.) 



TABLE 164 



Maryland County Expenditures for Transporting Pupils to School 1910-1936 



Year 


Public 
Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 

Pupils 
Transported 


+Cost to 
Public per 

Pupil 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 






1915 


17,270 


10 






1920 


64,734 


18 






1921 


84,870 


18 






1922 


90,011 


18 






1923 


132,591 


20 


4^344 


$36! 59 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


29.01 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


28.09 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


29.57 


1927 


373,168 


23 


*13,385 


t27.92 


1928 


436,583 


23 


*15,907 


t27.49 


1929 


512,385 


23 


*18,928 


t27.12 


1930 


603,148 


23 


*22,814 


t26.51 


1931 


744,400 


23 


*29,006 


t25.71 


1932 


834,679 


23 


*35,019 


t23.88 


1933 


858,274 


23 


*40,308 


t21.33 


1934 


863,549 


23 


*42,241 


t20.47 


1935 


892,422 


23 


*44,576 


+20.04 


1936 


952,598 


23 


*49,051 


tl9.48 



* Includes number of pupils transported to Bowie Normal School at State expense, 
t Pupils transported at State expense to Bowie Normal School excluded in obtaining cost 
per pupil transported. 



Baltimore City transported 409 crippled children in 11 buses 
costing $24,491 at a cost per crippled pupil transported of $59.88. 
There were 325 white and 84 colored pupils transported to ele- 
mentary, junior and senior high schools. 

Of the 49,051 county pupils transported at public expense, 
34,065 were carried to elementary and 14,986 to high schools. 
There was an increase of 2,044 in elementary and 2,431 in high 



256 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



school pupils transported at public expense over the number the 
preceding year. Except for slight decreases in Cecil, Talbot, and 
Harford, all counties transported more pupils at public expense 
in 1936 than in 1935. The largest increases were found in Balti- 
more, Frederick, Montgomery, and Prince George's. All coun- 
ties, except Anne Arundel, Cecil, Talbot, Kent, and Harford, trans- 
ported more pupils to elementary school in 1936 than in 1935, 
while all, except Caroline, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, and Harford, 
transported more high school pupils than during the preceding 
year. (See Table 165.) 



TABLE 165 



Maryland County Pupils Transported to School in 1936 at County Expense 



county 


Pupils Transported 




Public Expenditures 
for Transportation 


Total 


To Ele- 
mentary 
School 


To 
High 
School 


Total 


To Ele- 
mentary 
School 


To 
High 
School 


Total Counties 


t49,051 


t34,065 


14,986 




t$952,598 


$656,982 


t$295,616 


Baltimore 


6,812 


4,801 


2,011 




U00,462 


76,732 


J25,730 


Frederick 


3,846 


2,934 


912 




80,049 


58 , 379 


21,670 


Anne Arundel 


*4,241 


*2,859 


1,382 




74,709 


50,786 


23,923 


Carroll 


3,485 


2,516 


969 




68,041 


49,461 


18,580 


Allegany 


3,229 


2,470 


759 




60,777 


46,390 


14,387 


Garrett 


1,847 


1,193 


654 




56,143 


35.881 


20,262 




3,405 


2,583 


822 




t50,121 


43,821 


t6,300 


Dorchester 


1,760 


1,171 


589 




39,062 


24,732 


14,330 


Prince George's 


2,079 


1,455 


624 




38,999 


26,909 


12,090 


°2,196 


°1,567 


629 




36,072 


24,796 


11,276 


Charles 


1,481 


965 


516 




33,923 


19,818 


14,105 


Caroline 


1,795 


1,235 


560 




32,810 


22,556 


10,254 


Worcester 


1,658 


1,175 


483 




32,485 


22 , 620 


9,865 


Calvert 


943 


598 


345 




31,228 


17,413 


13,815 




1,245 


850 


395 




30,707 


19,524 


11,183 


Wicomico 


1,691 


896 


795 




28,778 


16,234 


12,544 


St. Mary's 


983 


548 


435 




27,107 


13,632 


13,475 


Cecil 


1,393 


850 


543 




25,249 


16,314 


8,935 




1,204 


762 


442 




24,431 


14,350 


10,081 


Talbot 


908 


594 


314 




23,489 


15,589 


7,900 


Kent 


943 


548 


395 




23,017 


13,624 


9,393 


Howard 


1,080 


751 


329 




tl9,219 


13,850 


t5,369 




827 


744 


83 




n5,720 


15,571 


n49 



* Includes 35 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 
° Includes 26 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense, 
t Includes 61 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 
t Supplemented by payments by parents of high school pupils in Baltimore, Montgomery, 
Howard and Harford Counties. 



All counties, except Garrett, Washington, Queen Anne's, Cecil, 
and Kent, spent more for transportation of pupils in 1936 than 
they spent the year preceding. The largest increases were found 
in Baltimore, Frederick, and Montgomery. For transporting 
pupils to both elementary and high schools, Garrett and Cecil 
spent less in 1936 than in 1935. Frederick, Carroll, Allegany, 
Washington, Queen Anne's, Somerset, and Kent spent less in 1936 



County Pupils Transported; Cost of Transportation, Total 257 
AND Per Pupil 



than in 1935 for transporting pupils to elementary schools, and 
this was the case for high school pupils in Caroline, Talbot, and 
Harford. (See Table 165.) 



TABLE 166 



Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported to School at Public Expense, 
for Year Ending July 31, 1936 



COUNTY 


Average 
Cost to 
Public per 

Pupil 
Transported 


WHITE 


COLORED 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 


County Average 


*$19 


48 


$19 


33 


*$19 


62 


$19 


19 


*$20 


50 


Calvert 


33 


12 


30 


56 


41 


88 


17 


14 


35 


73 


Garrett 


30 


40 


30 


08 


30 


98 










St. Mary's 


27 


58 


27 


25 


33 


92 


12 


78 


19 


04 


Talbot 


25 


87 


26 


24 


25 


16 










Queen Anne's 


24 


66 


23 


83 


25 


48 


11 


66 


38 


79 


Kent 


24 


41 


24 


54 


22 


51 


26 


84 


27 


85 




22 


91 


20 


56 


29 


48 


20 


00 


22 


39 


Dorchester 


22 


19 


21 


04 


23 


89 


22 


07 


25 


36 




20 


95 


19 


98 


24 


16 


18 


11 


27 


32 




20 


29 


19 


42 


27 


43 


2 


78 


10 


95 




19 


59 


19 


05 


21 


16 


66 


89 


12 


49 


Carroll 


19 


52 


19 


83 


19 


32 


12 


72 


17 


21 


Harford 


*19 


01 


21 


19 


*1 


80 


15 


20 








18 


82 


18 


77 


18 


94 


21 


81 


19 


9i 




18 


54 


17 


95 


18 


63 


79 


40 








18 


28 


18 


28 


18 


32 


18 


16 


18 


28 


Cecil 


18 


13 


18 


05 


15 


60 


32 


09 


25 


03 




*17 


80 


18 


44 


*16 


32 










Anne Arundel 


17 


60 


17 


73 


17 


31 












17 


02 


18 


84 


17 


25 


10 


56 


12 


62 




16 


94 


16 


55 


16 


60 


11 


11 


36 


07 


Baltimore 


*14 


95 


15 


39 


*12 


88 


18 


21 


*xll 


12 




*14 


72 


16 


68 


*6 


01 


40 


11 


*13 


52 



* Supplemented by payments by parents of high school pupils in Harford, Howard. Balti- 
more and Montgomery Counties. 

X Cost to Baltimore County per pupil transported to Baltimore City junior and junior- 
. senior high schools. 



Cost per Pupil Transported 

The average cost to the public per county pupil transported in 
1936 was $19.48, a reduction of 56 cents under the cost for the pre- 
ceding year. This figure was an average of S19.33 per white ele- 
mentary, 819.62 per white high, $19.19 per colored elementary, 
and $20.50 per colored high school pupil transported. Under ordi- 
nary conditions, it costs more to transport a high school pupil 
than an elementary school pupil, since the average high school 
pupil has to travel a longer distance to reach school and requires 
more bus space. Among counties paying the entire cost of high 
school transportation, Talbot, Kent, Carroll, Cecil, Anne Arundel, 
and Wicomico reported the cost of transporting a white high 
school pupil as lower than for an elementary pupil. This is prob- 
ably due to pro-rating which does not take into consideration the 
above factors. In the counties in which high school pupils must 



258 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



contribute to the cost of transportation — Harford, Howard, Balti- 
more, and Montgomery — the additional amount contributed by 
each high school pupil is not included in the figures given for cost 
to the county per high school pupil transported. In Worcester,* 
Allegany, and Cecil, the transportation cost to the public was high- 
er per colored elementary than per colored high school pupil trans- 
ported, probably because of pro-rating, which did not take into 
consideration longer distances travelled by and greater size of 
the high school pupils. For the first time in 1936 colored high 
school pupils in St. Mary's, Kent, Dorchester, Wicomico, Freder- 
ick, Charles, and Somerset were transported entirely at county 
expense. In former years parent-teacher associations contributed 
to the cost of transporting colored pupils to high school. No col- 
ored pupils were transported at public expense in Anne Arundel, 
Talbot, and Howard Counties. (See Table 166.) 

The average cost per pupil transported w^as over $25 in Talbot, 
St. Mary's, Garrett, and Calvert. It was less than $15 in Balti- 
more and Montgomery, both of which counties require a payment 
from each high school pupil toward the cost of transportation, and 
both of which counties own a number of the buses used in trans- 
porting pupils. (See Table 166.) 

Per Cent of Pupils Transported 

The counties transported 32,676 white elementary pupils, 30.5 
per cent of the total white elementary school enrollment, 13,191 
white high school pupils, 40.5 per cent of the white high school 
enrollment, 1,389 colored elementary pupils, 5.4 per cent of all 
colored elementary school pupils, and 1,795 colored high school 
pupils, 50.3 per cent of all colored high school pupils. Six counties 
— Calvert, (Charles, Worcester, Queen Anne's, Caroline, and Car- 
roll — transported over half their white elementary school enroll- 
ment. At the other extreme, fewer than 20 per cent of the white 
elementary pupils in Prince George's, Washington, and Harford 
were transported to school at county expense. (See Table 167.) 

St. Mary's transported every white high school pupil, and Cal- 
vert transported over 95 per cent of its white high school enroll- 
ment at public expense to the two high schools in each of these 
sparsely settled counties. In nine additional counties from 53 
to 71 per cent of the white high school pupils were transported to 
school at public expense. On the other hand, less than 25 per cent 
of the white high school pupils in Allegany, Prince George's, and 
Harford were transported at public expense. (See Table 167.) 

The percentage of pupils transported to colored elementary 
schools at county expense varied from none at all in Anne Arun- 



* Only five colored elementary pupils were transported at public expense. 



Cost per Pupil Transported; Per Cent of Pupils Transported 259 

TABLE 167 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at 
Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1936 



county 



Total and Average 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's 

Calvert 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Kent 

Howard 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Allegany 

Prince George's . . . 

Washington 

Harford. . . . , 



WHITE 


COLORED 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


VT u 

wumDer 


Per Cent 


XT K 

w umoer 


Per Cent 


w umDer 


Per Cent 


XT K 

W umber 


X er v/6nL 


32,676 


30 


5 


13,191 


40 


5 


*tl.389 


5 


4 


1,795 


50.3 


2,454 


51 


4 


903 


56 


9 


62 


17 


2 


66 


78.6 


1,090 


53 


2 


399 


55 


9 


145 


21 


2 


161 


81.7 


790 


53 


4 


311 


62 


8 


60 


9 


6 


84 


95.5 


534 


69 


5 


242 


95 


7 


64 


5 


9 


103 


97.2 


924 


63 


2 


360 


71 





41 


2 


9 


156 


81.7 


458 


44 


4 


349 


100 





90 


8 


1 


86 


88.7 


1,170 


55 


8 


442 


55 


4 


5 




4 


41 


23.4 


2,824 


48 


4 


1,382 


61 


5 


*35 










1.193 


30 


3 


654 


66 


1 












2,810 


39 


3 


837 


38 


9 


124 


14 


7 


' '75 


52^1 


471 


34 


8 


301 


57 


7 


77 


10 





94 


68.6 


751 


37 





329 


53 


3 












1,080 


37 


2 


414 


44 





"91 


6 


9 


'i75 


66^0 


781 


25 





494 


42 


7 


69 


19 


4 


49 


62.0 


4,498 


27 


6 


1,917 


41 


3 


303 


15 


8 


x94 


x62.3 


2,552 


31 


6 


641 


30 


9 


31 


1 


9 


181 


80.1 


594 


35 


9 


314 


43 


2 












818 


24 





543 


41 


8 


' 78 


6 


6 


"252 


65!8 


735 


34 


2 


318 


46 





27 


1 


8 


124 


52.1 


2,464 


20 


1 


748 


21 


1 


6 


2 


3 


11 


9.9 


1,532 


18 


5 


586 


23 


6 


t35 




3 


43 


12.9 


1,442 


13 


1 


624 


25 


9 


13 


5 


4 






711 


17 


7 


83 


5 


9 


33 


4 


4 







* Includes 35 pupils transported to the Bowie Normal Elementary School at State expense, 
who are excluded in obtaining percentages. 

t Includes 26 pupils transported to the Bowie Normal Elementary School at State expense, 
who are excluded in obtaining percentages. 

X Pupils transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-senior high schools. 



del, Howard, and Talbot, and less than 1 per cent in Worcester and 
Prince George's, to 21.2 per cent in Caroline. From 15 to 20 per 
cent of the colored elementary school enrollment in Frederick, 
Baltimore, Carroll, and Cecil were transported at county expense. 
(See Table 167.) 

The per cent of colored high school pupils transported in whole 
or in part at public expense was 50.3 in 1936, nearly 10 per cent 
higher than the proportion of white pupils transported to hii^h 
school. Of the seventeen counties which transported colored high 
school pupils, thirteen had but one high school in the county, two 
had two high schools, Worcester had one first group and two sec- 
ond group high schools, and Prince George's had three first group 
high schools. The percentage of colored high school pupils trans- 
ported varied from none in Anne Arundel, Talbot, Washington, 
and Harford, nearly 10 per cent in Allegany, 13 per cent in Prince 
George's, and 23 per cent in Worcester to over 95 per cent in Queen 
Anne's and Calvert. (See Table 167.) 



260 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Number of Schools to Which Transportation was Provided 

Transportation was provided to 17 more colored schools and 
6 more white schools in 1936 than in the year preceding, bringing 
the total number to which children were transported at public 
expense to 488. Of these 54 were white one-teacher, 73 were two- 
teacher, and 149 were graded elementary schools; 114 were 
schools having both white elementary and high school pupils, 32 
were schools having only white high school pupils, and 66 were 
schools attended by colored pupils. There were only eleven high 
schools to which white pupils were not transported at public ex- 
pense, 5 in Harford, 2 in Prince George's, and one each in Alle- 
gany, Baltimore, Cecil, and Washington Counties. (See Table 
168.) 

TABLE 168 



Number of County Schools to Which Transportation was Provided at County 
Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1936 







White 




White Schools 








Schools with Elementary 












Grades Only 








Total 










Having 


Having 


Colored 


Number 


COUNTY 








Both High 


High 


Schools 


of 




One- 


Two- 




and Ele- 


School 




Different 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Pupils 




Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Grades* 


Only 






Total Counties 


54 


73 


149 


114 


32 


66 


488 


Allegany 


1 


3 


14 


9 


1 


1 


29 


Anne Arundel 




4 


20 




6 




30 


Baltimore 




4 


16 


"10 


1 


'9 


40 


Calvert 




2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


9 


Caroline 


' "3 


2 


4 


5 




4 


18 


Carroll 


1 


4 


5 


10 




2 


22 




3 


3 


4 


3 


■ 4 


4 


21 


Charles 






1 


5 




1 


7 


Dorchester 


' ' 6 


' ' '3 


6 


4 


' " '2 


8 


29 


Frederick 




6 


17 


6 


1 


7 


37 




' 23 


5 


5 


4 


2 




39 


Harford 




.... 


3 


7 




■ ' '3 


13 




"1 




1 


5 


.... 




8 


Kent 


1 


3 


3 


3 




"3 


14 


Montgomery 


2 


4 


10 


7 


2 


3 


28 


Prince George's .... 




3 


6 


8 


1 


1 


19 


Queen Anne's 


' ' '2 


4 


6 


1 


4 


3 


20 


St. Mary's 


4 


7 




1 


1 


2 


15 


Somerset 


1 


1 


■ ■ '4 


2 


2 


3 


13 


Talbot 


1 


1 


1 


6 


.... 




9 


Washington 


1 


6 


14 


7 




' ' '2 


31 




4 


3 


3 


5 


2 


5 


22 






4 


4 


5 




2 


15 



*To Elementary Only 

Baltimore 1 

Harford 4 

Washington 1 



Dorchester, Wicomico, Frederick, and Somerset increased by 
three and four the number of colored schools to which transporta- 
tion was provided at public expense. (See Table 168.) 



New Windsor High School, Carroll County 





Westminster High School, Carroll County 



Schools Having Transportation; Vehicles Used; Capital Outlay 261 
Number and Type of Vehicles Used for Transportation 

In the fall of 1936, the counties used 836 motor vehicles for 
transportation of pupils, of which 74 were owned by the counties 
and 762 were owned by contractors. In addition, there were 69 
private cars used to transport small numbers of pupils or to bring 
children from side roads to the main road to meet the buses. There 
were also in use a motor boat in Calvert and two horse-drawn ve- 
hicles. Of the 74 county owned buses, Montgomery had 44, Bal- 
timore had 15, Garrett had 6, Calvert and Harford 3 each, Carroll 
2, and Frederick one. 

The total distance reported in October, 1936, as covered one 
way by the 836 motor buses was 10,548 miles, an average of 12.6 
miles per motor vehicle. The 69 private cars ran 358 miles one 
way, an average distance of 5.2 miles, while the two horse-drawn 
vehicles averaged 3 miles each. In addition to transportation in 
these vehicles, the public paid for transporting 773 pupils on pub- 
lic conveyances such as trains, electric cars, and public buses. 

Photographs showing buses in Frederick and Anne Arundel lined 
up beside school buildings at the county seats are included oppo- 
site page 260. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR SCHOOLS 

Capital outlay in the counties for 1935-36 totalled slightly over 
two million dollars. The largest amounts w^ere expended in the 
counties which received the following grants from the Federal 
Public Works Administration. 

TABLE 169 

Federal P. W. A. Grants and Capital Outlay 1935-36 



Caoital Outlay Per Cent from 

County Federal Grant 1935-36 Federal Grant 



ADegany $182,133 $609,995 29.9 

Prince George's 122,502 233,620 52.4 

Carroll 102,752 232,233 44.2 

Dorchester 72,650 160,089 45.4 

Montgomery 57,277 227,747 25.2 

Baltimore 51,055 131,615 38.8 

Harford 45,000 160,948 28.0 

Howard 26,250 76,841 34.2 

Caroline 11,250 42,679 26.4 

Frederick 601 26,904 2.2 



Total Counties $671,470 $1,902,671 35.3 

Baltimore City 157,500 223,668 70.4 



Entire State $828 , 970 $2,126,339 39.0 



The grants in Prince George's and Baltimore City applied 
against capital outlay for the preceding year as well as for the 
year 1935-36. (See fables 169 and 170.) 



262 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 170 



Capital Outlay,! Year Ending July 31, 1936 



County 


White Elementary 


White 
High 
Schools 


Colored 
Schools 


Grand 
Total 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


V J 1 <lut:U 

Schools 


All 
Schools 


Total Counties .... 




$11 ,291 


<R4Qfi 900 




$1,410, lis 


$oo , oiy 


A-^c% (\(\c\ 001 

T$2,000,d21 


Allegany 






4 700 


4 700 


bUo , <syo 




youy , yyo 






796 


1 ' 712 


2 ' 508 


2 , 544 


■ A ^ 

9ob 


5 , 988 






749 


83 994 


84 743 


45, 592 


1 ,280 


tl31 , 615 


Calvert 






67 


67 


70 




137 










4 


38 , 155 


• ■ ■ A 
4 , 520 


°t42 , 679 








49 689 


49 689 


181 , 643 


901 


+000 000 


Cecil 






7^910 


7 1 910 


13 , 291 


710 


21,911 


Charles 




63 


1 ' 566 


1 629 


12 


7,394 


9,035 


Dorchester 








32 992 


127,097 




tl60,089 


Frederick 


'284 


3; 577 


20,076 


23 ,'937 


2 , 956 


11 


\£,xi , yu4 




1,356 


2,825 


1,572 


5,753 


1 , 495 








77 


57 


25,033 


25,167 


113,853 


21 , 928 


IbU , y4o 


xlowara . 


51 


126 


1,032 


1 ,209 


74 , 912 


720 


76 , 841 


Kent 






1,510 


1,510 






1,510 


Montgomery 


'854 




127,924 


128,778 


91^441 


7^528 


227,747 


Prince George's . . . 
Queen Anne's. 




. . . . 


97,032 


97,032 


109,260 


27,328 


233,620 


' '67 




2,297 


2.365 


459 


1,857 


4,681 


St. Mary's 




611 


6,282 


6,893 




85 


6,978 


Somerset 




18 


8,603 


8,621 


'446 


18 


9.079 


Talbot 




















1,680 


20,353 


22^633 






22^633 


Wicomico 




788 


1,856 


2,644 


1^603 


' '31 


4,278 


Worcester 












4,772 


4,772 


Baltimore City .... 








197,220 


773 


22,148 


t*223,668 










185,246 




21,838 


207,084 


Vocational 








5,192 






5,192 


Junior High .... 








6,782 






6,782 


Senior High 










'773 


'si 6 


1,083 


Total State. . . 








$707,404 


$1,410,891 


$102,167 


t*$2,223,989 



Includes $828,970 from P.W.A. distributed as follows : 



P. W. A. 

Allegany $182,133 



Baltimore 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

* Includes $3,527 spent for th^ 
° Includes $8,176 from W. P. 



Harford 

Howard 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's. 



51,055 
11,250 
102,752 
72,650 

601 Baltimore City 

Administration Building. 
A. funds. 



P. W. A. 

$45,000 
26,250 
57,277 

122,502 

157,500 



The largest amount, $1,410,118, was spent for high school 
buildings for white pupils, and the buildings erected in the coun- 
ties making the largest capital outlay are listed below : 

Allegany — Fort Hill High School, Cumberland 

Carroll — Westminster, New Windsor, Mt. Airy, Sykesville • 

Harford — Havre de Grace, Aberdeen, Old Post Road 

Dorchester — Cambridge, East New Market 

Prince George's — Bladensburg, Maryland Park 

Montgomery — Bethesda-Chevy Chase Senior, Sherwood, Montgomery- 
Blair Senior, Silver Spring Junior 
Howard — Elk Ridge 
Baltimore — Sparks 
Caroline — Greensboro 




Foods Laboratory (above), Homemaking^ Room (below), Part of Home 
Economics Department of Fort Hill High School, Cumberland, Md. 



School Capital Outlay; School Bonds Outstanding 



263 



Pictures showing the front view of the Fort Hill High School, 
Cumberland, the auditorium, library, and a typical classroom, 
face page 262, while the foods laboratory and home making 
room which are a part of the home economics department at 
this school face page 263. The front views of the New Windsor 
and Westminster High Schools in Carroll County face page 261. 

On elementary schools for white pupils, $510,184 was spent and 
the buildings erected in the counties spending the largest amounts 
are listed below : 

Montgomery — Damascus, Silver Spring, Sherwood, East Silver Spring, 
Rockville 

Prince George's — Hyattsville, District Line, Colmar ]\Ianor 

Baltimore — Catonsville, Carroll Manor 

Carroll — Sandymount, New Windsor, Sykesville 

Dorchester — Academy, Peach Blossom, Galestown, East New Market 
Harford — Old Post Road, Aberdeen 
Washington — Sharpsburg 
Frederick — Catoctin, Point of Rocks 

For colored schools, from a total capital outlay of $80,019, the 
counties spending the largest amounts erected the following 
buildings : 

Prince George's — Douglass Colored High at Upper Marlboi o, Ammen- 

dale Elementary 
Harford — Havre de Grace High and Elementary School 
Montgomery — Rockville Colored High School 

Charles — Bel Alton, Marbury, Waldorf to replace burned building 
Worcester— Pocomoke 

Caroline — Denton High and Elementary, Ridgely Elementary 

Queen Anne's — Dudley's at Sudlersville, Colored High School at Cen- 

terville 
Baltimore — Hereford 

In Baltimore City of the capital outlay totalling $223,668, there 
was spent for white elementary schools $185,246, and for colored 
elementary schools $21,838. 

SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING SEPTEMBER. 1936 

In September, 1936, 20 of the 23 counties had school bonds out- 
standing to the total of $16,666,167, a decrease of $139,966 under 
1935. Aid from the Public Works Administration was a factor in 
making this decrease possible in several counties. All of the 
counties, except five, Dorchester, Harford, Howard, Prince 
George's, and Washington, decreased the bonds outstanding under 
the preceding year. In Baltimore City, the total of $25,440,653 
outstanding in September, 1936, was $1,202,500 less than for the 
year preceding. (See Table 171.) 

Exclusive of school bonds authorized by the regular and special 
legislative sessions in 1937, only two counties, Montgomery and 
Wicomico, had school bonds authorized which were unissued in 
September, 1936. 



264 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 171 



School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, as of September, 1936 







1936 Assessable 




Ppr Cpnt that 






Basis Taxable 


Assessable Basis 


Indebtedness 




School Bonds 


at Full Rate 


Back of Each 


for School Bonds 


COUNTY 


Outstanding 


for County 


Dollar of School 


Is of Total 




September, 1936 


Purposes 


Indebtedness 


County Basis 


Total Counties 


$16,666,167 


$955,246,228 


$57 


1.7 


Allegany 


2,390,000 


77,444,517 


32 


3.1 


Anne Arundel 


1,182,000 


50,861,423 


43 


2.3 


Baltimore 


3,601,667 


178,686,573 


50 


2.0 


Calvert 


68 , 000 


5,898,448 


87 


1.2 




45^000 


14 1692! 379 


326 


.3 


Carroll 




36,518,203 






Cecil 


100,000 


38.957,828 


'390 


".S 


Charles 


89,000 


9,931,523 


112 


.9 


Dorchester 


362,000 


23,989,168 


66 


1.5 


Frederick 


999,000 


64,860,302 


65 


1.5 


Garrett 




17,865,561 






Harford 


180,000 


52 ,961 ,213 


294 


.3 




205,000 


17,945,864 


88 


1.1 


Kent 




16,209,154 








a2. 718, 000 


95,911,076 


35 


2^8 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


2,519,000 


73 , 542 . 656 


29 


3.4 


31,000 


16,513,131 


533 


.2 






8,658,754 






Somerset 


24,000 


11,863,961 


'494 


" " .2 


Talbot 


254,000 


20.840,118 


82 


1.2 


Washington 


1,228,500 


72.864,735 


59 


1.7 


Wicomico 


b414,000 


28.207.345 


68 


1.5 


Worcester 


256,000 


20,242,296 


79 


1.3 




25,440,653 


1,228,057,791 


48 


2.1 


State 


42,106,820 


2,042,196,418 


49 


2.1 



a $180,000 voted but still unissued. b $450,000 voted but still unissued. 



The assessable basis taxable at the full rate back of each dollar 
of school indebtedness outstanding was $57 in the counties and 
$48 in Baltimore City, an increase of $2 for the counties over the 
year preceding. In five counties with a growing population. Prince 
George's, Allegany, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore, 
the assessable basis back of each dollar of school indebtedness 
ranged between $29 and $50. 

The per cent that indebtedness for school bonds is of total coun- 
ty basis assessable at the full rate for county purposes was 1.7 
for the counties as a group and 2.1 for Baltimore City. This per- 
centage ranged between 2 and 3.4 in the five counties mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph. Washington County was just at the 
county average with 1.7 per cent. (See Table 171.) 

Carroll County is financing a building program providing fa- 
cilities shown in Table 172 at a cost of $412,258 plus $16,573 for 
land. A Federal grant of $185,516 w^as obtained. The county 
borrowed $200,000 on short term notes and is planning to pay 
them back in three years through the county levy, $63,625 being 
included in the 1936-37 levy. Garrett and St. Mary's are also 
financing w^hatever building is being done through the county 
levy. 



School Bonds Outstanding and Authorized 



265 



TABLE 172 



Facilities in Carroll County School Building Program 



School Building at 


No. of 

Classrooms 


Auditorium 
Capacity 


Health 
Office 


Library 


Lavatory 


Cafeteria 


Storage 


Maximum 
Capacity 


Westminster 


















High 


28 


1,000 


1 


1 


6 


1 


3 


900 


New Windsor 


















High and Elementary 


16 


400 


1 


1 


4 


1 


3 


515 


Sandymount 


















Elementary 


7 


200'= 






2 




1 


280 


Sykesville 


















Addition 


8 


t 






n 




1 


275 



* Combined auditorium and classroom. t Office. J Shower room. 



SCHOOL BONDS AUTHORIZED IN 1937 

The 1937 legislature in regular and special sessions provided 
authorizations of bond issues for school purposes as follows : 

TABLE 173 

School Bonds Authorized in Regular and Special Legislative Sessions, 1937 



First and Final 



Chapter County 


Amount 


Date of Issue 


Payment of 


Rate of 










Principal 


Interest 


419 


Allegany 


$600,000 


1937 


1943-1982 


Not over 5% 


371 


Calvert 


25,000 






" " 4% 


304t 


Charles 


25,000 


Sept. 1, 1937 


1938-1963 


" " 4% 


484* 




150,000 






258 




300,000 


July 1, 1937 


Within 15 years 


" 3H% 


163 




100,000 




•' " 37o 


131 


Howard 


50,000 


1937 


1938-1954 


" 4% 


335 


Montgomery 


724,000 


Not later than 


Not later than 


" " 6% 






June 1, 1939 


5 years 
Not over 30 












years after issue 


" " 5% 


277 


Prince George's. 


. 442,000 




Not over 30 years 


453 




200,000° 








90 


Talbot 


100,000 


1937-1939 


1944-1953 


" " 4H% 


452 


Washington .... 


190,000 


July 1, 1937 


1942-1958 




6t 


Wicomico 


125,000 


1956-1959 


" •• 4% 



* Amended by Chapter 16 of special session of 1937. 
t Special Session 1937. 

J Chapter 497 provides receipts from liciuor licenses shall pay inton-st and redtniptiun on 
1937 school bonds. 

° Rejected in referendum June 15, 1937. 



A referendum taken in November, 1936, on a bond issue of 
$170,000 in Kent was unfavorable as was that taken in June, 1937, 
on a $200,000 bond issue in Somerset. 



266 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

The value of school property reported by the county superin- 
tendents showed a decrease of nearly $85,000, making the total 
amount $26,762,790 in 1936. In Baltimore City the value of school 
property amounted to $47,650,663, an increase of $381,309 over 
the value in 1935. (See Table 174.) 



TABLE 174 



Value of School Property, 1922-1936 



Year 


Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 




















Baltimore 






Baltimore 




Maryland 


Counties 


City 


Maryland 


Counties 


City 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


$10,439,008 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923 


22,236.638 


11,796,630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


1924 


28,264,507 


12,813.396 


15.451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33,622,503 


14,946,810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


3 64 


1926 


38,865,024 


16,704,564 


22.160,460 


]48 


108 


205 


1927 


48,654,045 


17,889,796 


30.761.249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51,765,517 


18,994,670 


32,770,847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52,801,013 


19,920,102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1930 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1931 


61,141,759 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24,608,923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 


1934 


72,241,647 


25,501,303 


46,740,344 


246 


149 


384 


1935 


74,116,872 


26,847,518 


47,269,354 


251 


156 


384 


1936 


74,413,453 


26,762,790 


47,650,663 


250 


155 


380 



The value of school property per county pupil enrolled was $155, 
just $1 less than for the preceding year, the first decrease shown 
since 1932. In Baltimore City, the value per pupil enrolled, $380, 
was a decrease of $4 under the corresponding value for 1934 and 
1935, and the first decrease, with the exception of 1929, since 1922. 
For the entire State the average value of school property per pupil 
enrolled was $250, $1 less than in 1935. (See Table 174.) 

The average value of school property per Maryland pupil enrolled 
in 1936 is the same as the average value reported for the United 
States for the year 1934. At the earlier date Maryland ranked 
23 among the 48 states in average value of school property per 
pupil enrolled, 22 in average value of school property per pupil in 
average daily attendance, 29 in average value of school property 
per unit of population, and 30 in average value of school property 
per unit of population 5-17 years of age.'*' 

In the counties the school property used by white pupils was 
valued in 1936 at $25,181,543, and by colored pupils at $1,581,247. 
These figures showed an increase of $90,600 for schools used by 



* See Table 17, page 71, in Statistics of State School Systems, 1933-34. 



Value of School Property, Total and per Pupil 



207 



county white pupils and a decrease of $49,328 for schools used by 
county colored pupils. The valuations for 1936 would have been 
considerably larger if Baltimore County had not made a complete 
revaluation of its school property which reduced the amount 
under 1935 for its w^hite pupils by $1,303,400 and for its colored 
pupils by $72,850. Also the burning of buildings at North East 
and Cambridge reduced the valuation for buildings used bv white 
pupils in Cecil by $50,000 and in Dorchester by $200,500. 

Seven counties, Allegany, Prince George's, Montgomery, Har- 
ford, Washington, Caroline, and Carroll, showed substantial in- 
creases from 1935 to 1936 in the value of school buildings used 
for white pupils, and five counties. Queen Anne's, Harford, 
Charles, Worcester, and Caroline, showed increases in value of 
school property used by colored pupils. (See Table 175.) 

TABLE 175 



Value of School Property Per Pupil Belonging, 1936 



County 


Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Total Counties 


$25,181,543 


136,683 


$184 


$1,581,247 


26,984 


$59 


Allegany 


4,073,548 


15,373 


265 


61,225 


358 


171 


Anne Arundel 


1,289,600 


7,996 


161 


151,200 


3,017 


50 




=^4,163,000 


20,475 


203 


*171,650 


1,899 


90 


Calvert 


127,500 


986 


129 


28,400 


1.084 


26 




422,000 


2,701 


156 


51,300 


851 


60 


Carroll 


530,675 


6,255 


85 


15.100 


427 


35 


Cecil 


t553,795 


4,178 


133 


16,400 


424 


39 


Charles 


262,425 


1,926 


136 


91.172 


1.579 


58 


Dorchester 


°349,300 


3,752 


93 


62.800 


1.539 


41 


Frederick 


1,384.875 


9,082 


152 


81,400 


972 


84 


Garrett 


304,450 


4,846 


63 










838,500 


5,337 


157 


48^400 


856 


"57 




323,000 


2,588 


125 


20 , 600 


562 


37 


Kent 


160,800 


1,832 


88 


18.300 


879 


21 


Montgomery 


3.803,425 


9,900 


384 


127,750 


1.745 


73 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


2,070.800 


10,588 


196 


248,000 


2.945 


84 


247.000 


1,958 


126 


38,500 


747 


52 


St. Mary's 


118,900 


1,347 


88 


23.300 


1.164 


20 


Somerset 


307 , 650 


2,794 


110 


40.350 


1.651 


24 


Talbot 


428,000 


2.330 


184 


48 . 700 


945 


52 




2.096.050 


13.190 


159 


44.200 


293 


151 


875.300 


4,441 


197 


138,100 


1,615 


86 




450,950 


2,808 


161 


54,400 


1 . 432 


38 


Baltimore City 


140,389,831 


89.648 


451 


t7, 260, 832 


27.591 


263 


State 


$65,571,374 


226,331 


$290 


$8,842,079 


54 , 575 


$162 



t Excludes $759,891 for administration build- t Calvert agricultural school burne<l. 

ings. warehouses, and storage buildings. ° Cambridge high school burned. 

* Revaluation. 



The value of school property per county white pupil belonging. 
$184 in 1936, onlv slightlv less than in 1935, ranged from $63 in 
Garrett and between S85 and $93 in Carroll, Kent, St. Mary's, and 
Dorchester, to $203, $265, and $384 in Baltimore, Allegany, and 
Montgomery Counties, respectively. The largest increases from 



268 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



1935 to 1936 in value of school property per pupil belonging were 
found in Allegany, Harford, and Caroline. (See Table 175 and 
Chart 38.) 

CHART 38 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY IN USE 
PER raiTE PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 




Balto. City 
State 



* Revaluation of school property in Baltimore County in 193G. 
t Cambridge High School burned down. 



Garrett, with the lowest average value per pupil belonging, 
had the largest proportion of white pupils in small buildings of 
frame construction, which, of course, are less expensive than fire- 



Value of School Property per Pupil; Non-Resident School 269 
Attendants 

proof or semi-fireproof construction of brick, stone, or concrete, 
necessary because of fire hazard in the large school buildings. 
The small one-room buildings have no auditoriums, special rooms, 
corridors, or central heating plants, which are found in large 
modern school buildings. 

The value of school property averaged $59 per colored pupil be- 
longing in 1936, a decrease of $1 under the value in 1935. The 
range in value was from the lowest amounts, $20 to $41 in St. 
Mary's, Kent, Somerset, Calvert, Carroll, Howard, Worcester, 
Cecil, and Dorchester, to $151 in Washington and 8171 in Alle- 
gany. (See Table 175 and Chart 30, pages 199-200.) 

The value of school property per white pupil belonging in Balti- 
more City, $451, was greater than that found in any county. School 
sites cost more in the City than in the counties and the large 
school buildings have to meet many requirements not considered 
essential in smaller buildings. The value of Baltimore City school 
buildings was $263 per colored pupil belonging, also considerably 
higher than that for any county. (See Table 175, Chart 38, and 
Chart 30, page 200.) 

COUNTY PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOL OUTSIDE COUNTY 
OF RESIDENCE 

The number of Maryland county pupils attending school in a 
county other than that of their residence decreased by 57 to 1,178 
in 1936. Only 7 counties, Baltimore, Dorchester, Montgomery, 
Queen Anne's, Somerset, Washington, and Worcester, showed in- 
creases in the number of their pupils who received their education 
in schools outside of the county of their residence. The largest 
decreases were found in Frederick and Garrett. Baltimore Coun- 
ty had 239 pupils in schools outside its limits, of whom 151 at- 
tended colored junior and senior high schools in Baltimore City, 
their tuition being paid for by the county to the extent of $95 
for each junior high and $150 for each senior high school pupil. 
Garrett County sent 92 pupils to Allegany County, while Fred- 
erick sent 114 to Carroll. Howard had 122 pupils going to school 
in adjacent counties. (See Table 176.) 

Carroll, Baltimore City, Prince George's, and Allegany instruct- 
ed the largest number of pupils whose homes were in counties ad- 
jacent to them. 

According to by-law 11, any county sharing in the Equalization 
Fund may make no tuition charge for a pupil who attends school 
in its county whose residence is in another Maryland county. A 
capital outlay charge of $20 per white high ; $15 per white elemen- 
tary ; $10 per colored high ; and 87.50 per colored elementary pupil 
is, however, made for each pupil. In addition to the amount for 
capital outlay, counties not receiving the Equalization Fund make 
a charge for tuition which is 60 per cent of the average current ex- 
pense cost, excluding general control and fixed charges, for the 
preceding year in the various types of school. 



270 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 176 

Number of Pupils Attending Schools Outside Their Own County During 

School Year 1935-36 



County or State from Which Pupils Came Who Attended 
School in Adjoining Counties 



in Which 
Pupils 
from 
Adjoining 
Counties 
Attended 
School 


Total 


1 Allegany 


1 Anno Arundel 


1 Baltimore 


1 Calvert | 


1 Caroline | 


1 Carroll | 


1 Cecil 1 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


1 Harford 


1 Howard 


!v . lit 1 


1 Montgomery | 


% 

G 

6 

i 

— 


1 Queen Anne's | 


St. Mary's | 


1 Somerset | 


I Talbot 


Washington | 


Wicomico 1 


Worcester | 


Pennsylvania 1 


West Virginia 1 


Delaware | 


Total 


1265 

132 
17 
20 
14 
71 
170 

4 
31 

5 
33 
25 

5 
92 
47 
31 
135 
75 
19 

4 
16 
33 

5 
45 
160 
15 
15 
46 


16 


92 


239 


3 


24 


16 


6 


29 


46 


137 


153 
92 


10 


122 




29 


9 


65 


23 


43 


50 


42 
15 


2 


22 


43 
17 


19 
8 


25 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel . . 
























16 






1 




















10 












10 






















Calvert 




14 




























































46 
















6 


















19 


Carroll 






8 












114 






38 




10 




















Cecil 






























4 






Charles 
































8 




23 












Dorchester .... 














































5 






























1 












27 






5 


9 


Garrett 


16 








































20 


5 
66 












































Howard 






6 










































Kent 


4 




















42 


















1 


Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 
St. Mary's 


















9 






5 
63 




17 
1 






















58 




3 








10 


























24 
















1 






50 


























19 










































































4 








Talbot 


































16 


















Washington .... 
Wicomico 




















14 


























17 


2 














































5 








































43 






2 








Baltimore City. 
Delaware 






160 












































2 
































13 








Pennsylvania . . 
West Virginia . . 


















15 
46 



































































































































1936-37 COUNTY TAX LEVIES 



County levies for 1936-37 in nineteen counties and for the cal- 
endar year 1937 in four counties totalled $14,121,354, an increase 
of nearly $1,393,000 over the year preceding. Every county in- 
creased its levy, except Charles and Queen Anne's, which had de- 
creases, and Harford which remained stationary. Counties which 
increased their levies by more than ten per cent were Dorchester, 
Worcester, Wicomico, Talbot, Prince George's, Kent, Frederick, 
and Calvert. The three southernmost counties in Southern Mary- 
land, St. Mary's, Calvert, and Charles, had the smallest levies, 
while Baltimore and Montgomery Counties had the largest levies. 
(See Table 111.) 

County Levies for School Current Expenses 

The county levies for school current expenses totalled $5,338,- 
316, an increase of $290,660 over those for 1935-36. All except 
four counties, Carroll, Harford, Somerset, and Washington, had 



Non-Resident School Attendants; 1936-37 County Levies 271 

TABLE 177 
County Tax Budgets, 1936-37 



COUNTY 



Total 
County 
Levy 



COUNTY APPROPRL\TIONS FOR: 



SCHOOLS 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 



Total 



Roads, 
Bridges 

and 
Ferries 



Other 
County 
Purposes 



Total Counties. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimo'-e 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



$14,121,354 



1,398,385 
1.221,307 
3,036,229 
103,494 
159,027 
476.238 
337,736 
110.279 
352,822 
798,281 
195,159 
508,058 
260,607 
240,054 
1,923,417 
f894,035 
179.485 
86,060 
150,116 
218,898 
795,441 
413,023 
263.203 



$5,338,316 

608,279 
337,169 
c898,124 
33,762 
74.000 
189,142 
169,323 
47,612 
120.930 
353,829 
85.584 
195,500 
91,130 
81.489 
664,210 
f444,488 
82,393 
40,748 
58,733 
106,166 
399,929 
160,641 
95,135 



$1,363,504 

192,062 
101,442 
290,127 
7,015 
7,025 
76,096 
10,000 
8,135 
33 , 630 
all9,353 



16,875 
12,532 



140,903 
bll6,423 
6,600 
e5,260 
2,500 
27,350 
120,066 
42,450 
27,660 



$273,310 

50,000 
2,400 

90,000 
6 , 500 



29,430 
9,080 
7,300 



18,400 
8,000 
1 . 50G 
2,250 



5,000 
13^600 



2,800 



8,650 
4,000 
15.000 



$6,975,130 

850.341 
441 ,011 
cl, 278, 251 

47,277 

81,025 
294,668 
188,403 

63,047 
1.54,560 
a491.582 

93 . 584 
213.875 
105,912 

81,489 
810,113 
bf 560, 911 
101.993 
e46 , 008 

64,033 
133,516 
528,645 
207,091 
137,795 



$1,400,973 

30,000 
231,344 
751,238 

11,525 



dl 



2,000 
4,7.50 



23,138 



125,000 
46,630 
8,000 

126^348 
7,500 



27,000 
6,500 



$5,745,251 

518.044 
548.9.52 
,006.740 
44,692 
78,002 
179.570 
144,583 
47,232 
198,262 
283,561 
101,575 
169.183 
108.065 
1.50.565 
,113.304 
206.776 
69.992 
40,052 
86 , 083 
85.382 
239,796 
199.432 
125,408 



a Includes $36,667 due Board of Education for levy of preceding year, 
b Includes $14,000 due Board of Education for levy of preceding year. 

c Include? $7,050 levied by county commissioners directly for teachers retired by county 
prior to 1927. 

d Includes $2,515 levied by county commissioners but not requested by Board of Education. 

e Includes $3,720 levied by county commissioners toward high school transportation costs 
in 1935-36 and interest charge on $11,000 pledged for W.P.A. school construction. 

f Includes estimate of $5,000 paid directly by county commissioners for insurance on school 
buildings. 



increases in the school current expense levy from 1936 to 1937. 
The largest increases were found in Prince George's and Montgom- 
ery, the two counties which are showing the greatest growth in 
school population. 

County Levies for School Debt Service and Capital Outlay 

There was an increase of $108,205 in the county lew for school 
debt service, bringing the total in 1936-37 to $1,3(33.504. This in- 
cludes amounts paid by county commissioners directly for interest 
and redemption of school bonds outstanding as well as amounts 
paid through the County Board of Education. Garrett and Kent 
were the only counties with no levy for school debt service. The 
largest increases in school debt service were found in Frederick 
which included $36,667 due the Board of Education against the 
levy of the preceding year, in Carroll which provided for payments 



272 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



on the notes issued toward the school construction program de- 
scribed on pages 264-5, in Prince George's, Wicomico, Allegany, 
Talbot, and Dorchester, which issued additional bonds for school 
purposes. 

For school capital outlay there was an increase of $166,745, 
bringing the total in the 1937 levy to $273,310 for seventeen coun- 
ties. Baltimore County included $90,000 and Allegany $50,000 
in the levy for school capital outlay. Carroll, Frederick, Worces- 
ter, Queen Anne's, Cecil, Washington, Garrett, and Charles all 
realized the desirability of providing for school capital outlay in 
the levy by including amounts between $29,430 and $7,300. 

The county levy for all school purposes, $6,975,130, was an in- 
crease of $565,610 over that for the preceding year. All counties 
showed increases, except Caroline and Queen Anne's, which had 
reductions and Harford which did not change. (See Table 177.) 

County Levies for Roads and Other Purposes 

For operation, debt service and construction of roads, bridges, 
and ferries, the total county levy of $1,400,973 in fourteen coun- 
ties was an increase of $126,273 over that of the preceding year. 
Increases were levied in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Cecil, 
Harford, Kent, Prince George's, Washington, and Wicomico. It 
was not possible to determine from the budget the amount in- 
cluded for roads in Montgomery. 

For purposes other than schools and roads, the county levies 
for 1936-37 included $5,745,251, an increase of $701,101 over the 
year preceding. Provision made by the counties for social welfare 
services is included in this item. All counties except Charles, 
Harford, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's showed 
increases in the amount levied for purposes other than schools 
and roads. The amount for Montgomery probably includes some 
provision for roads, since it was not possible to obtain the figure 
for roads for inclusion in the preceding column. The levy for 
purposes other than schools and roads was less than the levy for 
schools in all counties, except Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Garrett, 
Howard, Montgomery, and Somerset. (See Table 177.) 

Levy in Incorporated Cities, Towns, and Villages Within Counties 

Every county, except Baltimore County, which has no incor- 
porated towns, levied in addition to the county levy to provide for 
police, fire, water, highway, street cleaning, or other administra- 
tive services for particular areas. The amount levied in addition 
to the county levy was $2,455,495, which brought the total levied 
for county and local governmental services to $16,576,849, an in- 
crease of $1,456,094 over the preceding year. 

Since the counties vary in their administrative set-up for local 
units, no comparison of the proportion of funds devoted to schools 
is fair without including these local funds. The per cent of all 



County Levies; Per Cent of Levy Devoted to Schools 



273 




if 



O C " 

III 



o 


4 




r Cent Levied 


School Debt 
Service and 
Capital 
Outlay 


o> t~ oq N CO oi lo CO CO ec CO »c ■ ^ c o ic eg o — oo im 


(U 

Ah 


School 
Current 
Expenses 




Levy for 


School Debt 
Service and 
Capital 
Outlay 


d 


County 


School 
Current 
Expenses 




Grand 
Total 




-icvy by 


Incorporated 
Towns or 
Districts 




Total I 


County 


i iiiiiiisis£iiisiii=i5ii 

TJ< f-H .-I CO 




274 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

county and local levies provided for school current expenses was 
32.2 in the 23 counties, a decrease of 1.2 under the year before. 
The highest per cent of county and local levies allocated to school 
current expenses was 45.5 in St. Mary's and other counties with 
over 40 per cent were Cecil, Prince George's, Charles, and Talbot. 
The lowest per cent 25.5 was in Anne Arundel, and Dorchester, 
Worcester, Baltimore, and Wicomico Counties set aside under 
30 per cent of county and local levies for school current expenses. 
Including school debt service and capital outlay with current ex- 
penses, Charles County assigned 55.5 per cent of the county levy 
to all school purposes, and together with Carroll, Queen Anne's, 
St. Mary's, Talbot, and Prince George's devoted more than half 
the amounts levied to school purposes. On the other hand, Kent, 
Anne Arundel, Somerset, Dorchester, Harford, Montgomery, and 
Wicomico applied less than 40 per cent of the total levied by coun- 
ty and municipalities to school purposes. (See Table 178.) 

CHANGES IN ASSESSABLE BASIS 
TABLE 179 

Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 

in Thousands of Dollars 



Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



COUNTY 


*1923 


1925 


1927 


*1928 


1931 


1934 


tl935 


tl936 


Total Counties. . 


$661,724 


$726,064 


$781,971 


$883,508 


$923,203 


$920,397 


$930,221 


$955,246 


Allegany 


69,886 


75,718 


78,837 


80,715 


80,971 


76,553 


76,790 


77,445 


Anne Arundel . . . 


30,692 


36,956 


44,565 


47,544 


48,553 


48,560 


50,413 


50,861 


Baltimore 


104,232 


124,971 


139,232 


157,654 


167,242 


174,397 


175,657 


178,687 


Calvert 


4,427 


4,623 


4,935 


5,305 


5,560 


5,737 


5,795 


5,898 


Caroline 


14,027 


14,616 


14,761 


15,283 


15,156 


14,557 


14,604 


14,692 


Carroll 


33,382 


34,183 


35,636 


39,875 


36,265 


35,761 


36,258 


36,518 


Cecil 


23,189 


24,700 


25,628 


30,408 


36,392 


. 37,098 


37,913 


38,958 


Charles 


8,394 


8,854 


9,315 


9,938 


10,103 


9,801 


9,805 


9,932 


Dorchester 


18,987 


19,628 


20,439 


21,918 


22,188 


21,095 


21,664 


23,989 


Frederick 


51,248 


54,941 


57, 655 


65,234 


64 , 670 


64,030 


64,183 


64,860 


Garrett 


16,303 


19,556 


18,903 


21,653 


20,838 


17,611 


17,630 


17,666 


Harford 


28,580 


29,487 


29,561 


39,763 


51,149 


51,804 


52,132 


52,961 


Howard 


15,670 


15,682 


16,539 


18,063 


18,666 


17,749 


17,846 


17,946 


Kent 


14,519 


14,777 


14,956 


16,162 


16,138 


16,195 


16,171 


16,209 


Montgomery .... 


45,503 


50,676 


60,239 


77,889 


84,580 


88,043 


88,529 


95,911 


Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . . 


33,651 


37,776 


42,878 


59,312 


63,301 


64,942 


68,197 


73 , 543 


14,793 


15,024 


14,803 


16,692 


16,247 


16,145 


16,337 


16,513 


St. Mary's 


7,162 


7,825 


7,809 


8,289 


8,590 


8,566 


8,583 


8,639 


Somerset 


10,609 


11,307 


11,972 


12,392 


12,055 


11,618 


11,529 


11,864 


Talbot 


16,927 


17,524 


18,048 


20,478 


21,534 


20,576 


20,707 


20,840 




62 , 570 


68,281 


72,867 


72,908 


75,322 


71,738 


72,036 


72,865 


Wicomico 


20,394 


21,379 


24,109 


25,092 


26,487 


27,788 


27,557 


28,207 


Worcester 


16,579 


17,580 


18,284 


20,941 


21,196 


20,033 


19,885 


20,242 


Baltimore City . . 


902,208 


1,083,959 


1,230,198 


1,255,978 


1,351,403 


1,250,561 


1,273,610 


1,228,058 


State 


$1,563,932 


$1,810,023 


$2,012,169 


$2,139,486 


$2,274,606 


$2,170,958 


$2,203,831 


$2,183,304 



Includes reassessment figures. t Omits assessment of distilled spirits. 



Assessable Basis 



275 



The total assessment taxable at the full rate for county purposes 
in 1936 was over $955,000,000 in the 23 counties, an increase of 
$25,000,000 over 1935 and the highest assessment ever reported. 
Through 1932 there was an increase in the assessment reported 
each year by the State Tax Commission, but after a drop in 1933, 
there has been an annual increase. Every county had a higher 
assessment in 1936 than in 1935, but in only ten counties. Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Cecil, Dorchester, Harford, Kent, 
Montgomery, Prince George's, and Wicomico, was the 1936 assess- 
ment higher than the amount reported for any previous year. The 
largest increases have occurred in Montgomery, Prince George's, 
Baltimore, Dorchester, and Cecil Counties. (See Table 179.) 

In Baltimore City the assessable basis taxable at the full rate 
for city purposes, which had increased steadilv to a peak of $1,351,- 
403,000 in 1931, decreased to 81,250,561,000 in 1934, increased to 
$1,273,610,000 in 1935 and decreased again in 1936 to the lowest 
point since 1927, viz., $1,228,058,000. The State taxable basis in 
1936, $2,183,304, is therefore lower in 1936 than it was in 1931, 
1932, 1933, or 1935. (See Table 179.) 

For the counties, all elements which go into the taxable basis 
assessable at the full rate for county purposes, except personal 
property of non-stock corporations and distilled spirits, increased 
from 1935 to 1936. All counties, except Allegany, Anne Arundel, 
and Kent, showed increases from 1935 to 1936 in the real and tan- 
gible personal property taxable for county purposes. Railroad 
rolling stock allocated to the counties was assessed at lower values 
in 1936 than in 1935 in all counties, except those affected by elec- 
trification of the Pennsylvania Railroad — Anne Arundel, Balti- 
more, Cecil, Harford, and Prince George's, which increased suffi- 
ciently to more than offset decreases in the remaining counties. 
(See Table 180.) 

For ordinary business corporations, the assessment was higher 
in 1936 than in 1935 for all counties, except Anne Arundel. Cal- 
vert, Carroll, and Queen Anne's. Dorchester's assessment was 
greater by $1,836,000, Allegany's by $644,000. and Baltimore 
County's by $400,000. For domestic share corporations, there 
were seven counties which showed decreases in 1936 under 1935 — 
Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Harford, Prince George's, Somerset, and 
Talbot. For personal property of non-stock corporations and dis- 
tilled spirits the 1936 assessment was below that for 1935 in Alle- 
gany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Cecil, Washington, Wi- 
comico, and Baltimore City. (See Table 180.) 

In Baltimore City and for the State as a whole the decrease in 
assessments affected real and tangible personal property, personal 
property of non-stock corporations, and distilled spirits. 



276 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 180 



1936 Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County Purposes 

{Data Furnished by State Tax Commission) 







Real and 












Total Basis 


Tangible Per- 








Personal 


County 


Assessable at 


sonal Property 




Ordinary 


Domestic 


Property of 




Full Rate for 


Taxable for 


Railroad 


Business 


Share 


Non-Stock 




County 


County 


Rolling 


Corpora- 


Corpora- 


Corpora- 




Purposes 


Purposes 


Stock 


tions 


tions 


tions* 


Total Counties . 


$955,246,228 


$899,678,144 


$9,867,459 


$21,799,813 


$23,834,037 


$66,775 


Allegany 


77,444,517 


172,389,889 


1,117,952 


3,488,180 


444,556 


3,940 


Anne Arundel . . 


50,861,423 


49,406,501 


655,211 


574,500 


218,111 


7,100 


Baltimore 


178,686,573 


170,545,300 


1,659,059 


4,354,565 


2,116,809 


10,840 


Calvert 


5,898,448 


5,855,347 




40,300 


2,801 




Caroline 


14,692,379 


14,153,160 


102^693 


425,900 


10,626 




Carroll 


36,518,203 


34,766,354 


638,237 


817,451 


294,311 


1^850 


Cecil 


38,957,828 


36,447,812 


998,710 


752,095 


757,451 


1,760 




9,931,523 


9,806,633 


87,196 


34,635 


2,959 


100 


Dorchester. . . . 


23 , 989 , 168 


t20, 578, 520 


93, 108 


2,949,060 


J368,280 


200 




64,860,302 


°54,894,985 


350,018 


1,869,374 


7,745,475 


450 


Garrett 


17 , 665 , 561 


16 , 938 , 030 


167,454 


85,285 


469, 792 


5,000 




52,961,213 


45,653,253 


943,282 


291,445 


6,069,258 


3,975 


Howard 


17,945,864 


17,675,114 




191,965 


78,560 


225 


Kent 


16,209,154 


15,725,930 


120|6il 


108,460 


253,453 


700 


Montgomery. . . 


95,911,076 


94,788,960 




475,275 


645,291 


1,550 


Prince George's 


73,542,656 


71,886,469 


874^748 


406,150 


351,339 


23,950 


Queen Anne's. . 


16,513,131 


16,288,570 


98,042 


115,065 


11,454 




St. Mary's 


8,638,754 


8.605,967 




27.660 


5,127 




Somerset 


11,863,961 


11,232,851 


242^228 


149,084 


239,798 




Talbot 


20,840,118 


20.191,495 


95,915 


436,695 


115,218 


'795 


Washington .... 


72,864,735 


67,940,495 


1,351,073 


2,832,510 


737,957 


2,700 




28,207,345 


24,066.063 


90,189 


1,171,079 


2,878,374 


1,640 


Worcester 


20,242,296 


19,840,446 


181,733 


203,080 


17,037 




Baltimore City. 


1,228,057,791 


1,142,518,274 


891,593 


27,352,157 


57,149,357 


146,410 


Entire State . . . 


$2,188,304,019 


$2,042,196,418 


$10,759,052 


$49,151,970 


$80,983,394 


$213,185 



t Excludes $6,299,833 for Celanese Corporation. 

% Excludes $326,220 for real property and $854,251 for domestic share corporations for Del- 
marva Power Co. 

° Excludes $184,000 for Francis Scott Key Hotel and $18,725 for Loates Orphan Asylum 
taxed for State, but not for county purposes. 
* Distilled spirits have not been taxed. 

r 

COUNTY TAX RATES FOR 1937-38 

The county tax rates for school current expenses obtained by 
dividing the county levy for 1936-37 by the 1936 assessable basis 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes averaged 55.9 cents 
for the 23 counties, an increase of 1.6 cents over the preceding 
year. Rates ranged from 37 cents in Harford and 43.5 cents in 
Cecil to 78.5 cents in Allegany. Worcester was the only Equali- 
zation Fund county which levied only the very minimum tax rate 
required for participation in the Fund — 47 cents. All other Equal- 
ization Fund counties levied more than the minimum to take care 
of high school transportation costs not provided in the minimum 
program, to pay for salaries in excess of the minimum, to employ 
excess or special teachers, to make available an eighth elementary 
grade (Allegany), or to furnish more for books, materials, and 
other current expenses than was available in the minimum pro- 
gram. (See Table 181.) 



Assessable Basis; County Tax Rates 277 



TABLE 181 

Calculated County School Tax Rates and Published Total County Rates, 

1936-1937 



County 


J 1936-37 County School Tax Rate for School 


Total 

rUDlLsned 
County 

Tax Rate 
1936-37 


Current 
Expenses 


Debt 
Service 


Capital 
Outlay 


Total 




$ .559 


$ .143 


$ .028 


$ .730 


;*$l .47 


4- A 11 


.785 


§.248 


.065 


1.098 


*1 . 50 




.693 


§.147 


.005 


.845 


*1 . 50 




°.663 


°.199 


°.L05 


°.867 


°t*2 . 40 




.605 


§.158 




.763 


*1 . 28 


+f~!!il\7ort 


.573 


§.119 


!llO 


.802 


*1 . 70 




.570 


§.150 


.014 


.734 


1 . o 1 




.549 


.165 


.012 


.726 


*1 . 06 




°.546 


§°.184 


°.028 


°.758 


°*1 . 05 




.518 


§.208 


.081 


.807 


*1.10 


Talbot 


.510 


§.131 




.641 


*.90 


Howard 


.508 


§.070 


;oi2 


.590 


*] .15 




.504 


§.140 




.644 


*1.22 


Baltimore 


°.503 


°.162 


<050 


°.715 


°1.49 


tCaroline 


.503 


§.048 




.551 


*1.07 


tKent 


.503 






.503 


*1.20 




.499 


§!646 


!679 


.618 


*.90 




.495 


§.021 


.024 


.540 


*1.20 


tGarrett 


.485 




.045 


.530 


*1 .00 


tCharles 


.479 


§;682 


.074 


.635 


*1.10 


tSt. Mary's 


.472 


.061 




.533 


*1.00 




.470 


§.137 


!074 


.681 


*.95 


Cecil 


.435 


§.026 


.023 


.484 


*.78 




°.369 


§°.032 


°.003 


°.404 


°*1.00 



* Excludes additional rates for incorporated towns and districts. 

% Obtained by dividing levy shown in Table 177 by assessable basis taxable at the full rate 
for county purposes shown in Table 180. 
t Received Equalization Fund in 1935-36. 
° Calendar year 1937. 

§ Debt service provided for directly by county commissioners. 

Tax rates for school current expenses were higher in 1936-37 
than in 1935-36 in all counties, except Washington, Carroll, Somer- 
set, Cecil, and Harford. (See Table 181.) 

For school debt service the rate of 14.3 cents in 1936-37 was 
.8 cents higher than in 1935-36. From nothing in Garrett and 
Kent, the rate for school debt service rose to 25 cents in Allegany, 
and 21 cents in Carroll, which paid off the first installment of a 
three-year note on the amount borrowed for the building program. 

The rate for school capital outlay of 2.8 cents was 1.7 cents 
above that for 1935-36. Six counties levied nothing for school 
capital outlay, while at the opposite extreme Calvert levied 11 
cents, Carroll and Queen Anne's 8 cents, and Charles and Wor- 
cester over 7 cents. 

The total rate for schools, 73 cents in 1936-37, was 4 cents above 
that for 1935-36. The range in rate for all school purposes was 
from 40.4 cents in Harford to $1.10 in Allegany. Cecil and Har- 
ford were the only counties which levied less than 50 cents for all 
school purposes, while five counties, Calvert, Carroll, Montgomery. 
Anne Arundel, and Allegany, levied over 80 cents for school cur- 
rent expenses, debt service and capital outlay. 



278 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The county tax rates as published ranged from 78 cents in Cecil, 
90 cents in Talbot, and 95 cents in Worcester to $1.70 in Calvert, 
and $2.40 in Anne Arundel, which latter includes special road, 
fire protection, and sanitary taxes levied against certain districts. 
(See last column of Table 181.) 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

There were 487 parent-teacher associations active in the white 
county schools during 1935-36, which included 57.8 per cent of 
the total number of schools. Chiefly as the result of the elimina- 
tion of one-teacher schools the number of schools having parent- 
teacher associations decreased by 19, while the percentage in- 
creased by .7 when compared with corresponding figures for 1935. 
The maximum percentage of schools having P.-T. A.'s (59.1) was 
found in 1933. (See Table 182.) 



TABLE 182 



Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1936 





Parent-Teacher Associations 




in White Schools 


Year 








Number 


Per Cent 


1924 


490 
623 
638 
649 
617 
588 
576 
613 
571 
556 
530 
506 
487 


30.8 
40.6 
42.8 
45.1 
45.4 
45.8 
47.7 
54.7 
56.2 
59.1 
58.5 
57.1 
57.8 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 





During 1936 there were P.-T. A.^s in 100 per cent of the white 
schools in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Caroline Counties, and in 
94 and 96 per cent of the schools in Talbot and Kent, respectively. 
On the other hand, only 8 per cent of the schools in Garrett, 10.5 
per cent in Washington, and 13 per cent in St. Mary's had organ- 
ized parent-teacher associations in 1936. (See Chart 40.) 

In 1936, Frederick organized 9 additional white P.-T. A.'s, while 
Howard and Queen Anne's increased the number by 3 each. Prince 
George's by 2, and Wicomico added one more than were reported 
the preceding year. The percentage of schools having P.-T. A.'s 
decreased from 1935 to 1936 in Talbot, Allegany, Calvert, Har- 
ford, Cecil, Washington, and Garrett. (See Chart 39.) 



White Parent-Teacher Associations 



279 



CHART 39 



County 



PARFNT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS, 1935 AND 1936 
Number 



1955 1936 1935 
Average 506 487 57.1 



Per Cent 
1936 



Jotal and 



Anne Arundel 


31 


31 


96.9 


Baltimore 


61 


t*54 


100.0 


Caroline 


19 


17 


95.0 


Kent 


21 


21 


95.5 


Talbot 


20 


16 


95.2 


Frederick 


30 


39 


65.8 


Montgomery 


41 


39 


83.7 


Hov/ard 


19 


22 


70.4 


Charles 


8 


8 


80.0 


Pr . George ' s 


41 


43 


69.5 


Wicomico 


25 


f26 


65.6 


Allegany 


4b 




DO . ( 


Calvert 


6 


5 


85.7 


Worcester 


10 


9 


52.6 


Somerset 


14 


14 


50.0 


Queen Anne's 


8 


11 


38.1 


Carroll 


18 


17 


45.9 


Dorchester 


17 


17 


47.2 


Harford 


26 


23 


52.0 


Cecil 


18 


13 


40.0 


St. I^'ary»s 


3 


3 


13.0 


Washington 


11 


9 


12.5 


Garrett 


13 


6 


17.3 




* Several separate high and elementary schools have been counted as combined sc hools, 
t Excludes elementary school at State Teachers College. 

In the white elementary schools only 32.6 per cent of the one- 
teacher schools had parent-teacher organizations in contrast with 
59.9 per cent of the two-teacher and 85.5 per cent of the graded 
schools. The percentage of associations in one-teacher schools 
decreased by .9 under that in 1935, while in two-teacher schools 
the percentage of schools having P.-T. A.'s increased by .9, and 
in graded schools bv .7 over corresponding figures for the preced- 
ing year. (See Table 183.) 



280 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 183 



Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 

School Year, 1935-36 



White Schools Having: 


Parent-Teacher Associations 


Number j Per Cent 




111 
94 
265 


32.6 
59.9 
85.5 


Two Teachers 


Three or More Teachers 


Total 


470 


58.2 





There were 386 P.-T. A.'s in 82 per cent of the county colored 
schools in 1936, an increase of 2 in number and per cent over the 
preceding year. Two counties, Kent and St. Mary's, had P.-T. A.'s 
in every colored school, while Anne Arundel had them in 98 per 
cent of the schools, Baltimore County in 96 per cent, and Prince 
George's in 95.5 per cent. Washington was the only county which 
had no colored P.-T. A.'s, while Calvert had them in only 3 schools, 
and Frederick in only 5, half of its schools. (See Chart 31, page 
207.) 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN 
COUNTY FUNDS 

The amount of money reported as raised over and above public 
funds amounted to nearly $228,000 in the white schools of 15 coun- 
ties in 1936. The large sum of money involved indicates the 
wisdom of some sort of financial accounting if only for the protec- 
tion of those responsible for these funds. 

Gross receipts from school cafeterias accounted for nearly 40 
per cent of the funds and were the major source of receipts in 
Baltimore, Caroline, Dorchester, Frederick, and Washington 
Counties. In Harford and Montgomery, the only funds from other 
than county sources reported were payments required for high 
school transportation. Receipts from P.-T. A.'s furnished large 
amounts in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and St. Mary's, while plays, 
''talkies," and musicals were an important source of funds in Bal- 
timore, Caroline, Dorchester, St. Mary's, Somerset, and Washing- 
ton. Dues supplied rather large amounts in Baltimore, Caroline, 
and Washington, and sales in Somerset. (See Table 184.) 

The expenses connected with taking in the receipts reduced the 
net receipts to $118,324, which included 52 per cent of the total 
gross receipts. (See Table 184.) 

The largest proportion of the net receipts from other than coun- 
ty funds was used for transportation of high school pupils in Bal- 
timore, Harford, and Montgomery Counties. School libraries 



P.-T. A.'s; Receipts and Expenditures from Non-Public Funds 281 



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282 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

ranked second in purpose of expenditures of net receipts. Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Dorchester, St. Mary's, 
Somerset, Washington, and Wicomico spent a large part of these 
funds on school libraries. Physical education and athletic activi- 
ties received large amounts in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Caro- 
line, Dorchester, St. Mary's, and Somerset. In Anne Arundel 
and Frederick the salary of the cafeteria manager was paid from 
these funds. Regular classroom instruction was improved by 
means of this additional money in Anne Arundel, Cecil, Garrett, 
Talbot, Washington, and Wicomico. (See Table 184.) 

These reports indicate that the county levy and State aid do 
not supply funds sufficient to give the schools many things which 
they need. In consequence the patrons and parents of pupils con- 
tribute in various ways to supply additional funds so that the 
schools may have many things which enrich the lives of the chil- 
dren while they are attending school. 

For similar data for colored schools, see Table 132, page 209. 

COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 

The salary of a Maryland county superintendent as fixed in the 
State minimum schedule depends on size of teaching staff and 
years of experience. Since 1932-33 there has been no provision 
for salary increments due to experience, and reductions of 13 per 
cent on salaries from $2,500 to $2,999, of 14 per cent on salaries of 
$3,000 to $3,599, and of 15 per cent on salaries of $3,600 plus, 
have been used in calculating State-aid, which is two-thirds of 
the minimum State salary schedule. Counties, however, may pay 
salaries above those in the minimum salary schedule, the range 
in salaries in 1935-36 being from $2,558 in two counties to $6,000 
in Allegany and $7,667 in Baltimore County. The average salary 
was $3,768, an increase of $30 over 1935. (See Table XXIV, page 
331.) 

There were ten counties with fewer than 150 teachers, four 
having from 150 to 199 teachers, and nine with more than 200 
teachers, the average being 218. The smallest county had 57 
teachers and the largest 564. Several counties which would have 
had more than 200 teachers had they not carried forward a policy 
of school consolidation and transportation have replaced the addi- 
tional problems of a large teaching staff with those of the trans- 
portation service. (See Table IX, page 316.) 

The only change in the staff of superintendents occurred in Cecil 
County as a result of the resignation of Mr. Howard T. Ruhl in 
December, 1935, after a long and serious illness. Mr. Ruhl died 
in July, 1936. Mr. H. E. McBride, who had been principal of the 
Chesapeake City High School, was appointed superintendent of 
schools in Cecil County in May, 1936. 



County School Administration 



283 



The years of experience as superintendent of the 23 Maryland 
county superintendents in service in June, 1936, showed a median 
of 14 years and the following distribution: 

TABLE 185 



Years of Experience as Superintendent of Maryland County Superintendents 
in Service June 30, 1936 



Years of 


No. of 


Years of 


No. of 


Experience 


County 


Experience 


County 




Supts. 




Supts. 


0-4 


6 


21-24 


3 


5-8 


3 


25-28 




9-12 


1 


29 


2 


13-16 


4 






17-20 


4 


Total 


23 






Median 


14 



Conferences of County Superintendents with State Department Staff 

The first conference of the school year 1935-36 was held Sep- 
tember 27, 1935, at the Towson State Teachers College. The 
superintendents, supervisors, and State Department staff met 
together to hear Dr. Gerald S. Craig of Teachers College, Colum- 
bia University, present 'The Larger Objectives of Science Teach- 
ing." 

The superintendents then took up the following administrative 
problems : 

Youth and Adult Education under N.Y.A. and W.P.A. presented by 
John J. Seidel 

P.-T.A. Organization, 1936, presented by Mrs. H. Ross Coppage 
Bus Transportation 
School Budget Matters 

Leave of Absence — A new regulation by the Board of Trustees, Teach- 
ers Retirement System presented by Mr. Broome 
Regulation for Renewal of Certificates presented by Mr. Wright 

The following regulation on leave of absence passed by the 
Board of Trustees of the Teachers' Retirement System — July 3, 
1935, w^as the next to last item on the above program : 

"A teacher on 'leave of absence' for personal illness, maternity 
reasons, or formal study, shall be interpreted to be a 'member in 
service'* during the time definitely fixed by a Board of Education for 
the leave, which in no case shall exceed eighteen (18) months, pro- 
vided that leaves granted for a period in excess of three months are 
approved by the Board of Trustees of the Retirement System. When 
a leave of absence is granted, the name of the teacher, the reason, 
and the period of the leave shall be reported promptly to the Retire- 
ment System by the superintendent. Any change in the status of a 
teacher on leave of absence shall be reported to the Retirement Sys- 
tem by the superintendent within sixty (60) days." 



* The seven- h Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Retirement System contains 
the original ruling. No. 4, on "Member in Service" on pap:e S. together with other rulings 
of the Board of Trustees. 



284 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The following proposed regulation for renewal of certificates 
was the last item on the program above : 

"If any county superintendent is unable to recommend a teacher 
for successful experience and professional spirit for the renewal of 
his or her certificate, it will be necessary for the superintendent to 
give the teacher in writing the ground for withholding the recom- 
mendation and to afford the teacher an opportunity for a hearing 
as provided in Sections 52 and 86 of the School Laws." 

The final conference of county superintendents with the State 
Department staff was held on April 20, 1936, in the ''Meeting 
Room" of the Enoch Pratt Library in Baltimore. The following 
topics on the program were taken up : 

I Address — Dr. Joseph L. Wheeler, Librarian, Pratt Library 
II Mental Hygiene Clinics — Dr. J. H. Mason Knox, Jr. 

III "Maryland Youth Study" by American Youth Commission of 

American Council on Education — Dr. Owen R. Lovejoy, Dr. 
Cavins, Dr. Weglein 

IV Special Session Legislation Affecting Schools — Introduced bv Mr. 

Seidel 

V Classes for Retarded Children — R. C. Thompson 
VI Remarks by our N. E. A. Director, Mr. E. W. Pruitt 
Are we fulfilling our obligations to the N. E. A.? 
VII Report of Committee on School Consolidation — C. G. Cooper, Chair- 
man 

(a) "Future Policies Regarding the Consolidation Program 

in Maryland" 

(b) "The Advisability of State-wide Regulations as to the 

Design and Operation of School Busses" 

In his greetings of welcome, Dr. Wheeler indicated that li- 
braries are the best measure of the culture of the community, 
but that 40 per cent of the people of the U. S. are without library 
service. 

Dr. Knox talked on the pre-school examinations in which he 
is enlisting more aid from Parent-Teacher Associations and on 
the recently organized mental hygiene clinics. Psychiatrists 
from the various hospitals of the State have been volunteering 
their services once a month in the examination of county chil- 
dren and adults who are behavior problems. It is hoped that 
the clinics may be held more frequently as occasion demands. 
Some of the counties have paid the traveling expenses of the 
doctors and Dr. Knox indicated that he would, be gratified if this 
practice became more general. He also stressed the need in the 
counties for the organization of more special classes for excep- 
tional children. (See also pages 40, 41, 73-74.) 

Dr. Lovejoy outlined the plans for the survey by the Ameri- 
can Youth Commission which is financed by the General Edu- 
cation Board. The Commission is tq find out what is being done 
in the United States to improve the conditions for youth of ages 
16 to 25 years. Maryland was chosen as the state to be sur- 
veyed because of the urgent invitations received from representa- 
tive citizens and officials ; because it is near Washington ; because 



Conferences of County Sup'ts and State Dep't Staff 285 



it is small in area, but at the same time includes widely different 
communities and schools; and because there is a cordial and 
friendly spirit among the various social agencies. 

Dr. Weglein spoke briefly of the Committee on Problems and 
Plans of the American Council on Education, which had recom- 
mended that the Council have a study made of the education and 
care of youth. The Council set up a special "American Youth 
Commission" of fifteen members, many of whom are not educa- 
tors. It is hoped that through the survey we shall learn how to 
help the youth of Maryland and of the country. 

Mr. Cook asked for the complete cooperation of the group in 
the work of the survey staff' and many of the county superinten- 
dents urged that their counties be chosen for the survey. 

One of the methods of the survey will be that of interviewing 
a sampling of the youth of the State by trained interviewers. 
A questionnaire is being perpared and a staff of interviewers or- 
ganized by Mr. Howard C. Bell. The counties and communities 
to be selected are being studied. 

Dr. Lovejoy brought up the question of juvenile delinquency 
and the importance of studying youth in the various institutions. 

After luncheon Mr. Thompson spoke of the need of cooperation 
between school, health and social welfare officials in arrangements 
for the mental hygiene clinics including wise selection of cases 
and cooperative plans for follow-up of recommendations made 
by psychiatrists. He spoke also of the possiblity of organizing ad- 
ditional classes for mentally handicapped children where there 
are enough children to justify the establishment of classes. Mr. 
Cook suggested the advisability of requesting a small fund in 
the State budget to aid classes for mentally handicapped children. 

Mr. Pruitt, the new State Director of the N. E. A., reported that 
there were only 1,500 N. E. A. members in Maryland, of whom 
two-thirds or three-quarters were in the counties. This number 
can and should be increased. He advocated that N. E. A. mem- 
bership be mentioned at the opening teachers' meetings. 

Mr. Seidel presented the following regulation regarding the 
design and operation of school busses which was adopted by the 
superintendents : 

"On and after September 1, 1936, all school busses designed for 
the seating- of ten or more school children used for the purpose of 
transporting school children shall have on the front and rear the 
words 'SCHOOL BUS' in letters not less than four inches in height. 
There shall be a stop signal or signals visible from the front and 
the rear, and all busses not under the jurisdiction of the Public 
Service Commission shall be painted orange and black with the 
orange color predominating." 

This regulation was approved by the State Board of Education 
on May 27, 1936. 



286 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Summer Seminar of County Attendance Officers 

Fifteen county attendance officers participated in the seminar 
under the leadership of Mr. Thompson held in the summer of 
1936 for three weeks at the University of Maryland. Committees 
of attendance officers drew up reports covering all phases of 
their work which were presented to and discussed by the seminar 
g-roup. The reports as finally approved were mimeographed 
and distributed to all county attendance officers and superinten- 
dents. 

THE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM IN THE COUNTIES* 
Number of Certificates 

The number of certificates of the various kinds which have 
been issued for the school years 1920-21, 1935-36, and 1936-37 
(up to March 1, 1937) are shown in Table 186. 

TABLE 186 



Grade of Certificate 


Number of Certificates Issued 




1920-21 


1935-36 


1936-37* 


Administration and Supervision: 

Administration and Supervision 


1 


2 




Elementary Supervision 


3 


3 


* 2 


Supervision Special Subjects 




1 


1 


Helping Teacher 




1 


2 


Attendance Officer 






2 


High School: 

Principal 


8 


7 


3 


Academic 


141 


154 


129 


Special 


35 


67 


55 


Vocational 


39 


18 


15 


Non-Public 


51 


49 


Elementary: 

Principal 


19 


14 


15 


Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education 


37 


83 


Advanced First Grade 




318 


193 


First Grade 


265 
289 


59 


14 


Second Grade 


2 


Third Grade 


161 






Non-Public Advanced First Grade 


" 2 




Non-Public First Grade ' 




25 











* Up to March 1, 1937. 



The administrative and supervisory staffs in the counties are 
now comparatively stable and the variation in the certificates 
issued to these officials is therefore not significant. The number 
of certificates issued for teaching in the public high schools has 
not changed greatly, although the total number of teachers in 
the high schools is several times as high as in 1920. The turn- 
over is therefore considerably less than in the earlier year. The 
non-public school teachers' certificates which appear in the table 
for the last two years were not being issued in 1920-21. 

The Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary Education 
has been issued only during the last two years, there being a con- 



* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman, Credential Secretary. 



Seminar of Attendance Officers; Certification of Teachers 287 



siderable increase in the number issued during the second year. 
The number of advanced first grade certificates has decreased 
partly because there were fewer graduates from the three-year 
courses at the Teachers' Colleges in 1936 than in 1935. Practically 
all the first grade certificates issued in 1935-36 and 1936-37 are 
held by colored teachers, since this grade of certificate is now 
issued to white applicants only when they are already in the 
teaching service in Maryland and have accumulated enough cred- 
its to qualify for the first grade certificate. Second grade certifi- 
cates are issued to both white and colored teachers only under 
similar circumstances. 

Provisional Certificates 

The number of provisional certificates issued during the last 
fourteen years, including 1936-37 up to February 1, is given in 
Table 187. The steady decrease in these figures through 1936-37 
will be noted except during certain years when a more complete 
check of the certification than had previously been made resulted 
in a rise in the number of provisional certificates issued to teach- 
ers who had formerly taught without certificates. For the high 
schools the slight increase in 1927-30 was due to the increases 
in the high school staff necessary to care for the additional high 
school enrollment. The provisional certificates during the last 
few years for elementary school teaching are exclusively for ele- 
mentary school principals. The requirements for the principal's 
certificate have been gradually increased and it is difl^icult to find 
enough teachers who have the preparation required for the 
regular certificate and who at the same time possess the neces- 
sary personal qualities for the work of a principal. The provi- 
sional high school teachers' certificates are entirely in the spe- 
cial fields such as music and industrial arts. 



TABLE 187 





Provisional or Emergency 




Certificates Issued for 


Year 








Elementary 


High School 




School Teachingt 


Teachingt 


1923-24 


276 


225 


1924-25 


316 


184 


1925-26 


175 


132 


1926-27 


214 


104 


1927-28 • 


268 


108 


1928-29 


72 


110 




35 


112 


1930-31 


25 


92 


1931-32 


15 


82 


1932-33 . . 


7 


56 


1933-34 


4 


46 


1934-35 


10 


35 


1935-36 


20 


23 


1936-37* 


9 


25 



t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
♦ Up to February 1. 1937. 



288 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Medical Examinations 

Beginning with the summer of 1929, all prospective Maryland 
teachers have undergone medical examinations conducted by- 
physicians especially appointed for this purpose. For the num- 
bers examined, accepted, and rejected during the eight years the 
regulation has been in force, see Table 188. 

TABLE 188 



Number of Teachers Accepted and Rejected on the Basis of Medical 

Examinations 





Number 


Number 


Number 


Year 


Examined 


Accepted 


Rejected 


1929-30 


917 


910 


7 


1930-31 


885 


872 


13 


1931-32 


772 


754 


18 


1932-33 


503 


495 


8 


1933-34 


392 


383 


9 


1934-35 


509 


500 


9 


1935-36 


527 


517 


10 


1936-37* 


469 


465 


4 



* Up to February 1. 1937. 



THE MARYLAND STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 
Graduates of 1936 

TABLE 189 



White Graduates of Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1920 to 1936 



Year 


Total 


[TOWSON 

Baltimore 
City - 


Counties 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 
Counties 


1920 


37 




37 


13 




50 


1921 


50 




50 


29 




79 


1922 


114 




114 


28 




142 


1923 


240 




240 


58 




298 


1924 


239 




239 


71 




310 


1925 


527 


'234 


293 


59 




352 


1926 


428 


214 


214 


84 


' "27 


325 


1927 


353 


139 


214 


91 


72 


377 


1928 


286 


97 


189 


82 


75 


346 


1929 


268 


115 


153 


81 


82 


316 


1930 


262 


133 


129 


72 


70 


271 


1931 


248 


111 


137 


84 


78 


299 


1932 


215 


106 


109 


44 


74 


227 


1933 


ab49 


a25 


b24 


tl5 


tl9 


$58 


1934 


tl99 


till 


t88 


t45 


t52 


tl85 


1935 


cdl58 


c70 


d88 


e55 


t31 


del74 


1936 


ef91 


e42 


f49 


g50 


h30 


£ghl29 


1920-1936 


*3,719 


*1,371 


*2,348 


*920 


*573 


*3,841 



* Excludes duplicates — who completed two-, three-, and four-year courses. 

t Graduates of the three- year course. d Includes 7 who completed the four-year course 

t Includes 43 graduates of the three-year course e Includes 13 who completed the four-yr. course 
a Includes 22 who completed the three-yr. course f Includes 10 who completed the four-yr. course 
b Includes 9 who completed the three-yr. course g- Includes 22 who completed the four-yr. course 
c Includes 3 who completed the four-year course h Includes 8 who completed the four-yr. course 



Graduates of State Teachers Colleges 



289 



There were 129 county and 42 Baltimore City graduates from 
the three State Teachers Colleges in 1936. With the exception of 
40 county and 13 city graduates, who took advantage of the op- 
portunity made possible by the action of the State Board of Ed- 
ucation to pursue a four-year course, most of the 1936 graduates 
completed the three-year course. During the period from 1922 
to 1936, there was only one year, 1933, when the number of grad- 
uates was lower than in 1936. The total number of county gradu- 
ates from 1920 to 1936, inclusive, totalled 3,841. (See Table 189.) 

There were 49 county and 42 city graduates from Towson in 
1936, including 10 from the counties and 13 from Baltimore City 
who received Bachelor of Science certificates in Education after 
completing the four-year course. Frostburg graduated 50, of 
whom 22 finished four years of work, while of the 30 graduates 
from Salisburv, 8 received 'fhe four-year certificate. (See Table 
189.) 

TABLE 190 



Distribution of 1936 Graduates of State Teachers Colleges by Home County 

and Teaching County 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


All 




Graduates 


Graduates 


Graduates 


Graduates 


COUNTY 


















Home 


Teaching 


Home 


Teaching 


Home 


Teaching 


Home 


Teaching 




County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


Total Counties: 




















39 


36 


37 


37 


23 


23 


99 


96 


Not Teaching 






3 




3 




6 




Fourth Year 


' "io 




10 




4 




24 




Allegany 






26 


5 






26 


5 


Anne Arundel 








1 








1 


Baltimore 














" '2i 


20 


Calvert 


2 












2 


2 


Caroline 


1 








■ ■ 2 




3 




Carroll 










1 


1 


1 




Cecil 


. ... 








1 




1 




Charles 








' "i 




i 


1 




Dorchester 






.... 




■ ■ 3 


1 


3 




Frederick 


' ' 3 






■ "6 




2 


4 


11 


Garrett 






6 


8 


.... 


. ... 


6 


8 


Harford 














3 


2 


Howard 


.... 




i 


" i 




2 


1 


3 


Kent ' 














1 




Montgomery 


1 








' ' 2 


■ ■ 4 


3 


■ "5 


Prince George's 


1 






■ ' 8 


2 


3 


3 


16 


Queen Anne's 


. ... 
















St. Mary's 








■ ■ 2 






i 


■ ■ 2 


Somerset 


1 








' ' 3 




4 


.... 


Talbot 










1 


' "i 


1 




Washington 


' ' 3 




' "6 


5 


2 


1 


11 


9 


Wicomico 


.... 








4 




4 




Worcester 










4 


■ ■ "2 


5 


■ ■ 2 


Baltimore City: 


















Teaching 


39 


42 










39 


42 


Fourth Year 


3 












3 




Entire State: 


















Teaching 


78 


78 


37 


37 


23 


23 


138 


138 


Not Teaching 






3 




3 




6 




Fourth Year 


"l3 




10 




4 




27 





290 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Placement of 1936 Graduates 

Of the 129 county graduates in 1936, there were 99 who re- 
ceived teaching positions, 24 who returned for the fourth year of 
work, and only 6 who were without positions. Of the 42 Balti- 
more City graduates, 39 received appointments and 3 returned 
for the fourth year. (See Table 190.) 

Of the 49 county graduates at Towson, 39 secured positions, 
and 10 chose to return for the fourth year. Of the 39 who obtain- 
ed positions 32 or 82 per cent returned to teach in their home 
counties. 

Of the 50 Frostburg graduates, there were 37 who were placed 
in teaching positions, 10 returned for the fourth year, and 3 did 
not receive appointments. Of the 37 who found positions, 18 or 
nearly 49 per cent, were placed in their home counties. (See 
Table 190.) 

Of the 30 Salisbury graduates, 23 received appointments, 4 
returned for the fourth year, and 3 were not employed. Of the 
23 who were placed, 13 or 57 per cent were appointed in their 
home counties. (See Table 190.) 

Since Prince George's, Frederick, Baltimore City, Garrett, 
Howard, Montgomery, Charles, Caroline, Anne Arundel, and St. 
Mary's did not have sufficient home county graduates, it was nec- 
essary for them to employ graduates of the teachers colleges 
from counties where there were no vacancies. (See Table 190.) 



Enrollment at State Teachers Colleges 
TABLE 191 



Enrollment at Maryland State Teachers Colleges 



Fall of 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


City 


County 


County 


State 


1920 




184 


57 




241 


241 


1921 




397 


101 




498 


498 


1922 




506 


134 




640 


640 


1923 




569 


125 




694 


694 


1924 


518 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


1925 


411 


513 


197 


'io7 


817 


1,228 


1926 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


1933 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 


1934 


178 • 


193 


124 


108 


425 


603 


1935 


193 


147 


137 


185 


469 


662 


1936 


284 


175 


131 


201 


507 


791 



Graduates from and Enrollment in State Teachers Colleges 291 



In the fall of 1936, the county enrollment of 175 at Towson 
was higher by 28 than the enrollment for 1935, but lower than for 
any year in the period from 1920 to 1934, inclusive. The enroll- 
ment from Baltimore City showed a gain of 91 over correspond- 
ing figures for 1935 and exceeded the enrollments in 1926 and 
1927 and from 1933 to 1935. Although Frostburg and Salis- 
bury offered two years of junior college work which might or 
might not be used as preparatory to professional teacher train- 
ing, the enrollment at Frostburg dropped slightly in 1936 under 
1935, while at Salisbury it was higher than at any time since 
the school was established. (See Table 191.) 

According to the enrollment of classes in the fall of 1936 there 
will be 33 four-year graduates from the counties in 1937 and 3 
county graduates who will have completed the three-year course. 
If the junior class from the counties numbering 106 students 
stays on for a fourth year, they will graduate in 1938 as the first 
group completing the four-year course made a requirement for 
county students entering in September, 1934. The sophomore 
class from the counties included 143 students in the fall of 1936, 
while the freshman class numbered 222 students. (See Table 
192.) 

TABLE 192 



Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland State Teachers Colleges 
by Class, Fall of 1936 



Class 


Towson 


Frost- 


Salis- 


Total 








burg 


bury 








City 


County 






County 


State 


Freshmen 


141 


78 


50 


94 


222 


363 


Sophomores 


66 


40 


34 


69 


143 


209 


Juniors 


73 


45 


30 


31 


106 


179 


Seniors: 














3 year 






3 




3 


3 




4 


' 12 


14 




33 


37 


Total 


284 


175 


131 


201 


507 


791 


Resident Students 


20 


80 


56 


80 


216 


236 


Day Students 


264 


95 


75 


121 


291 


555 


Elementary School 


15 


223 


200 


121 


544 


559 



At Towson the junior class from Baltimore City w^ho were 
taking the three-year course numbered 73 students in the fall of 
1936. In addition there were 4 City students taking the fourth 
year of the four-year course. The City sophomores included 66 
second-year students, and there were 141 enrolled in the fresh- 
man class from the City. (See Table 192.) 

At all these colleges the enrollment in the freshman year is 
considerably larger than the enrollment in the succeeding years. 



292 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



At Towson, the city enrollment, nearly the same in the sophomore 
and junior years, 66 and 73, respectively, is more than double 
in the freshman year, 141. The county enrollment at Towson in 
sophomore and junior years, 40 and 45, respectively, is nearly 
doubled with 78 in the freshman year. At Frostburg, the sopho- 
more and junior enrollment of 34 and 30, respectively, is exceed- 
ed by a freshman enrollment of 50. At Salisbury, the freshman 
enrollment of 94 is followed by 69 in the sophomore class and 
but 31 in the junior class. Both Salisbury and Frostburg are 
permitted to offer two years of junior college work, which may 
or may not become preparatory to the professional teacher-train- 
ing course. (See Table 192.) 

At Towson, 20 city and 80 county students were residents in 
the fall of 1936. The county students who were residents includ- 
ed 46 per cent of the Towson county group. There were 56 res- 
ident students, or 43 per cent of the enrollment at Frostburg, 
and 80 resident or 40 per cent of the total enrollment at Salis- 
bury. With the increase in the charge for boarding students from 
$5 to $6 per week, which went into effect in September, 1933, 
many students living at a distance from the college have found 
it more economical to live at home and commute daily. Espe- 
cially at Salisbury, where the junior college has been established, 
the enrollment has been augmented by many young men living in 
the vicinity of the college. (See Table 192.) 

On May 27, 1936, the State Board of Education approved the 
following schedule of uniform fees to be charged at the three 
State Teachers Colleges: 



The elementary school enrollment in the fall of 1936 was 238 
at Towson, 200 at Frostburg, and 121 at Salisbury. (See Table 
192.) 

The enrollment at the three State teachers colleges distributed 
by class, sex, and county indicates that the college is attended in 
largest numbers by high school graduates who live in the same 
county in which the school is located, or in an adjoining county. 
For example, two-thirds of the county enrollment at Towson 
in the fall of 1936 came from Baltimore, Harford, and Carroll 
Counties; at Frostburg, all but 4 students came from Allegany, 
Garrett, and Washington; and at Salisbury, over 70 per cent 
were resident in Wicomico, Worcester, Somerset, and Dorchester. 
Counties having other colleges within their borders or nearby 
send a large proportion of their high school graduates to these 
institutions. (See Table 193 and Table 57, pages 100 and 101.) 



Board, room, and laundry, 

Tuition and textbooks 

Activity fee 

Breakage fee 



.$ 216* 
. 100 

5 



* $300 for out-of-state student. 

t Refunded, less amount charged against it, when student leaves college. 



Enrollment at State Teachers Colleges 



293 



SJOIU3S 



sjoiunf 



sajouioqdog 



(N O ■<3' 00 CO CO (M N CO irt -H 00 • «D 



• 05 OC CO 00 IC 



uauio^ 



U9K 



■ N • ^ W »0 • 



a o 



U8U10A\. 



uauio^ 



& o 
o c 



\ m a ^ oc ■ 

• • 00 



c S 

0) o 



uauio^ 



c 2 


uajM 


00 






«> 


M 


3 O 
1-5 


uauio^ 








■ ■ lO 





a o 
o c 



■ M eg -I • • o 



uamoM 



uajY 



uauio^ 



.2 --3 



.5 aj— c 



• • • ■ C 4J . 
■ ■ ■ O S C !C 

, . bf t e « 



■ • j:; i~ »- qj ^ 



5 §S5>££^^fc|t-r^^gSP|£|£^: H 



294 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



County superintendents and high school principals will prob- 
ably find it advantageous to check up the enrollment by classes 
from their county at the State Teachers Colleges with the tables 
in the annual report showing teacher turnover in white ele- 
mentary schools for a number of years to ascertain whether it 
will not be advantageous to adopt measures to bring before high 
school graduates opportunities in the field of elementary educa- 
tion. (See Table 193, and Chart 14 and Table 53, pages 94-5.) 

Status of Freshmen Admitted to Teachers Colleges in the Fall of 1936 

Approximately 93 per cent of the 1936 freshmen at Towson 
were graduates of the academic or college preparatory course 
in high school. Of the Baltimore City entrants not quite 1 per 
cent had pursued the general course, slightly over 1 per cent 
had taken the commercial course, and nearly 5 per cent the tech- 
nical course. Five per cent of the county students had taken 
the general course and 1 per cent the commercial course. (See 
Table 194.) 

TABLE 194 



1936 Entrants at State Teachers Colleges 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Third of 
Class 


Per Cent from Upper, Middle, 
and Lower Third of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


City 


County 


City 


County 


Academic and 

College Prep. 
General 


92.9 
. 7 
1.4 
4.9 


93.5 
5.2 
1.3 


72.0 
18.0 
6.0 

'2^0 

'2.6 


67.0 
19.2 
7.4 

5.3 


Upper 

Middle 


63.4 
33.8 
2.8 


53.2 
41.6 
5.2 


54.0 
32.0 
10.0 
4.0 


47.9 
33.0 
13.8 
5.3 


Commercial ... 

Technical 

Vocational 

Scientific 

Unclassified .... 

Total No. . . . 


Unclassified . . . 
Total No. . . . 


142 


77 


50 


94 


142 


77 


50 


94 



At Frostburg, 72 per cent of the 1936 freshmen were gradu- 
ates of the academic course, 18 per cent had pursued the general 
course, 6 per cent the commercial, and 2 per cent had taken the 
vocational course in high school. At Salisbury there was a de- 
crease under corresponding figures for 1935 in the per cent of 
freshmen who had taken the academic course, 67 per cent, as 
against 79 per cent in 1935. (See Table 194.) 

At Towson, 63 per cent of the City and 53 per cent of the coun- 
ty entrants in 1936 were ranked in the upper third of their high 
school graduating class, while 2.8 and 5.2 per cent of the City 
and county entrants, respectively, were from the lower third of 



Freshmen at, Withdrawals from and Faculty at State 295 
Teachers Colleges 

their classes. Frostburg had 54 per cent of the 1936 freshmen 
entrants from the upper third and 10 per cent from the lower 
third of the class, while corresponding figures at Salisbury in- 
cluded 48 per cent from the upper and 14 per cent from the lower 
third of their high school classes. (See Table 194.) 

Withdrawals in 1935-36 of Freshmen Who Entered State Teachers Colleges 

in 1935 

The requested or voluntary withdrawal of freshmen who en- 
tered Towson in the fall of 1936 included 10 City and 9 county 
students, 13.2 and 19.1 per cent, respectively, of the City and 
county groups. At Frostburg, 10 or 23.2 per cent withdrew, 
w^hile 29 or 28.7 per cent of the freshmen who entered Salisbury 
in 1935 left before September, 1936. There was a higher number 
and percentage of freshmen who withdrew from all three col- 
leges in 1936 than for the year preceding. (See Table 195.) 

TABLE 195 



Freshmen who Entered Maryland Teachers Colleges in September, 1935, who 
Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily before September, 1936 





Towson 












Frostburg 


Salisbury 




City 


County 






Freshman Enrollment, September, 1935 


80 


49 


46 


104 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer and Death 


4 


2 


3 


5 


Withdrawals by Request 


4 


4 


2 


3 


Voluntary Withdrawals 


6 


5 


8 


26 


Per Cent Withdrawn by Request 


5.3 


8.5 


4.6 


3.0 


Per Cent of Voluntary Withdrawals 


7.9 


10.6 


18.6 


25.7 


Total Per Cent of Withdrawals 


13.2 


19.1 


23.2 


28.7 



Faculty at the State Teachers Colleges 

At Towson in the fall of 1936 the instructional staff of 31, 
excluding 9 in the campus elementary school, included one more 
instructor than was employed the year before. There were 3 
training centers in Baltimore County and 18 in Baltimore City, 
the same number as in the fall of 1935, an increase of 1.5 in the 
office staff, and the same number on the dormitory staff. At 
Frostburg the instructional staff was increased by one member, 
while the dormitory staff had 1 fewer than the year before, and 
the training center in Allegany was not needed. At Salisbury, 
there was one more added to the instructional staff and a half- 
time teacher was added to the staff of the campus elementary 
school. The increase in instructional staff at Frostburg and 
Salisbury resulted from the necessity of adding science teachers 
to the staff to meet the requirements of the four-vear course. 
(See Table 196.) 



296 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 196 

Faculty and Staff at Maryland State Teachers Colleges, Fall of 1936 



Position 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 




1 


1 


1 


3 


Instructors 


26 


b9 


clO 


bc45 


Library 


4 


2 


d3 


d9 




9 


6 


3.75 


18.75 


Training Centers: 












a3 






a3 




fl8 






fl8 


Office Staff 


8 


2 


2 


12 




3 


1 


el 


e5 



a In one school, but includes one serving only nine weeks. 

b Includes the music instructor who also acts as director of social life of resident students, 
c Includes one who acts also as principal of the elementary school, and five who teach in 
the elementary school as well as in the college, 
d Includes librarian who also teaches English. 

e Includes social director at Salisbury who also teaches home economics, 
f In nine schools. 



Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges 

Although total expenditures at Towson, not quite $180,000, 
were over $13,000 less in 1935-36 than they were in 1934-35, be- 
cause there were 26 fewer resident students, the total cost per 
resident student to the State was greater by $42 than it was the 
year before. The total cost of instructing a, day student at Tow- 
son was $426, which with the $100 tuition payment deducted, 
made the cost to the State per day student $326. The total cost 
of instructing, housing, and boarding a resident student at Tow- 
son was $898, which after deducting the average payment of 
$308 per resident student made the cost to the State per resi- 
dent student $590. It must be remembered that a larger enroll- 
ment which could have been cared for with little additional ex- 
pense except for food would have increased fees and would have 
reduced the cost per student to the State considerably. (See 
Table 197.) Also in calculating cost per college student no con- 
sideration is given to the 246 pupils in the elementary school, 
42.7 per cent of the college enrollment, whose education was paid 
for from the college budget. 

At Frostburg expenditures o^ $59,558 were nearly $2,800 more 
than in 1934-35, but with fees slightly lowered because there 
were fewer resident students, the aid from the State was ap- 
proximately $3,400 more than for the year before. Expenditures 
for food and for instructional costs other than salaries, had been 
unduly reduced in 1934-35, but were brought back to a more nor- 
mal amount in 1935-36. The total cost of instructing a day stu- 
dent was $360, with the cost to the State per day student $262. The 
total cost of instructing, housing, and boarding a resident stu- 
dent at Frostburg was $596 with the corresponding cost to the 



Total and per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges 



297 



• o in 



O 00 N 
CO O (N 



=1 

01 CO 

Is 



o 00 
to o 
oj CO 



c ^ 

'B to 
si C 

p cs 
.^3 



• ?D (M to ^ 
•CO IM M in 
. ^ ^ in 05 IM 



lO T* 00 t> o 
to 00 CO 00 
o 00 

CO CO ■<3< »0 CO 



00 C5 
05 U5 

CO o 



p. > 

X o 

c £ 

o u 

3 



T3 O 



: ^ C 



OS 



3 rt 

£ E 

c o 



'53 'S 



•-5 «^ E a) & 

a5^"S-£ 
X " o o > 



ii c 



298 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



State, $319. At Frostburg in calculating these costs per college 
student, no consideration was given to the 208 pupils, 61.5 per 
cent of the college enrollment, instructed in the elementary school 
at the expense of the college. (See Table 197.) 

At Salisbury, the total expenditures of $67,672 in 1935-36 were 
over $8,200 more than for the year preceding. Since the amount 
collected in fees, $32,289, was nearly $12,600 more than in 1934- 
35, the aid from the State, $35,383, was nearly $4,400 less than it 
was the year before. The increase of 75 in the student body, 
of whom 31.5 were residents, brought about the increase in fees. 
The total cost of instructing a day student was only $250, con- 
siderably lower than in the other two colleges, with the cost to 
the State per day school student $152. The total cost of educat- 
ing, housing and boarding a resident student at Salisbury was 
$537, with the cost to the State per resident student $251. In 
calculating these costs per student, no allowance was made for 126 
pupils in the elementary school, 40.7 per cent of the college en- 
rollment, w^ho were educated at the expense of the college. (See 
Table 197.) 

In every case the total cost per day and resident student 
and the cost to the State per day and resident student was 
highest at Towson and lowest at Salisbury. (See Table 197.) 

Aid to State Teachers Colleges from National Youth Administration 

Through the Federal funds made available so that a proportion 
of college students could earn $15 per month through the Nation- 
al Youth Administration, Towson students earned $2,025, Frost- 
burg students, $2,380, and Salisbury students, $5,905. There 
was also an N. Y. A. project at Frostburg costing $143 to pro- 
vide for repair and cleaning of books, repair of bed linens, cur- 
tains and table cloths, repair and refinishing of furniture ; paint- 
ing of walls, and floors; and beautification of school grounds. 
Each worker on this project spent 46 hours per month for which 
he or she received $16.50. 

The Glen W.P.A. Project at Towson 

The part of the Towson College Campus, known as the GLEN, 
with its fireplaces, shelter and council ring, made possible 
through a W.P.A. project, has been developed as a part of the 
educational program in the preparation of the elementary teach- 
ers for the State of Maryland. The Glen is used for the follow- 
ing purposes : 

1. To promote the conservation of bird life, wild flowers and trees. 

2. To encourage the study of plant and animal life in its natural set- 

ting. 

3. To encourage wholesome living in the out-of-doors. 

4. To promote the use of the out-of-doors for plays, pageants, concerts, 

community singing, story telling and open air classes for children 
and college students. 



Cost per Teachers College Student; N.Y.A. Aid; The Glen; 299 
Inventories; Retirement for Teachers 

Work on the Glen project covered a period of fourteen months 
and involved an expenditure of $68,582 by the Federal govern- 
ment through the Works Progress Administration. 



Inventories of Teachers Colleges 

There were slight increases in the inventories for equipment 
at Towson and Frostburg and in the value of land at Frostburg 
which brought the inventory to $1,480,460 at Towson and to 
$434,031 at Frostburg. The total at Salisbury was $798,954. 
(See Table 198.) 

TABLE 198 



Inventories at State Teachers Colleges, September, 1936 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Land and Improvements 


$112,821 


$53,968 


$17,516 


Buildings 


1,156.500 


354,718 


699,850 




211,139 


25,345 


81.588 


Total 


$1,480,460 


$434,031 


$798,954 



THE MARYLAND TEACHERS RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The value and importance of the Teachers Retirement System 
to the school children of Maryland in making it possible to retire 
teachers too old and sick to give the type of efficient service ex- 
pected can not be overstated. The satisfactory atmosphere in 
the classroom usually evident if the teacher is not fearful about 
her future security is likely to be more conducive to learning 
on the part of the children. 



Contributions from County Teachers and Membership 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its ninth year 
of operation received contributions from county teachers to the 
amount of $264,509, an increase of $15,855 over the amount con- 
tributed during 1934-35. In October, 1936, 4,937 county teach- 
ers, 94.4 per cent of the entire teaching staff, were active members 
of the system. (See Table 199.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in 
the Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 
89.2 per cent in Wicomico and 89.6 per cent in Washington to 
98 per cent or more in Somerset and Frederick and 100 per cent 
in Kent. Ten counties had over 95 per cent of their teachers en- 
rolled in the Retirement System. Contributions from 176 mem- 
bers in the State Department of Education, the Teachers Col- 
leges, and the four State schools for handicapped and delinquent 



300 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



children brought the total contributions to |281,682. (See Table 
199.) 



TABLE 199 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Re- 
tirement System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1936, 
Number and Per Cent of October, 1936, County Teaching Staff Who are 
Members in Active Service 







Members 




Amount Contrib- 


in Active Service 


county or institution 


uted Year Ending 


October, 1936 




July 31, 1936 










Number 


Per Cent 


County: 








Allegany 


$30,232.69 


463 


96 9 


Anne Arundel 


15,253.40 


296 


9l!6 


Baltimore 


38,876.97 


537 


94.5 


Calvert 


2,460.60 




96. 9 


Caroline 


5,418.54 


115 


95.8 




11 ,076. 52 


219 


94.8 


Cecil 


8,301.70 


155 


95.7 




4,629.14 


107 


92.2 


Dorchester 


7,391.74 




93 . 9 


Frederick 


16,608.09 


308 


98.1 


Garrett 


7,518.57 


153 


93.3 


Harford 


10,669.87 


208 


92.9 


Howard 


4,185.63 


98 


92.5 


Kent 


4,860.44 


97 


100.0 


Montgomery 


24,197.35 


427 


96.6 


Prince George's 


20,093.79 


416 


95.2 


Queen Anne's 


4,635.24 


87 


92.6 


St. Mary's . ... . . 


3, 147.61 


oo 

od 


94 . 3 




6,431.11 


145 


98.0 


Talbot 


4,798.78 


112 


91.8 




19,586.23 


371 


89.6 




8,422.79 


174 


89.2 




5,712.12 


135 


95.1 


Total Counties 


$264,508.92 


4,937 


94.4 


Teachers Colleges: 










$4,682.54 


42 






1,404.65 


15 






1,725.59 


20 




Normal School: 










82 5.. ^3 


13 




Department: 








State Department of Education 


2,965.85 


21 




Maryland Library Advisory Commission 


311.00 


2 




Teachers' Retirement System 


238.39 


3 




Other Schools: ^ 








Maryland Training School for Boys J>. 


1,715.83 


29 






520.17 


5 




Rosewood State Training School 


939 . 00 


12 






1,844.62 


24 




Total Schools and Departments 


$17,173.17 


176 




Grand Total 


$281,682.09 


5,113 





The Maryland Teachers Retirement System 



301 



Benefits of the Retirement System in 1935-36 

During 1935-36, in addition to annuity payments of $11,798 
from their own contributions, $179,722 was paid in the form of 
pensions from State funds to members retired under the Teach- 
ers' Retirement System of Maryland. On July 31, 1936, there 
were 301 members receiving this form of allowance, of whom 243 
had been retired because they were at least 60 years of age, 56 
had been retired on account of disability, and 2 were receiving 
benefits as dependents of deceased beneficiaries. Further pay- 
ments of $63,005 were made to teachers retired in accordance 
with the provisions of Chapter 447 of the Laws of 1920 on an 
annual pension of $400. At the end of the year 1935-36, there 
were 149 former teachers receiving the $400 pension. 

The Retirement System during 1935-36 paid $5,120 for ordi- 
nary death benefits upon the deaths of members in active serv- 
ice and returned to the beneficiaries or estates of deceased mem- 
bers accumulated contributions amounting to $3,809. Benefits 
paid under the optional forms of retirement allowances totaled 
$7,874 provided by State funds and $838 provided by the retired 
teachers. Teachers who resigned from active service and termi- 
nated their membership in the system withdrew $64,711, which 
amount covered their contributions with accrued interest thereon. 

Investments of the Retirement System 

During the year 1935-36, the Board of Trustees increased the 
value of its investments for the Retirement System by $840,319. 
The total holdings in securities on July 31, 1936, had a par value 
of $4,108,665. An appraisal of the securities of the Teachers' 
Retirement System made by the State Auditor through the co- 
operation of the State Bank Commissioner showed that the bonds 
held on July 31, 1936, had a market value of $4,563,016.57. The 
amortized book value of these holdings was $4,237,334.56. The 
Board of Trustees considers the soundness of the investments in- 
dicated by this appraisal exceedingly gratifying. 

State Appropriations 

The State appropriation of $133,956t in 1936, in addition to 
the proceeds of a State bond issue of $350,000*, covered the nor- 
mal contribution and the accrued liability contribution of the 
State of Maryland on account of the county members of the 
Maryland State Teachers' Retirement System. The law pro- 
vides that the State shall contribute to the City of Baltimore an 
amount equal to what would be required if the teachers of Balti- 



* According to Section 6 of Chapter 89 of the laws of l'J35. S 175.000 was received in Feb- 
ruary and also in August, 193C. 
t Paid October 9. 1936. 



302 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

more City were members of the Maryland Teachers' Retirement 
System instead of belonging to the Retirement System available 
to all of the employees of the City of Baltimore. This amount 
was $497,945 for 1936. In addition, an appropriation of $10,000 
was made to meet the expenses of administration of the State 
Retirement System. 

The total State allotment for the Teachers' Retirement System 
for 1937 is $1,023,349, which includes $517,265 for Baltimore 
City, $146,084 for county teachers, and $10,000 for expenses from 
general funds in the State Treasury for the 1937 budget, and 
$350,000 from a bond issue.f 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective Section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent 
the Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 
ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physicians at the Teachers 
Colleges and Bowie Normal School give a thorough physical ex- 
amination to all graduates who are planning to take positions in 
the Maryland counties. All entrants into the service who have 
not had such examinations are required to visit the physician in 
each county appointed to examine such teachers. The State De- 
partment of Education bears the expense of such examinations. 
Reports of these examinations are forwarded to the Medical 
Board of the Teachers' Retirement System. Certificates are is- 
sued only to those teachers, reports of whose physical examina- 
tions are approved by the Medical Board. The number examined, 
accepted, and rejected, during the five years the regulation has 
been in force are shown in Table 188, page 288. 

Inventory of Value of Equipment 

The equipment in the office of the State Teachers' Retirement 
System was valued at $3,135 as of September 30, 1936, and the 
corresponding* figure for the State Department of Education was 
$14,970. 



t See Section 6 of Chapter 89 of the laws of 1935. 



List of Financial and Statistical Tables, 1935-36 



No. Subject of Table Page 

Financial Statements 304-306 

I Number of Schools 307 

II Total Public School Enrollment 308 

III Non-Public School Enrollment anl Teaching Staff 309 

IV Catholic Private Schools,Enrollment and Teaching Staff.. 310-311 
V Non-Catholic Parochial and Private Schools, Enrollment 

and Staff 312 

VI Average Number of Public School Pupils Belonging 313 

VII Average Daily Attendance; Per Cent of Attendance 314 

VIII Average Days in Session; Aggregate Days of Attendance 315 

IX Number of Teaching Positions, Public Schools 316 

X Certificates of Countv White Elementary Teachers, Octo- 
ber, 1936 \ 317 

XI Certificates of Countv Teachers in White One- and Two- 
Teacher Schools, October, 1936 318 

XII Certificates of Teachers in White Countv Regular, Senior 

and Junior High Schools, October, 1936 319 

XIII Certificates of County Colored Teachers, October, 1936 320 

XIV Teachers New to Maryland 321 

XV Pupils Belonging Per Teacher and Salary Per Teacher.... 322 

XVI Badge Tests— White Schools 323 

XVII Teams and Entrants for Games— White Schools 324 

XVIII White Girls' Track and Field Entrants 325 

XIX Badge Tests— Colored Schools 326 

XX Teams and Entrants— Colored Schools 327 

XXI Receipts from State and Federal Government 328 

XXII Receipts from All Sources 329 

XXIII Total Disbursements 330 

XXIV Disbursements for General Control 331 

XXV Disbursements for Instruction and Operation 332 

XXVI Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliarv Agencies, and 

Fixed Charges 333 

XXVII Disbursements for Debt Service and Capital Outlay 334 

XXVIII Disbursements for White Elementary Schools 335 

XXIX Pupils Attending, Belonging; Teachers; Expenditures in 

Junior, Junior-Senior High Schools 336 

XXX Disbursements for White High Schools 337 

XXXI Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools 338 

XXXII Disbursements for Colored High Schools 339 

XXXIII Cost, Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates, Courses in In- 

dividual County High Schools 340-345 

XXXIV Enrollment by Subject in Individual County High Schools.... 346-351 



303 



304 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1936 



Account 



State 
Appropriation 



Receipts 
from Fees, 

Federal 
Aid, and by 

Budget 
Amendment 



Withdrawals 
by Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to State 
Treasury 



Total 
Available 

and 
Disbursed 



State Teachers College, Towson. . . 

State Teachers College, Frostburg . 

State Teachers College, Salisbury . 

State Normal School, Bowie 

State Department of Education . . . 

Bureau of Educational Measure- 
ments 

Bureau of Publications and Print- 
ing 

Physical and Health Education . . . 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

State Board of Education 

Consultant Architect 

Medical Examination of Teachers . 

State Aid for Handicapped Children 

State Aid to Approved High Schools 

Part Payment of Salaries of School 
Officials 

State Aid to Colored Industrial 
Schools 

Free Textbooks and Materials of 
Instruction 

Equalization Fund 

Fund Distributed on Basis of Cen- 
sus and Attendance 

Fund Distributed to Reduce Taxes. 

Totals 

Teachers' Retirement System: 

County Teachers 

Baltimore City Teachers 

Expense Fund 

Totals 



$127,466.00 
37,143.00 
3.5,385.00 
27,661.00 
56,144.00 

10,000.00 

4,500.00 
15,000.00 
4,947.00 
10,000.00 
800.00 
750.00 
1 , 500 . 00 
15,000.00 
528,423.00 

154,649.00 

27,000.00 

250,000.00 
502,529.00 

1,800,000.00 
1,250,000.00 



$55,661.28 
21,128.25 
36,804.01 
13,856.67 
80.12 

24.88 



$406. 92a 
30.00b 
1,579.20c 



8,154.77 
12,800.54 



2,213.84 
2,500.00 
242.01 
318^86 
'55^25 



156.01 
5,833^50 
586.19 



6,419.69 



$182,720.36 
58,241.25 
70,609.81 
41,517.67 
54,010.28 

7,524.88 

4,257.99 
15,000.00 
12,782.97 
22,800.54 
744.75 
750.00 
1,656.01 
15,000.00 
534,256.50 

155,235.19 

27,000.00 

250,000.00 
496,109.31 

1,800,000.00 
1,250,000.00 



$4,858,897.00 



1133,956.00 
497,945.00 
11,200.00 



$155,086.22 



$18,765.71 



t*133.956.00 



$5,000,217.51 



497,945.00 
11,200.00 



$5,501,998,001 



$155,086.22 



$147,721 .71 



$5,509,362.51 



a Includes refunds amounting to $406.00. 
b Refunds. 

c Includes refunds amounting to $1,577.42. 

* A balance of $133,956.00 still due as of Sept. 30 was paid Oct. 9, 1936. 

t $350,000.00 additional in State bonds were received in February and August, 1936. 



Financial Statements: Total, State Dep't, Teachers Colleges 305 



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306 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1936 



Receipts 



Purpose 


State 
Appropriations 


Other 
Receipts 


Total 
Receipts 


Physical and Health Education 

Consultant Architect 

State Aid to Physically Handicapped Children 
Vocational Education 

Supervision of Colored Schools 


$15,000.00 
10,000.00 
4,500.00 
1,500.00 
800.00 
750.00 
15,000.00 
4,947.00 
10,000.00 


$24. 88a 
156.01a 

8,154.77b 
12,800.54c 
4,680.46d 


$15,000.00 
10,024.88 
4,500.00 
1,656.01 
800.00 
750.00 
15,000.00 
13,101.77 
22,800.54 
4,680.46 



Disbursements 



Purpose 


Salaries 


Traveling 

Expenses 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 

to State 
Treasury 


Total 
Disburse- 
ments 


Physical and Health Education 
Educational Measurements. . . 
Publications and Printing .... 
Medical Examination )f 


$6,463.69 
6,173.17 


$2,949.53 


$5,586.78 
1,351.71 
4,257.99 

1,656.01 


$2,500.00 
242.01 


$15,000.00 
10,024.88 
4,500.00 

1,656.01 
800.00 
750.00 

15,000.00 
13,101.77 
22.800.54 
4,680.46 






State Board of Education .... 
Consultant Architect 




744.75 


55.25 


750.00 




State Aid to Physically Handi- 
capped Children 




15,000.00 
288.39 
13,807.20 




Vocational Education 


9,857.28 
7,226.00 
3,750.00 


2,637.30 
1,767.34 
930.46 


318.80 


Vocational Rehabilitation .... 
Supervision of Colored Schools 







a Transferred by budget amendment. 

b From Federal funds. $5,654.77. By budget amendment. $2,500.00. 
c Includes $12,101.94 from Federal funds, 
d From General Education Board. 



Construction Accounts, 1935-1936 



Purpose 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Bowie 


Balance, October 1, 1935 


$19,556.45 
48.24 


$422.71 


$2,490.63 


Disbursements: 






$19,604.69 

$2,136.60 
1,961.80 
11,010.79 
177.00 


$422.71 


$2,490.63 










383.31 
38.96 












$15,286.19 
$4,318.50 


$422.27 
$ .44 




Balance October 1, 1936 


$2,490.63 



Financial Statements; Number of Schools 



307 



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Enrollment: Public Schools, Non-Public Schools 309 



TABLE III 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1936 







WHITE 






















COLORED 








Enrollment 










county 


















No. 






No. 










of 




Com- 


of 










Schools 


Elemen- 


mercial 


Teachers 


No. of 


Enroll- 


No. of 






tary 


and 




Schools 


ment 


Teachers 






Secondary 










tCATHOLic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of 1935 




9 


2,106 


448 


74 


.... 






Anne Arundel . . . 


1 


305 




8 




' 68 


" "2 


Baltimore 


17 


3,052 


'377 


114 








Calvert 


1 


41 


6 


3 








Caroline 


1 


18 


13 


8 








Carroll 


2 


195 


40 


9 








Cecil 


1 


100 




3 










2 


306 


' '59 


13 


"1 


110 


' ' '2 


Frederick 


7 


526 


225 


58 


1 


7 


1 


Garrett 


1 


75 




3 








Harford 


1 


130 




3 


.... 




.... 


Howard 


4 


248 


■ 36 


20 




' 25 




Montgomery .... 


3 


307 


79 


27 








Prince George's. 


5 


834 


84 


29 


"1 


' "si 


' ' '2 


St. Mary's 


9 


1,105 


149 


46 


2 


206 


8 


Washington .... 


1 


350 


71 


11 








Total Counties . . 


65 


9,698 


1,587 


429 


7 


497 


16 


Baltimore City . . 


66 


30,171 


4,211 


877 


8 


tl,438 


52 


Total State 


131 


39,869 


5,798 


1,306 


15 


1,935 


68 


*Non-Catholic Private Schools 


Anne Arundel . . . 


5 


74 


234 


24 








Baltimore 


8 


398 


629 


147.6 








Cecil 


5 


254 


251 


34.2 








Frederick 


1 


37 


7 


2 








Garrett 


1 


8 


3 


1 








Montgomery ... 


8 


305 


266 


57 








Prince George's. 


2 


53 




6.4 








Queen Anne's. . . 


1 


10 




1 








St. Mary's 


2 


24 


107 


13.3 








Somerset 












' 'a3 


2.3 




■ " 2 


' 19 


" '54 


' li 








Wicomico 


1 


39 




4 








Total Counties. . 


36 


1,221 


1 , 551 


301.5 


1 


3 


2.3 


Baltimore City , . 


19 


1,743 


811 


240.4 


1 


bl29 


5 


Total State 


55 


2,964 


2,362 


541.9 


2 


132 


7.3 



*ScHOOLS FOR Exceptional Children 



Md. Tr. School for Boys . . . 


286 


°173 


21 








Md. School for the Deaf . . . 


144 


33 


18 








Montrose School for Girls. . . 


36 


30 


5 








Reinhardt School for Deaf 
















10 




3 








Md. School for the Blind. . . 


67 


"12 


19 




■c72 




Md. Training School for 














Colored Girls 


80 




2 









t Fiprures furnished by Rev. John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools. 
t Includes 14 high school pupils. 

" Includes 150 taking a course in practical arts. h Includes 21 high school pupils, 

a High school pupils. c Includes 1 high school pupil. 



310 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions. Fall of 1935 



Enrollment 




Ele- 
men- 
tary 


High 
and 
Com- 
mer- 
cial 


Teach- 
ers 


41 


6 


3 


18 


13 


8 


157 
38 


40 


7 
2 


195 


40 


9 


100 




3 


209 
97 


36 
23 


7 
6 


306 


59 


13 


110 




2 


147 


60 


7 


195 




5 


115 




4 


23 


112 

53 


22 
17 


23 
23 




2 
1 


526 


225 


58 


7 




1 


75 




3 


130 




3 



County and School 



Allegany 

S. S. Peter's and Paul's, 

Cumberland 

St. Mary's, Cumberland 
St. Patrick's, Cumber- 
land 

St. Peter's, Westernport 
St. Michael's, Frostburg 
St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage 
La Salle Institute, 

Cumberland 

St. Joseph's, Midland. . . 
St. Michael's, Eckhardt. 

Total 



Anne Arundel 

St. Mary's, Annapolis. 
St. Mary's (Colored), 
Annapolis 



Baltimore 

St. Mark's, Catonsville . 

School of the Immacu- 
late, Towson 

Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 
Middle River 

St. Michael's, Overlea . . . 

St. Stephen's, Bradshaw 

St. Joseph's, Fullerton . . 

St. Charles', Pikesville. . 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 

St. Clement's, Rosedale . 

St.Clement's, Lansdowne 

Ascension, Halethorpe . . 

St. Charles College 
H. S., Catonsville . . . 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn . . . 

St. Vincent's Orphanage, 
Towson 

St. Joseph's, Texas 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 
Catonsville 

Sacred Heart, Glyndon. . 

Total 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



544 
350 

347 
207 

255 
177 

30 
121 
75 



2,106 



305 
68 



390 

248 

371 
353 
213 
248 
188 
187 
183 
168 
155 



122 



3,052 



High 
and 
Com- 
mer- 
cial 



103 
79 



17 
124 



448 



125 



130 



48 



377 



Teach- 
ers 



16 



114 



County and School 



Calvert 

Our Lady Star of the Sea, 
Solomon's 

Caroline 

St. Gertrude's Academy, 
Ridgely 

Carroll 

St. John's, Westminster. 
St Joseph's, Taney town . 

Total 

Cecil 

Parish School 

Charles 

Sacred Heart, La Plata. . 
St. Mary's, Bryantown . 

Total 

St. Mary's (Colored), 
Bryantown 

Frederick 

St. John's, Frederick. . . . 
St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Joseph's College 

H. S., Emmitsburg . . . 
Visitation, Frederick. . . . 
Notre Darne Academy, 

Libertytown 

St. Francis', Brunswick. . 

Total 

St. Euphemia's (Colored) , 
Emmitsburg 

Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland . . . . 

Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air. . 



Enrollment Catholic Schools 



311 



TABLE IV— (Continued) 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions. Fall of 1935 



County and School 



Howard 

St. Paul's, Ellicott City. 
St. Augustine's, Elkridge 
St. Louis', Clarksville. . . 
Trinity Preparatory, 
Ilchester 



Total. 



St. Augustine's (Colored), 
Ellicott City 



Montgomery 

St. Michael's, 

Silver Spring 

St. Martin's, 

Gaithersburg 

Georgetown Prepara- 
tory, Garrett Park . 



Total . 



Prince George's 

St. James", Mt. Rainier. 
St. Mildred's, Laurel . . . . 
Holy Redeemer, Berwyn 
St. Mary's, Marlboro. . . 
La Salle Hall, 

Ammendale 



Total . 



St. Mary's (Colored), 
Upper Marlboro ... 



St. Mary's 

St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonardtown 

St. Michael's, Ridge. . . . 
St. John's, Hollywood. . . 
Little Flower, 

Great Mills 

Holy Angel's, Abell . . . . 
St. Joseph's, Morganza . 
Sacred Heart, Bushwood 
Our Lady, 

Medley's Neck 

Leonard Hall, 

Leonardtown 



Total 1,105 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



112 
91 
39 



248 



25 



184 
123 



307 



403 
150 
172 
109 



834 
81 



124 
156 
165 

154 
145 
120 
108 

80 



53 



High 
and 
Com- 
mer- 
cial 



28 



36 



79 



35 



49 



84 



149 



Teach- 
ers 



27 



County and School 



St. Mary's (Continued) 
St. Peter Claver's 

(Colored), Ridge 

St. Joseph's (Colored), 

Morganza 

Washington 

St. Mary's, Hagerstown. 

Total County White 
Catholic Schools 

Total County Colored 
Catholic Schools 

Baltimore City 

Seton 

Institute of Notre Dame 

Mt. St. Joseph's 

Loyola 

Calvert Hall 

Notre Dame of Maryland 

Mt. St. Agnes' 

Mt. Washington 

Country School 

Calvert Hall 

Country School 

Visitation 

Total 

White Parish Schools. . . 
Institutions for White 
Children 

Total White 

St. Francis' Academy 
(Colored) 

Colored Parish Schools. . 

Institutions for Colored 
Children 

Total Colored 

Total State 

White 

Colored 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



142 
64 

350 



497 



256 
46 



154 
60 



96 



663 
28,619 
889 



;o,i7i 



17 
1,141 



266 



1,424 



39,869 
1,921 



High 
and 

Com- 
mer- 
cial 



1,587 



1,245 
404 
628 
391 
389 
204 
194 



3,457 
616 
138 



4,211 
14 



14 



5.798 
14 



312 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Maryland, Year Ending June 30, 1936 



County and School 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



Sec- 
ond- 
ary 



No. of 

Teachers 



Full 
Time 



Part 
Time 



County and School 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



Sec- 
ond- 
ary 



White Schools 

Anne Arundel 

Cochran Bryan 

Severn 

Holladay 

U. S. Naval Academy 

Prep 

The Thomas School . , 

Total 

Baltimore 

McDonogh 

Garrison Forest 

St. Timothy's 

Hannah More 

Academy 

Greenwood 

Roberts-Beach 

Oldfield's 

Sylvanside 

Total 

Cecil 

Tome Town 

Tome Institute 

West Nottingham . . . . 
Seventh Day Ad- 

ventist 

Reynold's 

Total 

Frederick 

Buckingham School 
for Boys 

Garrett 

Zion Lutheranf 

Montgomery 

Washington Mis- 
sionary College 

Landon School for 
Boys 

Countryside 

Chevy Chase Country 

National Park 

Seminary 

Washington Country 
School 

Chevy Chase 

Bullis School 

Total 

Prince George's 

Avondale Country. . . . 
Longfellow School for 
Boys 

Total 



62 



12 



74 



293 
61 



14 



398 



197 

5 



254 



37 



125 

57 
57 
44 



22 



305 

28 
25 



53 



111 
88 



35 



234 



245 
65 

83 



23 



629 



116 



12.2 
7 
6 



21 



251 

7 
3 

182 
27 

^^9 



29.2 

2 
1 

10 

10 

5 



9.6 

3 

4.8 
1.4 



266 



49.8 

4 
2 



12.6 

3 
1 



31.6 



.2 



7.2 

.4 
.4 



White Schools (Con.) 

Queen Anne's 

Seventh Day Ad- 
ventist 

St. Mary's 

Charlotte Hall 

St. Mary's Seminary 

Total 

Washington 

St. James' 

Seventh Day Ad- 
ventist 

Total 

Wicomico 

Mrs. Herold's 

Colored School 

Somerset 

Princess Anne 

Academy 



Baltimore City 
White Schools 

Friends' 

Bryn Mawr 

Calvert 

Gilman 

Roland Park 

Talmudical Academy . . . 

Park 

St. Paul's School for Boys 

Boys' Latin 

Franklin Day School . . . 
Immanuel Lutheran .... 

Girls' Latin 

Samuel Ready 

Seventh Day Adventist. 
Miss Crater's Country 

School 

Cathedral Kindergarten. 

Frey's School, Inc 

Little School in Guilford . 
Morven 

Total 

Baltimore City 
Colored School 

Seventh Day Adventist . 



Total State 

White Schools . . 
Colored Schools. 



10 



24 



24 



12 



186 
208 
254 
124 
154 
166 
143 
61 
55 
26 
98 
23 
37 
62 

42 
40 
27 
22 
15 



1,743 



108 



2,964 
108 



107 

53 
1 



54 



117 

89 

131 
69 
54 
59 
49 
49 
75 

72 
37 
10 



811 



21 



2,362 
24 



198.9 



455. 



t School was open from September to December only. 



Enrollment Non-Catholic Private Schools; Average 
Number Belonging, Public Schools 



313 



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314 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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No. OF Teaching Positions; Certification, White Elementary 317 

Teachers 



TABLE X 

White Elementary Teachers Holding Various Grades of Certificates, October, 

1936 



White Elementary Teachers Holding 
Certificates ok the Following Grades 



County 


Number 


Per Cent 












































Elementary 


























Principal, 










To- 


Elemen- 




Ad- 




Sec- 




Sub- 


B. S., Ad- 


Sec- 




Sub- 




tal 


tary 


B. S. 


vanced 


First 


ond 


Third 


sti- 


vanced 


ond 


Third 


sti- 






Principal 




First 








tutes 


First, and 






tutes 


















First 








Total 


2,752 


c225 


dl07 


800 


1,554 


34 


14 


18 


97.6 


1.2 


.5 


.7 


Allegany .... 


265 


19 


al8 


155 


71 






°1 


99.2 


.4 




.4 


Anne Arundel 


151 


t21 


*3 


16 


108 






°1 


98.2 


.6 


!6 


.6 


Baltimore . . . 


351 


c30 


*15 


108 


196 






2 


99.4 






.6 


Calvert 


21 


2 




5 


14 








100.0 








Caroline .... 


54 


4 


3 


17 


30 








100.0 








Carroll 


128 


15 




37 


71 


3 


2 




96.1 


2^3 


1^6 




Cecil 


92 


5 




30 


46 


3 


2 


2 


92.4 


3.2 


2.2 


2^2 


Charles 


39 


1 


1 


15 


19 


2 




1 


92.3 


5.1 




2.6 


Dorchester . . 


85 


6 




10 


64 


2 






97.6 


2.4 






Frederick .... 


191 


t21 


4 


40 


125 








99.5 


.5 






Garrett 


118 


5 


5 


55 


53 








100.0 








Harford 


125 


3 




38 


80 




i 




96.8 


2.4 


.8 




Howard 


58 


4 




14 


38 






°i 


96.6 


1.7 




I'.i 


Kent 


41 


3 




7 


31 








100.0 








Montgomery 


197 


15 


b23 


32 


124 






'2 


98.5 


.5 




I'.b 


Pr. George's. 


223 


ttt20 


*19 


60 


117 




i 


°6 


96.9 




.4 


2.7 


Queen Anne's 


42 


7 




3 


32 








100.0 








St. Mary's. . . 


35 


tl 


2 


14 


17 




"i 




97.1 




2.9 




Somerset .... 


62 


t4 




10 


41 


5 


2 




88.7 


8.1 


3.2 




Talbot 


49 


2 




17 


30 








100.0 








Washington . . 


277 


ttt25 




82 


152 


6 


3 


°2 


96.0 


2.2 


1.1 


.7 


Wicomico . . . 


91 


7 




21 


60 


3 






96.7 


3.3 






Worcester . . . 


57 


5 




14 


35 


2 


1 




94.8 


3.5 


1.7 





t Each (t) represents a principal holding a provisional certificate. 

* Each asterisk (*) represents a teacher holding a high school certificate. 

° Includes one whose certificate is pending. 

a Includes 7 teachers holding high school certificates. 

b Includes 6 teachers holding high school certificates. 

c Includes 2 principals holding certificates in elementary supervision. 

d Includes 24 holding high school teachers' certificates. 



318 1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Teacher Certification, White One- and Two-Teacher and 319 
High Schools 



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323 



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1,223 
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COUNTY 


Total Counties.. 


Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . . 
Baltimore 


Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 


I )orchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 


Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery .... 
Prince George's. 


Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 


Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester , 



324 



1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 





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Teams and Entrants White Schools in State-Wide Athletics 325 



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326 1936 



Report of Maryland State Department of Education 





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Total Counties . 


Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

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Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
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St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Badge Tests, 



Teams and Entrants, Colored Schools 



327 



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328 



1936 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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High; 337 



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339 



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INDEX 



A 

Absence, leave of, 283 

Academic course 
Colored, 179 

Each high school, 340-345 

Administration 

Attendance Officers, 286 
General Control 

Cost per pupil, 242-243 

Expenditures, 331 

Per cent for, 238-239 
Superintendents, 282-285 
W.P.A. program, 250 

Admission to Grade 1, regulations, 14 

Adult education 

Emergency program, 224-227 
Evening schools. 221-224 

Agriculture 
Cost, 246,248 

Supervision, 248 

Teachers' salaries, 147-148 
Enrollment 

Colored, 147, 178-179 

Each high school, 346-351 

White. 102-105. 110, 147 
Failures and withdrawals, white pupils, 
116-119 

Schools having. 102, 121, 346-351 
White teachers of, 121-122 

Aid from State and Federal funds to 
Bowie Normal School, 7-8, 9, 212, 304-305 
Counties and Baltimore City 

Distributed by type of fund. 1935-36. 

234-235, 328 
1919-1936. 230-234 
1937-39. 6-9 

Total and per cent. 1935-36, 234-237 
State Teachers Colleges, 7-8, 296-298, 304- 
305 

Vocational education. 147-148, 224, 246-24; 

Appropriations 

County, 1936-37, 270-274, 329 
County and State 

1919-1936. 230-234 

1935-36, 234-237, 328-329 
State 

1935-36, 234-237, 304-306, 328 
1937-1939, 6-8 

Approved high schools, see table of con- 
tents, 4 
Individual. 340-351 
Number 

Colored, 202-203 
White, 131-133 



A — (Continued) 

Architect, consvdtant, 7, 304 

Art. white high schools, 

Enrollment, 102, 106. 346-351 
Teachers of, 121-122 

Assessable basis, 9, 274-276 

Athletics 

Colored schools, 204-205, 326-327 
White schools, 213-220, 323-325 

Attendance 

Aggregate days of, 315 

Average daily, 314 

Index of white elementary, 23-24 

Officers, 286. 331 

Per cent of. 314 

Colored elementary. 160-162 
Colored high, 174 
White elementarj-, 16-19 
White high, 87-88 
Summer school 
Pupils. 220-221 
Teachers 

Colored, 181-182 

White elementary, 48-49 

White high, 123, 125 

Auxiliary Agencies 

Cost per white pupil for, 245 

Elementary, 57, 59, 61-62, 66 

High. 143. 148-151, 153 
Expenditures for 

Colored, 338, 339 

Total by purpose, 333 

White elementary, 335 

White high, 337 
Per cent of current expense budget. 233- 
240 

B 

Badge tests, entrants and winners 
Colored, 204-205, 326 
White, 213-218, 323 

Belonging, average number, 313 
By months 

Colored, 160-161 

White elementary, 17-18 

\\Tiite high, 87-88 
Each high school, 340-345 
Per teacher, 322 

Colored, 187-189 

White elementary, 52-54 

White high. 137-138 
Proportion in high school 

Colored, 174-175 

White, 88-90 



352 



Index 



353 



B — (Continued) 

Birth rate 

Colored. 157-158 
White, 13-14 

Board of Education. State, 2. 304. 306 

Bonds 

Authorized and issued. 1937, 6-9. 265 
Bowie Normal School. 9 
Outstanding. 264-265 
Owned by Retirement System, 301 
State, for Retirement System. 6-8. 301-302, 
304 

Books and Instructional Materials 
Cost per white pupil. 245-246 

Elementary. 58-60 

High. 143. 145. 148 
Expenditures 

All schools. 332 

Colored. 338. 339 

White elementary. 335 

White high. 337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 238- 
240 

State aid for 

1935-36. 234-235. 328 
1937-1939, 7 
Bowie Normal School. 6-9. 210-213, 304-305 

Boys and girls 
Enrollment, 308 
Grade enrollment 
Colored, 165-167 
White. 24-26 
Graduates 

Elementary school 
Colored. 167-169 
White. 27-28 
High school 

Colored. 175-176 
White, 90-92 
Non-Promotions 
Elementary 

Colored. 169-171 
White, 29-33 
White, high school subjects, 116-119 

Budget (s) 

Bowie Normal School 

1935-36, 212, 305 

1937-1939, 7-8, 
Local, county and Baltimore City 

1919-1936. 230-234 

1935- 36. 234-237. 329 

1936- 1937. 270-274 
State Public School 

1935-36. 304-306 

1937- 1939, 6-8 
Teachers Colleges 

1935-36, 296-298, 305 
1937-1939, 7-8 



B — (Continued) 

Buildings, grounds and equipment 
Cost 1919-1936. 231-233 
Cost 1935-36 

Analyzed as above, 334 
By type of school. 261-263 
Number of. 307 
Sanitary inspection of, 74, 252 
Value of school. 266-269 
Per pupil belonging 
Colored. 199-200 
White. 266-269 

Buses, school, 9. 10. 261, 285 

c 

Capital Outlay, school 
Cost 1919-1936, 231-233 
Cost 1935-36 

By sites, buildings, equipment, 334 

By types of schools. 261-263 

Colored schools. 199, 338, 339 

White schools, elementary. 335 

White schools, high. 337 
Cost per white pupil belonging 

Elementary. 59. 75 

High. 143, 153 

Census and attendance fund 
1935-36, 234-235. 328 
1937-1939. 6, 7, 8 

Certificates 

Medical examinations for, 288. 302 

Number issued. 286-288 

Renewal of. 284 

Teachers and principals 
Colored, 180-181. 320 
White elementary. 46. 317-313 
White high. 122-123. 319 

Classes : 

Evening school. 221-224 
Federal emergency. 225-226 
Size of. 322 

Colored. 187-189 

White elementary. 52-54 

White high, 137-138 
Special for handicapped. 37-46 
Summer school. Baltimore City. 220-221 

Clerks, county high schools. 122 

Clinics. Mental Hygiene. 41. 73-74. 285 

Colleges 

Attended by teachers for summer courses 

Colored. 181-182 

White elementary. 48-49 

White high. 123. 125 
Colored high school graduates 

of 1935 entering. 176-177 

of 1936 entering Bowie Normal. 175-176 



354 



Index 



C— (Continued) 

Colleges—;; ( Continued ) 

Per cent of 1935 high school graduates 
entering 
Colored, 176-177 
White, 96-101 
State Teachers, 288-299 

Training teachers appointed in Maryland 
counties, 1935-36 

Colored, 184-185 

White elementary, 288-299 

White high, 129-131 
White high school graduates 

of 1935 entering Maryland, 98, 100-101 

of 1936 entering State Teachers, 94-95 

Colored schools, 

For detail, see Table of Contents, 4 

Commercial subjects, white high schools 
Enrollment 

Each high school, 346-351 
Total and by county, 102, 104-105, 111- 
112 

Failures and withdrawals, 116-119 
Schools having, 102, 121, 346-351 
Teachers, number, 121 

Conferences, programs of 

High school principals, 154-155 
Superintendents, 283-285 
Supervisors 

Colored, 208, 210 

White, 82-83 

Consolidation 

Decrease in one-teacher schools 

Colored, 201-202 

White, 77-79 
Schools closed by, 307 
Transportation of pupils, 255-261 

Colored, 197-198 

White elementary, 61-63 

White high, 148-150 

Cost per pupil, 241-246 
Bowie Normal, 212-213 
Capital outlay 

White elementary, 59, 75 
White high, 143, 153 
Current expenses, 241-246 

Auxiliary agencies, white schools, 245 
Elementary, 57, 59, 61-62, 66 
High, 143, 148-151, 153 
Books and materials of instruction. 
White schools, 245-246 
Elementary, 58-60 
High, 143, 145, 148 
Colored schools, 193-195 
Elementary schools, white, 57-62, 66, 
74-75 

By type, 74-75, 244 
General control, 242-243 



C— (Continued) 

Cost per pupil — (Continued) 

Current expenses — (Continued) 
Health activities. 

White elementary, 62, 66 

White high, 149, 153 
High schools, white, 143-146, 148-151, 153 
Individual high schools, 340-345 
Instruction, white schools, 245-246 

Elementary, 57-60 

High, 143, 145-146, 148 
Libraries 

White elementary, 62-63 

White high, 149-151 
Maintenance, white schools, 245-246 

Elementary, 57, 59-61 

High, 143, 145, 148 
One-teacher schools, white, 74-75, 244 
Operation, white schools, 245-246 

Elementary, 57, 59-60 

High, 143, 145, 148 
Salaries, white schools, 244-245 

Elementary, 57-59 

High, 143, 145-146 

Excluding Federal vocational aid, 
145-146 

Supervision, white elementary, 57-60 
Transportation, 255, 257-258 

Colored, 197-198 

White elementary, 61-63 

White high, 149-150 
State Teachers Colleges, 296-298 

Costs (See expenditures) 

Courses in high school 
Colored, 179 

Individual schools, 340-351 

Current expenses 

Cost per pupil for, 241-246 
Colored, 193-195 

Individual high schools, 340-345 
White elementary, 57-63 
White high, 143-146, 148-151, 153 
Expenditures, total, 330 
Colored, 338, 339 
White elementary, 335 
White high, 337 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools. 
Colored elementary, 159-160 
Colored high, 173-174 
White elementary, 15-16 
White high, 86-87 

Days in session, 315 

Colored elementary, 9, 159-160 
Colored high, 9, 173-174 
White elementary, 15-16 
White high, 86-87 



Index 



355 



D— (Continued) 

Debt service 

1935- 36. 334 

1936- 37, 270-274 

Tax rate for, 277 

Dental clinics, 72-73 
Disbursements (see expenditures ) 

E 

Elementary schools : For details see I able of 
contents, 4 

Emergency Adult Program, 224-227 

English, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 

Each high school, 346-351 

White 

Per cent in each year, 114-115 

Total and county, 102, 105 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 116-118 
Teachers, number white, 121 

Enrollment 

Attending school in adjoining counties, 
269-270 

Bowie Normal School, 210-211 
Elementary 

Colored, 156-157 
White, 11-12, 14 
Grade or year ^ \ 
Colored^ 165-167 ) 
Wliite, 24-26 
High school 
Course 

Colored, 179 
Each school, 340-351 
Growth in 
Colored, 172 
White, 84-86 
Subject 

Colored, 178-179 
Each school, 346-351 
White, 101-115 
Year 

1925-1936, 115-116 
Each school, 340-345 
White, per cent in English, 114-115 
Non-public private and parochial 
schools, 309-312 
Colored, 156-157 
White elementary, 12, 14 
White high, 85-86 
Public schools, total, 308 
State teachers colleges, 290-294 
Subject 

Colored high, 178-179 
Each high school, 346-351 
White high, 101-115 



E — (Continued) 

Enrollment — ( Continued ) 
Summer schools . 
Pupils. 220-221 
Teachers 

Colored. 181-182 
White elementary. 48-49 
White high, 121-122 
Total public schools, 308 

Equalization Fund 

Calculation of, 234-235 
1935-1936, 234-237, 328 
1937-1939. 6-8 

Per cent of total current expenses, 235- 
237 

Evening schools and courses, 221-224 
Emergency Adult Program, 224-227 
Enrollment, 221-222 
Expenditures, 223-224, 333 

Expenditures, 330 

(See also general control, instruction, 
operation, maintenance, auxiliary agen- 
cies, fixed charges, tuition to adjoining 
counties, current expenses, debt service, 
capital outlay.) 

Bowie Normal School, 212-213, 305 
Colored Schools, 338, 339 
Elementary schools 

Colored, 338 

White, 335 
Evening schools, 223-224, 333 
Extra-curricular activities 

Colored, 208-209 

White, 280-282 
Health 

All schools, 333 

White elementary, 62, 66 

White high, 149, 153 
High schools 

Colored, 339 

White, 337 

Junior and junior-senior high schools, 336 
Libraries, 162 

All schools, 333 

White elementary, 62-63 

White high. 149-151 
Salaries 

All schools, 332 

Colored. 338, 339 

Vocational teachers, 147-148, 224, 247- 
248 

White elementary, 335 

White high, 337 
Summer schools, 221, 333 
Total, by major classifications, 330 
Transportation 

All schools, 333 

Colored, 197-19S 

Elementary and high. 254-256 



356 



Index 



E— (Continued) 

Expenditures — ( Continued ) 
Transportation — ( Continued ) 

Elementary schools, white, 61-63 

High schools, white, 148-150 
Vocational work 

Entire program, 246-248 

Teachers' salaries, 146-148, 224 

Experience 

Colored teachers, 185-186 
Superintendents, 283 
White elementary teachers, 46-48 
White high school teachers, 123-124 

Extra-curricular activities 
Colored, 208-209 
White, 280-282 

F 

Failures (see non-promotions) 

Federal aid 

Adult emergency program, W.P.A., 224 
227 

N. Y. A., 86, 173, 224, 253-254, 298 
P.W.A.. 261-263 
Vocational education, 246-248 
Salaries of teachers 

Baltimore City, 247 

County, day, 145-148 

County, evening, 224 
W.P.A., 65, 151, 219-20, 224-227, 252-253, 

298-299 

Financial statements 
County schools, 328-339 
State Public School Budget, 304-306 

Fixed charges 

Expenditures, 333 

Per cent of current expenses, 238-239, 241 

French 

Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 
Each high school, 346-351 
White, 101-103, 105, 109-110 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 116, 118- 
119 

Schools offering, 102, 121, 346-351 
Teachers, white, 121 

G 

General control 

Cost per pupil, 242-243 
Expenditures, 331 
Per cent for, 238-239 

Graduates 
Colored 

Elementary school, 167-169 



G — (Continued) 

Graduates — ( Continued ) 
Colored — ( Continued ) 
High school, 175-176 

Entering Bowie Normal, 175-176 
From each school, 340-345 
Occupations of, 176-177 
Normal school, 210-211 
White 

Elementary school, 27-28 
High school, 90-92 

Entering State teachers colleges, 94- 
95 

From each school, 340-345 
Occupation of, 96-101 
State teachers colleges, 288-290 

Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, 
and salaries 
Colored, 195-196 
White, 141-143 

H 

Handicapped children 

Appropriation, 1937-1939, 6-8 
Expenditures, 306 

Opportunities for education of, 37-46 
Receipts from the State, 328 
Standards for classes of, 40-41 

Health 

Activities of State Department of, 66-74 

Colored, 205-206 
Cost per pupil 

White elementary, 62, 66 

White high, 149. 153 
Expenditures 

All schools, 333 

By county health offices, 62, 66-68 
White elementary, 62. 66 
White high, 149, 153 

High schools, for details see Table of Con- 
tents, 4 

Home economics 

Cost of vocational work in, 246-248 

Supervision, 247-248 

Teachers' salaries, 147-148 
Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 

Each high school, 346-351 

White. 102-105, 110, 112 
Schools having, 102, 121-122, 346-351 
Teachers of, white, 121-122 

Home instruction of pupils, 38-39, 42 
I 

Incorporated towns, levy for, 272-274 
Index of white school attendance, 23-24 



Index 



357 



I — (Continued) 

Industrial arts 

Cost of vocational work in industries, 
246-248 

Supervision, 247-248 

Teachers' salaries, 147-148 
Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 

Each high school, 346-351 

White, 102-103, 105, 110 
Schools having, 102, 121, 346-351 
Teachers of, white, 121 

Instruction 

Cost per white pupil, 245-246 

Elementary, 57-60 

High, 143. 145-146, 148 
Expenditures 

Bowie Normal School, 212-213 

Colored, 338, 339 

For salaries, supervision, books, etc., 

332 

State teachers colleges, 296-298 
White elementary, 335 
White high, 337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 238- 
241. 

J 

Junior and junior-senior high schools 
Expenditures, 336 
Teachers 

Certification, 319 

Experience, 123, 124 

Growth in number of, 125-126 

Resignations, 126-127 

Turnover, 127-129 

K 

Kindergartens, enrollment 
Colored, 166 
White, 24-26 

L 

Languages (see English, French, Latin) 

Late entrants 
Colored, 162-164 
White, 19-21 

Latin 

Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 

Each high school, 346-351 

White, 101-103, 105. 109-110 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 116-118 
Schools oflFering, 102, 121, 346-351 
Teachers of, w"hite. 121 

Leave of absence, 283 

Legislation 

Affecting rehabilitation, 229 

1937 Bond issue authorizations, 9, 265 



L — (Continued) 

Legislation — ( Continued ) 

Leave of absence. By-law, 283 
Length of term, colored schools, 9 
Schools, 9-10 
School buses, 9 

Length of session, 315 

Colored elementary, 9, 159-160 
Colored high, 9, 173-174 
White elementary, 15-16 
White high, 86-87 

Levies, county, 270-274 

Libraries, 284 

Colored schools, 198-199 
Expenditures 
All schools, 333 
White elementary, 62-63 
White high, 149-151 
Service from outside (see Library Ad- 
visory Commission) 

Library Advisory Commission, service from 
White elementary, 64-65 
White high, 151-152 
W.P.A. projects, 251-252 

White elementary, 65 

White high, 151 

Lip reading classes, 39-40 

M 

Maintenance 

Cost per white pupil for, 245-246 

Elementary, 57. 59-61 

High. 143, 145, 148 
Expenditures 

By type of repair, 333 

Colored, 338, 339 

White elementary, 335 

White high, 337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 238- 
241 

W.P.A. program. 249-251 

Materials of instruction and books 
Cost per white pupil, 245-246 

Elementary, 58-60 

High, 143, 145, 148 
Expenditures 

Colored. 338, 339 

Total, 332 

White elementary. 335 
White high, 337 
State aid for, 328 

Mathematics, high school 
Enrollmtmt 

Colored, 178-179 

Each high school. 346-351 

White. 101-102. 105, 108-109 



358 



Index 



M— (Continued) 

Mathematics, high school — (Continued) 

Failures and withdrawals, white, 116-118 
Schools having, 102, 121, 346-351 
Teachers of, white, 121 

Medical examinations 
Pupils 

Colored, 205-206 

White, 68-74 
Teachers 

Appropriations for, 7 

Expenditures, 306 

Number, 288 

Mental hygiene clinics, 41, 73-74, 284, 285 

Mentally handicapped children, 40-46, 285 

Men teachers 
Total, 316 

White elementary, 52 
White high, 131 

Music, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 
Each high school, 346-351 
White, 102, 104-106, 112-114 
Orchestras, bands, etc., 113-114 
Schools having, 102, 121, 346-351 
Teachers, number of, white, 121-122 

N 

National Education Association, 284, 285 

National Youth Administration 

Aid to high school students, 86, 173, 253- 
254 

Work relief projects, 224, 253. 298 

Night schools (see evening schools) 

Non-promotions 

Colored elementary schools, 169-171 
Subject, white high schools, 116-119 
White elementary schools, 29-33 

Number belonging, 313 
By months 

Colored, 160-161 

White elementary, 17-18 

White high, 87-88 
Each high school, 340-345 
Per teacher, 322 

Colored. 187-189 

White elementary, 52-54 

White high. 137-138 
Proportion in high school 

Colored, 174-175 

White. 88-90 

Nursery schools, 224, 226-227 



o 

Occupations of high school graduates 
Colored, 176-177 
White, 96-101 

One-teacher schools 

Colored, decrease in. 201-202 

Number of. 307 

White, 

Capital outlay for, 262 

Cost per pupil, 74-75 

Decrease in, 77-79 

Number belonging in, 77-78, 313 
Per teacher, 322 

Per cent of attendance, 17-18 

Salary per teacher in, 322 

Operation 

Cost per white pupil. 245-246 

Elementary, 57, 59-60 

High, 143, 145. 148 
Expenditures 

By fuel, janitors' wages, supplies, 332 

Colored. 338. 339 

White elementary. 335 

White high. 337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 238- 

240 

Orchestras, bands, etc.. 113-114 
P 

Parent-teacher associations 
Colored, 207-208 
White. 278-280 
Parochial and private schools. 309-312 
Colored. 156-157 
White elementary. 12. 14 
White high. 85-86 
Part-payment of salaries 
1935-1936. 234-235. 328 
1937-1939, 6. 7. 8 
Superintendents, 282 
Persistence to high school graduation, white, 

92-94 
Physical education 
Activities 

Colored. 204-205, 326-327 

White, 213-220, 323-325 
Appropriation for 

1935-1936, 304, 306 

1937-1939, 7 
Badge tests 

Colored, 204-205, 326 

White, 213-218. 323 
Expenditures by P. A. L., 218-219, 306 
High school enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 

Each high school, 346-351 

White, 102, 105-106, 112, 114 
Schools offering, 102, 121-122, 346-351 
Teachers of, white, 121-122 



Index 



359 



P — (Continued) 

Physical examinations (see medical exam- 
inations) 

Physically handicapped children, 37-40, 42, 43 

Presidents of teachers colleges, 2, 295-296 

Private and parochial schools, 309-312 
Colored, 156-157 
White elementary, 12, 14 
White high, 85-86 

Programs of conferences (see conferences) 

Property, valuation of 
School, 266-269 
Colored, 199-200 
White, 266-269 
County and City, 274-276 

Psycho-educational clinic, 44-45 

Pupils 

Attending schools in adjoining counties, 

269-270 
Non-public schools, 309-312 
One-teacher schools 

Colored, 201-202 

White, 77-79 
Per teacher, 322 

Colored. 187-189 

White elementary, 52-54 

White high, 137-138 
Public schools 

Enrollment, 308 

Number attending, 314 

Number belonging, 313 

Per cent of attendance, 314 
Transported 

All schools. 254-259 

Colored, 197-198 

White elementary, 61-63 

White high, 148-150 

P. W. A. projects, 261-263 

R 

Ratio of high school to total attending and 
belonging 
Colored, 174-175 
White, 88-90 
Receipts from 
All sources, 329 
Extra-curricular activities 
Colored, 208-209 
White, 280-282 
Federal Government 

Emergency adult program, 224-227 
Evening schools, counties, 224 
N. Y. A., 86, 173. 224, 253-254, 298 
P. W. A.. 261-263 
Vocational education. 246-248 
Baltimore City. 246-247 
Teachers' salaries, counties, 145-148 



R — (Continued) 

Receipts from, — (Continued) 

Federal government — (Continued) 

W. P. A., 65, 151, 219-220, 224-227, 
251-253 

Rosenwald fund, 198-199, 306 
State 

Distributed by type of fund, 1936, 234- 

235, 328 
1919-1936, 230-234 
Teachers colleges, 296-298, 305 
Total and per cent, 1936, 234-237 

Recreation, 9 

Rehabilitation, vocational 
Appropriation, 1937-1939, 7 
Expenditures, 229 
Financial statement, 304, 306 
Sei-vice rendered, 227-229 

Resignations of teachers 
Colored, 182-183 
White elementary, 49-50 
White high, 126-127 

Retirement System. Teachers, 299-302 
Appropriations, 6-8 
Financial statement, 304 
Leave of absence, 283 
Members, 299-300 

Rosenwald fund. 198-199, 306 

s 

Salaries 

Attendance officers. 331 
Superintendents, 331 
Supervisors, 332 
Teachers 

Average per teacher. 322 
Colored, 189-192 
White elementary, 54-57 
White high, 138-143 
Cost per white pupil, 244-245 
Elementary, 57-59 
High. 143. 145-146 
Per cent of school budget. 238-240 
Total. 332 

Colored. 338. 339 
White elementary, 335 
White high. 337 
Sanitary inspection of buildings. 74 
Sanitation projects. 74, 252 
Scholarships to negroes, 9 
Science, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 
Each high school, 346-351 
White. 101-102. 105. 107-109 
Failures and withdrawals, 116-118 
Schools offering. 102. 121, 346-351 
White teachers of. 121 



360 



Index 



S— (Continued) 

Session, length of, 9, 315 

Sex of teachers, 316 
Size of 

Classes, 322 

Colored, 187-189 

White elementary, 52-54 

White high, 137-138 
School (s) 

Colored elementary, 200-202 

Colored high, 203-204 

Each high, 340-345 

White elementary, 75-79 

White high, 133-137 

Social studies, high schools. 
Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 

Each high school, 346-351 

White, 101-102, 105-107 
Failures and withdrawals, 116-118 
Schools offering, 102, 121, 346-351 
White teachers of, 121 

Special classes for handicapped, 37-46 

Standardized tests 

Colored elementary, 172 
White elementary, 33-37 
White high, 119-120 

State 

Aid to health, 67-68 
Aid to schools 

Showing various school funds, 328 

1919-1936, 230-234 

1937-1939. 6-8 

Total and per cent, 1935-36, 234-237 
Board of Education 
Appropriation, 7 
Expenditures, 306 
Members, 2 
Department of 
Education 

Appropriations, 1937-1939, 6-8 
Expenditures, 304, 306 
Members, 2 
Health 

Expenditures, 62, 66-68 
School activities, 66-74 
Colored, 205-206 
Public school budget, 6-8 
Teachers colleges, 6-8, 288-299 
Teachers retirement system, 6-8, 299-302 

Statistical tables, 307-351 

Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, 111- 
112 

Subjects studied in high school 
Colored, 178-179 
Each high school, 346-351 
White, 101-115 



S— (Continued) 

Summer school attendance 

Baltimore City pupils, 220-221 
Teachers 

Colored, 181-182 

White elementary, 48-49 

White high, 123, 125 

Superintendents 

Conferences, 283-285 
Experience, 283 
Names, 2 
Salaries, 331 

Supervision, Supervisors 
Activities 

Colored, 208, 210 

White elementary, 79-83 

White high school, 153-155 
Cost per white elementary pupil for, 57-60 
Cost, salaries and expenses 

All schools, 332 

Colored elementary, 338 

White elementary, 335 

White high, 337 
Names of, white, 3 
Number of, 316 

Per cent of current expense budget, 238- 
240 

Quota for white elementary teachers, 79- 
80 

T 

Taxable basis, 9, 274-276 

Tax dollar, distribution of school, 238-241 

Tax rates, county, 276-278 

Teacher-pupil ratio, 322 

Teacher (s) 

Academic, high school, 121-122, 340-345 
Colleges, 6-8, 288-299 
Number of, 316 

For each high school subject, 121-122 
In schools of each type 
Colored, 338, 339 
Non-public schools, 309-312 
Public schools, 316 
White elementary, 335 
White high, 337 

White junior and junior-senior high, 
336 
Total, 316 
Sex of, 316 

Special high school, 121-122, 340-345 

Teachers* Retirement System 
Activities, 299-302 
Appropriation, 6-8 
Financial statement, 304-305 
Legislation, 9 
Staff, 2 



Index 



361 



T — (Continued) 

Tests 

Athletic badge 

Colored, 204-205, 326 

White, 213-218. 323 
Elementary schools 

Colored, 172 

White, 33-37 
High schools, 119-120 

Trades and industry, courses in 
Enrollment 

Colored, 178-179 

Each high school, 346-351 

White, 102-103, 105, 110 
Schools having, 102, 121, 346-351 
White teachei-s of, 121 

Training centers 

Colored normal school, 211 
State teachers colleges, 295-296 

Training of teachers 
At particular colleges 

Colored, 184-185 

White high, 129-131 
Bowie Normal School, 210-213 
Certification 

Colored, 180-181, 320 

White elementary, 46, 317-318 

White high, 122-123. 319 
State teachers colleges, 288-299 

Transportation of pupils, 254-261 
Cost, 254-257 

Colored, 197-198 

White elementary, 61-63 

White high, 148-150 
Cost per pupil transported. 257-258 

Colored, 197-198 

White elementary, 61-63 

White high. 149-150 
Per cent of pupils transported, 258-259 
Type of vehicles used, 9. 10, 261. 285 

Tuition 

Charge teachers colleges, 292 
To adjoining counties, 269. 334 

Turnover in teaching staff, 321 
Colored, 182-184 
White elementary, 49-52 
White high, 126-130 

V 

Value of 

Assessable property, 274-276 
School property used by 

Colored, 199-200 

White, 266-269 



V— (Continued) 

Vocational education 
Agriculture 
Cost, 147-148 

Enrollment, 102-105, 110, 346-351 

Appropriation, 7 

Baltimore City, 247 

Cost of. 246-248 

Administration and supervision, 248 
Teachers' salaries. 146-148, 223-224. 246- 
248 

Evening schools, 221-224, 247-248 
Financial statement, 306 
Home economics 
Cost, 147-148 
Enrollment 

Colored schools, 178-179 
Day schools, 102-105. 110. 112. 346-351 
Evening schools, 221-224, 247-248 
Industrial courses 
Cost, 147-148 
Enrollment 

Colored. 178-179 

Day, 102-103, 105, 110, 346-351 

Evening. 221-224, 247-248 

Vocational rehabilitation 
Appropriation, 7 
Expenditures, 1935-36, 229 
Financial statement, 304, 306 
Service rendered. 227-229 

w 

White schools (see table of contents for 
white elementary and high schools) 4 

Withdrawals of pupils 

Colored elementary, 164-165 
Teachers college freshmen. 295 
White elementary, 21-23 
White high, 116-119 

W. P. A. projects 

Emergency education program. 224-227 
Library. 65. 151, 251-252 
Recreation, 219-220 
Sanitation. 252-253 

Work relief projects. 249-254 

Y 

Year, length of school. 315 
Colored elementary. 159-160 
Colored high, 173-174 
White elementary, 15-16 
White high, 86-87 

Youth Commission, 10, 284-285 



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3 1M30 OEbtlSEM 1 




DO NOT CIRCULATE 



3C SOI .1..